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The faculty of the Institute of Clinical Excellence deliver their specialized content every weekday morning. Topic areas include: Population health, fitness athlete management, evidence based spine and extremity care, older adults, community outreach, self development, and much more! Learn more about our team at www.PTonICE.com
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Now displaying: Page 8
Nov 13, 2023

Dr. Rachel Moore // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member Rachel Moore describes pelvic varicosities & varicoceles. Rachel breaks down the difference in how these present in both male and female pelvic physical therapy patients as well as how to conceptualize treatment in the clinic. 

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION
Hey everyone, this is Alan. Chief Operating Officer here at ICE. Before we get started with today’s episode, I want to talk to you about VersaLifts. Today’s episode is brought to you by VersaLifts. Best known for their heel lift shoe inserts, VersaLifts has been a leading innovator in bringing simple but highly effective rehab tools to the market. If you have clients with stiff ankles, Achilles tendinopathy, or basic skeletal structure limitations keeping them from squatting with proper form and good depth, a little heel lift can make a huge difference. VersaLifts heel lifts are available in three different sizes and all of them add an additional half inch of h drop to any training shoe, helping athletes squat deeper with better form. Visit www.vlifts.com/icephysio or click the link in today’s show notes to get your VersaLifts today.

RACHEL MOORE
All right, good morning PT on ICE Daily Show my name is Dr. Rachel Moore I am here this morning. It is Monday morning. That means it is our pelvic day here on this podcast So I'm here with the pelvic division and I am super excited to talk to you guys this morning We're gonna be kind of diving into varicoceles and varicosities, vulvar varicosities, and the way that those are actually incredibly similar in our treatment approach, whether we realize it or not. Before we dive into that though, if you missed it, we've officially rolled out all of our certifications here at ICE. So we have certifications, we've had them before in the clinical management of the fitness athlete division and an MMOA, but now we have new ones. So we have orthopedic, we've got dry needling, we've got an endurance athlete, and then what we are super excited about in the pelvic division is we have our pelvic cert as well. So this is three courses, two online, a level one and a level two, and then one live course. If you're looking to get in on that certification, our upcoming courses, we actually have one this weekend in Bear, Delaware. That's going to be with myself and Alexis Morgan. So super excited about that. Still, time to hop into that if you want to buy yourself a plane ticket and get out there. And then we also have one on December 2nd. If you are north of the US border in Canada and Halifax, Nova Scotia, Christina is bringing those live courses to Canada. So we're super excited about that. Our next L1 cohort kicks off January 9th, and then our L2 you can already sign up for. So if you want to be in that first cohort of that L2, it kicks off April 30th. So if you're interested in getting that cert, all of the options are out there. Hop into one of those courses. We're excited to see you in them.

VARICOSITIES AND VARICOCELES
Let's dive into our topic for the day. So a lot of times those of us in the pelvic space if we are maybe majority see women a lot of us tend to maybe start there and then maybe branch off into seeing men but if we are in this kind of blinders-on situation where we're like no no I only see women sometimes we may be uncomfortable or unsure if somebody gives you a call and asks about a certain diagnosis or maybe you have a friend or somebody that you know that is struggling with something and asks for advice on the pelvic space and you're trying to figure out how to get them into your clinic. And so I wanted to draw a parallel this morning between two diagnoses that we see as fairly common that actually are very similar in the way that we treat them. So that is going to be varicoceles and varicosities. So in utero, the reproductive tissues of males and females begin developing similarly. If you guys remember that from PT school, when we were learning about the brief amount that we cover these types of topics, once testosterone starts being released, that's when the reproductive organs shift and either develop into male organs or continue on the path of female organs. And so if the testosterone is there, then the tissue that is becoming the scrotum becomes the scrotum. But if the testosterone is not there, then that tissue continues on to turn into the labia. So when we think about our tissues and our anatomy, we often talk about how male and female anatomy really aren't that different. It is similar parts arranged differently and maybe to different sizes and proportions. But when we look back all the way in utero, we can see that developmentally these things start the same and there's a certain point where things branch, but we have these kind of analogous, um, uh, tissues within males and females. So, We know that the tissues are similar between the scrotum and between labia. When we're talking about varicosities, this is important for us to know because these are two diagnoses that we tend to see come up fairly frequently.

VARICOSE VEINS IN THE PELVIS
So before we dive into the specifics of varicose veins in the pelvic area, let's talk about what varicose veins are. Varicose veins, if you're not familiar with them, are enlarged twisted veins. So oftentimes this comes from damage to the valves in the veins. So our veins have one-way valves that help push blood up and prevent backflow back down. If there is damage to the inside of the vein and the valves are damaged somehow or maybe are not operating at the capacity that they need to be operating, we can see kind of a backlog of blood and that can lead to this kind of inflamed or swollen look to the veins and that blood just kind of pulls in there. The causes of the damage, quote-unquote, Inside of the vein can be known. So this can be something like high blood pressure or it can be unknown Things that increase your risk for developing varicosities are gonna be things like being female So that's always fun when gender is one of the top things can't control for that genetic predisposition so if you have a family history of varicosities then this might be something that you're really keeping an eye on and older age as we get older maybe those valves within the vein become a little bit less competent increased body mass and then in pregnancy we'll dive into that here in just a second and then also interestingly having a history of blood clot that's really important to kind of keep in mind on our radars not only in our post-surgical patients but we're starting to see blood clots kind of popping up more and more um and so if you have somebody who might be not hitting any of these other risk factors but has a history of blood clots it's still something that we want to kind of keep on our radar varicose veins aren't a medical emergency by any means but they can cause some like uncomfortable unpleasant symptoms like heaviness aching pain and then swelling.

VARICOSITIES
Let's dive a little bit deeper into varicosities of the pelvic region so in our biologically female counterparts we see vulvar varicosities this is varicosity that develops on the vulva so anywhere along the outside of the vagina so that tissue of the vulva It can happen on labia majora, labia minora. It can be going towards the inner thigh, more into that groin area. Really just kind of depends on the area that is affected. The risk factor for this specifically is pregnancy. So we see this come up in pregnancy for a few different reasons. One reason is that we have an increase in blood volume during pregnancy in order to support the baby. So that increase in blood volume means that our veins have to work harder to push more blood up. we also know that we see relaxin circulating and that does have an effect on all tissues and then we have an increase in pressure so we have increased pressure from both the weight coming down of baby placenta amniotic fluid and all the things but then if we also think about like the anatomy of a pregnant belly as people progress through pregnancy get into this maybe anterior pelvic tilt their belly maybe drops low it can cause some congestion or some backup within that system which then leads to less efficient drainage. This is something that we see pretty often in the clinic really and you might be familiar with this if you're in the pelvic space. but what we tend to not really think about is how this parallels varicose seals. So a lot of times we're pretty confident and comfortable with vulvar varicosities, but then somebody comes in with a little bit different anatomy, and we kind of get thrown for a loop. So a varicose seal is a varicose vein that's located within the scrotal sac. This can actually develop during puberty because blood flow to the genitals increases during puberty. As those tissues are maturing things can just get a little thrown off, but it can also happen as a result of surgeries So think about vasectomies even though those are like minor office procedures surgeries vasectomies or trauma to the scrotum They're surprisingly common, especially in the adolescent puberty side of things. And just because you have a varicocele doesn't necessarily mean you'll even know it, aside from feeling it, potentially. So the biggest way or hallmark of this is called the bag of worms. because within the skirt sack that varicocele feels like a thick ropey worm and so as people are feeling around checking testicles for different things then you might feel that bag of worms type sensation or that that feeling with your fingers and other than that you may not have any idea However if you have a varicose seal that is causing problems We can see swelling pain and heaviness as I talked about earlier and if this is left alone and becomes severe it can actually impact fertility in men because it can lead to decreased sperm in the ejaculate and so it can be something that if it happens in adolescence and somebody is trying to conceive later on in life with their partner and they're struggling, it's an area to look at. Just like vulvar varicosities, we see an increase in symptoms when we're standing for prolonged periods, but uniquely to this population, we can see potential pain with ejaculation. So with vulvar varicosities, we might see pain with intercourse because of the pressure on the outside of the vulva during intercourse. But with this population, it's going to be more so during ejaculation that there is pain.

WHAT TO DO ABOUT VARICOSITIES AND VARICOCELES
We have our person in front of us, male or female, who comes into your clinic, some varicosity of some sort going on. What are we supposed to do? Jess actually did a really fabulous episode on this topic. It's episode 1198, so if you want to go back and listen to that, she talks specifically about varicosities during pregnancy, and those same concepts can be applied to varicoceles in men. So I highly recommend giving that a listen. We're going to dive in just really briefly touch on some of those topics and then I'll let you guys really dive into justice. External support can be a game changer for these folks, especially those with varicose heels whose anatomy is already putting things in a gravity, um, disadvantageous position for drainage. So giving some type of support, whether that is like when you're getting up and moving using your hand to support or getting some type of support garment. There are specific support garments that are made both for males and females for varicosities. soft tissue massage and when we think about this we're really thinking like mimicking lymphatic drainage I talk about this all the time with breast tissue and engorgement but the same thing we're thinking about this like congestion within the pelvic region and so we want to think about clearing more proximally up Towards the iliac vein so that we can kind of promote that drainage and then work our way down Rather than coming down to the bottom and just shoving everything up and causing more congestion Superiorly, so we're starting closer to the midline Draining quote-unquote that area. So if you're watching on Instagram, we're saying we've got a guy in and he's got varicose heels maybe we're starting here and then we're working lower and then working lower and until we get to that most distal tissue. From an exercise intervention standpoint, the pelvic floor muscles, of their functions are a sump pump. So when they contract and relax, they push fluid out of areas. So teaching our patients how to do pelvic floor contractions, how to lift up and contract into the attic, relax down and go into the basement, get that pumping mechanism going, and then teaching them belly breathing on top of that to help facilitate that as well. Finally, from a positional standpoint, we can have our patients if at the end of the day, they're super symptomatic and they're feeling rough after being on their feet, laying on their back, propping their legs up on the couch, or on a wall to get some passive decrease in gravity pressure on the pelvic region, and we can even take that a step further, have them plant those feet on that surface and do some bridging where they're squeezing their glutes, maybe adding in that pelvic floor contraction, layering that in, so we've got gravity coming down, we've got our muscles contracting and relaxing, really everything helping to push that fluid up and out into the drainage system to go bring that blood back to the heart. So, if you have somebody come in your clinic tomorrow, and you are a pelvic floor PT who traditionally treats females, and a guy walks in and he's like, I have a varicose seal, I don't know what to do. I hope that you can put your cap on, thinking cap on, and realize like, you got this, you know what to do. At the end of the day, we have to remember that our males and our females, although the anatomy is arranged a little bit differently, and proportions are a little bit different, they are similar tissue. So keep that in mind. You guys are rocking it out there. Have a happy Monday. Thanks for having me. Bye.

OUTRO
Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review, and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Nov 10, 2023

Dr. Megan Peach // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Endurance Athlete division leader Megan Peach discusses the importance of cadence in running, variables that may affect a runner's cadence, the relationship between cadence & speed, and finally the "optimal" running cadence.

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn from our Endurance Athlete division, check out our live physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses. Check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION
Hey everyone, this is Alan. Chief Operating Officer here at ICE. Before we get started with today’s episode, I want to talk to you about VersaLifts. Today’s episode is brought to you by VersaLifts. Best known for their heel lift shoe inserts, VersaLifts has been a leading innovator in bringing simple but highly effective rehab tools to the market. If you have clients with stiff ankles, Achilles tendinopathy, or basic skeletal structure limitations keeping them from squatting with proper form and good depth, a little heel lift can make a huge difference. VersaLifts heel lifts are available in three different sizes and all of them add an additional half inch of h drop to any training shoe, helping athletes squat deeper with better form. Visit www.vlifts.com/icephysio or click the link in today’s show notes to get your VersaLifts today.

MEGAN PEACH, PT, DPT, OCS, CSCS
Alright, Instagram. Here we go again. YouTube, we're on. Okay, finally. Sorry about that a couple minutes ago. I think I actually got it to work this time. Okay, we are live on Insta. We are live on YouTube. I am Megan Peach, probably the most technologically challenged person next to Jason that we have in this community. So, I apologize for the previous live feed that didn't actually work. Again, I'm Megan Peach and this is PT on Ice, your daily show. I'll be your host today. I am one of the lead faculty for the endurance division and specifically in the injured runner course, both the live and the online courses. And although our courses have wrapped up for this year actually, We are super looking forward to next year. Over the next couple of months, Jason and Rachel and I are basically doing like a big revamp of Rehab of the Injured Runner online. And so that course is going to look entirely different come January than it does right now. If you haven't taken that course and you've taken the live course already, or even if you haven't taken the live course, this is going to be a great time to hop onto that course, just because the material is going to be really complimentary to the live course, even more so than it has been in the past. And then if you have taken Rehab of the Injured Runner online already, it will be a really good time just to check in because it's going to look entirely different in terms of the material and what's in there. Remember, if you've taken that course already, you have lifetime access for as long as that course exists. And so check in with us in January for a full revamp, full update. We're super excited about it.

RUNNING & CADENCE
Okay, so to get to today's topic, I wanna talk about cadence. And cadence is something that I think if you treat injured runners at all, if you have in the past or you've taken one of the courses, This is a topic that's pretty familiar. It's a running gait retraining tool that we use probably more than any other tool that we have in our gait retraining toolbox. And it's used for a variety of different injuries. We could use it globally for injuries like patellofemoral pain or IT band syndrome. exertional compartment syndrome. There are even prospective studies that have looked at healthy runners and the risk factors for their injuries. And they've seen that low cadence is a risk factor for things like bone stress injuries, things like medial tibial stress syndrome. So we can use it not only to treat injuries, but then potentially as an injury prevention tool as well when somebody has a really low cadence. And then we can also use cadence retraining as a way to treat really specific gait abnormalities or mechanical faults after we've done a running gait analysis. And so typically when we are using cadence as a gait retraining tool, we're increasing the cadence by at least 10%, at least that's the goal typically. And when we increase somebody's cadence, what we typically see are first, changes at the knee joint. At least those are the most prominent changes that we would see in a runner. And the changes we see at the knee joint are things like increased knee flexion at initial contact. We see a decrease in stride length, or a decrease in foot to center of mass, in terms of where the foot falls in relation to the center of mass. We also see changes at the ankle joint, not as prominent as the knee, but we still see them there. We see with an increase in cadence, we see a relative increase in plantar flexion. So whereas we might see a lot of dorsiflexion with a very slow cadence, we see relatively less or more plantar flexion as that cadence increases. Or you could look at it as less angle of inclination as well. We also see changes at the hip. Again, not as prominent at the knee, but they're still there. With an increase in cadence, we will see increased hip flexion also at initial contact. Not only do we see kinematic changes, but we can see kinetic changes while somebody's running as well. And so some of the kinetic changes that we'll see are decreased vertical loading rate with an increased cadence, as well as decreased vertical center of mass, which can then translate to decreased overall loading for that runner with each foot strike. And so while some of those kinetic variables aren't always accessible to us in a clinical setting, typically they're just lab-based variables. we can still use cadence retraining and still make some of those assumptions that it is going to affect some of those kinematic variables as well. So we can not only use cadence as a gait retraining tool to treat specific injuries, we can use it to treat kinematic variables, but we can also use it to treat kinetic variables.

VARIABLES INFLUENCING HABITUAL CADENCE
What I want to talk about and spend the rest of the time today talking about is some of the variables that might influence somebody's habitual cadence that we don't normally discuss or sometimes don't even consider when we are using cadence as a gait retraining tool. And so somebody's habitual cadence, it just means that the cadence that they're running at normally, without any outside influence, without anybody saying, you should run at this cadence, or you should run at this cadence, or you should increase your cadence. It's just their normal everyday cadence that feels good to their body. And so some of the variables that might influence that are leg length, running experience, BMI, as well as speed. So leg length plays a role in that somebody with a shorter leg length, typically has a faster cadence, and somebody with a longer leg length typically has a slower cadence. Okay, now there's obviously a very wide range of a spectrum there in terms of cadence and leg length, and so these variables are typically related to cadence only at, or I guess more strongly, at the ends of the spectrum. So somebody with either very short legs or very long legs their cadence is likely a little bit more related to their leg length than somebody whose leg length sits kind of right in the middle or maybe that like middle 50% range. And so none of these variables are going to apply to everyone, obviously. The next one, so running experience can play a part as well. Somebody who has less experience running, so like a novice runner, typically has a slower cadence. I've definitely found this to be true in clinic versus somebody who has a lot of experience running or who is a very high level runner, maybe even a professional runner, typically has a very high cadence, upwards of mid 180s, upper 180s, maybe even low 190s, depending on that runner. I've definitely found that variable to be true within clinic, but again, Take that with a bit of a grain of salt because the ends of that spectrum in terms of novice versus experience tend to ring more true with a relationship with cadence than the middle of that spectrum for experience. BMI can also play a role in that somebody with a greater BMI tends to have a slower cadence versus somebody who has a lower BMI tends to have a bit faster of a cadence. That one, clinically, I really can't speak to that one, but that's what's in the literature.

SPEED & CADENCE
All right, and speed is the last variable that I wanna talk about because I think intuitively, we know that speed is related to cadence, and that's true to a certain respect. And intuitively, if we think of as somebody speeds up their pace, then their cadence is going to speed up as well. And that's true, but only to a certain extent and really only to higher speeds. And so for most people, their cadence is going to speed up only as they approach sprinting or a very, very fast run. And so when we think of speed and we think of running pace, We have two different strategies that we can use to increase our running pace or our speed. And one of those strategies is to increase the stride frequency or increase the cadence. So we increase the number of times our legs turn over, and that alone can increase the speed. The other strategy to increase speed is an increase in stride length. So rather than increase the stride frequency, we can also increase the stride length. And when we increase the stride length independent of any other changes, we can actually increase the speed even when we're maintaining the same stride frequency or cadence. So if we are using these variables independently and considering them independently, most humans are going to take the stride length strategy first up until they get to a point where they're almost sprinting. So a very fast run, a very high intensity run. And at that point, then they're going to employ more of a stride frequency or a cadence tactic to increase their running pace or running speed. So let's think about when you have an injured runner on a treadmill and you're choosing to use a cadence gait retraining tool to address either their running-related injury or certain gait mechanics, and you get them back on the treadmill, and you're having them run at their 6.0 mile per hour, whatever they did their running gait analysis at, and you say, okay, I want you to run at this new cadence, and you've increased their cadence, and now you have it on a metronome, and you put the metronome on the treadmill, and they hear that click, click, click, click, click when they're running, and the first thing they do I think you've all experienced this. If you have treated injured runners before, the first thing they do is that they increase the speed on their treadmill, right? So why we don't want them to do that is that if they increase that speed on the treadmill, chances are they're also going to employ this increased stride length strategy to increase the speed. They may also increase their cadence as well, but we have to remove some of those variables. If we keep them at the same speed that they did their running gait analysis, which should be a fairly comfortable speed for them, something they would run just an easy run, or even a moderate run, but let's say we have to keep them at that same speed that we use for the running gait analysis while we're using that increased cadence, then they have no choice but to increase the cadence rather than increase their stride length. We don't want them to do that. If they increase their stride length by increasing the speed on the treadmill, what's going to happen is that they're likely going to reach out further, meaning they're going to increase their over stride, which is definitely a variable we don't want to influence negatively. We want that over stride to reduce. They may get increased knee extension at initial contact, which again, not a gait mechanic that we want to encourage. We want to encourage more knee flexion at initial contact. We also want to encourage more or less dorsiflexion at initial contact, more plantar flexion, relatively speaking, which is likely also going to increase in the negative direction if we increase the stride length by increasing the speed on the treadmill. All of these variables are very much related in terms of the gait mechanics and the speed of the treadmill and which strategy they employ to actually increase that running gait speed. But if we take out the speed component and just leave that pace at the same pace on the treadmill, then they have no choice but to then change their cadence to match the cadence that you've chosen. And in turn, what we're hoping to see is a positive change in their gait mechanics.

"OPTIMAL" CADENCE"
Now we often get a question in both courses of what's the optimal cadence for a recreational runner, and really there isn't like a set in stone, everybody's gotta run at this cadence. It's a range, anywhere from mid 170s to mid 180s is typically what we kind of range for for a recreational runner. It may go higher than that. For a more experienced runner, I find that they can tolerate higher cadences, for a very novice runner, generally sometimes they don't even tolerate like a mid 170s and so although it might be a goal, it's something that we may have to work up towards in the future and with different gait retraining strategies. Okay, so I hope that helps. I hope that clears things up for some cadence questions that we commonly get in both the rehab online and the rehab of the injured runner live. I hope you have an awesome Friday and a great weekend and we'll see you next time.

OUTRO
Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review, and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you’re interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you’re there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Nov 9, 2023

Dr. Christina Prevett // #LeadershipThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today’s episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, ICE faculty member Christina Prevett emphasizes the crucial role of understanding statistics in making clinically relevant decisions. While staying up to date with the literature and being evidence-based are often emphasized in healthcare, Christina points out that it is not enough if one lacks the ability to comprehend the meaning of statistics and their application in a clinical setting.

Christina acknowledges that interpreting statistics can be challenging, even for individuals with a PhD and experience in the field. This understanding leads the host to empathize with clinicians who may find statistics intimidating. It is recognized that being evidence-informed and evidence-based requires clinicians to possess the skills to understand and interpret the data they encounter.

To make statistics more clinically relevant, Christina suggests utilizing systematic reviews and meta-analyses as tools for interpretation. Specifically, she delves into the interpretation of a forest plot, which graphically represents the results of a meta-analysis. By understanding how to interpret and analyze the data presented in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, clinicians can determine if the findings are significant enough to drive changes in their practice.

Christina also highlights the importance of considering clinical relevance when interpreting statistical findings. The concept of the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is introduced, which refers to the smallest change in an outcome measure that is considered clinically meaningful. An example is given of a statistically significant improvement in a timed up-and-go (TUG) test, but it is explained that it may not be clinically relevant if it does not meet the MCID for the TUG.

 

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you’re looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don’t forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION
Hey everyone, this is Alan. Chief Operating Officer here at ICE. Before we get started with today’s episode, I want to talk to you about VersaLifts. Today’s episode is brought to you by VersaLifts. Best known for their heel lift shoe inserts, VersaLifts has been a leading innovator in bringing simple but highly effective rehab tools to the market. If you have clients with stiff ankles, Achilles tendinopathy, or basic skeletal structure limitations keeping them from squatting with proper form and good depth, a little heel lift can make a huge difference. VersaLifts heel lifts are available in three different sizes and all of them add an additional half inch of h drop to any training shoe, helping athletes squat deeper with better form. Visit www.vlifts.com/icephysio or click the link in today’s show notes to get your VersaLifts today.

CHRISTINA PREVETT
Good morning everybody and welcome to the PT on ICE daily show. My name is Christina Prevett. I am one of the lead faculty in our geriatric and pelvic health divisions. So usually you’re seeing me on Monday and Wednesday, but today I’m putting on my PhD research hat to talk a little bit about statistics, which I know sounds really boring, but I promise I’m gonna make it really exciting. But before we do that, we have a couple of courses that are coming up across our divisions. So MMOA is in Wappinger’s Falls, NY this weekend. Extremity Management is on the road in Woodstock, Georgia. And Cervical Spine is heading to Bridgewater, Massachusetts. And so if you are looking to get in some Con Ed before the end of the year, we still have a couple of opportunities across all of our different divisions. And so I encourage you to go to ptinice.com and take a look at some of those opportunities. Okay, so a little bit about my kind of hat outside of working with ice is that I recently finished my PhD at McMaster University at the end of this year. I just announced that I’m doing a part-time postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Alberta looking at resistance training and its interaction with pregnancy and pelvic floor function.

BUMPING INTO STATISTICS
What that means is that I am bumping into statistics all the time. And I’m going to like kind of start this off and say, I’ve been asked to do some webinars and things around statistics for the ice crew for a while. And to be honest, it’s been really intimidating for me to do that, despite the fact that, you know, I have a PhD and I’m interacting with this stuff all the time. Um, statistics is hard and, you know, discussing statistics in a way that makes sense is also challenging. And when I reflect on that and the fact that you know, I feel uncomfortable sometimes with interpretation and you know, I did a part-time PhD for seven years and I’m in a postdoctoral position. I recognize how challenging it can be for clinicians. And, you know, we get told all the time, like, you know, stay evidence-informed, like it’s important to be evidence-based. It’s important to stay up to date with the literature. But your ability to stay up to date with the literature is only as good as your capacity to understand what it is trying to tell you. And I mean that in the best way possible, that it is so tough for us to gain insights from what the statistics mean into what is clinically relevant for us to understand and be able to bring into our clinics. So today I’m trying to take our statistics and make them clinically relevant to you.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS WITH META-ANALYSIS
One of the first ways that I want to do that, and if you like this type of podcast please let me know, and I’ll do more, is around the systematic review and meta-analysis and then trying to kind of deep dive into interpreting a forest plot. So when we’re thinking about a systematic review, this is the highest level of evidence when we have a systematic review of intervention or prospective studies. When we take a systematic review, we ask a very specific question. And I’m going to use the example, I’m working on a systematic review right now on resistance training and pregnancy. And I’m going to take some of that to make this relevant to how this happens. This is where we’re trying to get an idea of the state of the literature. So we use a PICO format, which is the population that we’re trying to look at. So in this case, it’s individuals who are pregnant. The intervention is what you are trying to see if there’s a positive or negative benefit or whatever that exposure may be. And that for me is resistance training. The comparison group is to usual obstetrical care. And then the outcomes, we are looking at fetal delivery, pregnancy, and pelvic floor-related outcomes. So we’re looking at the investigation of resistance training on incidents of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, rights of cesarean section, the size of babies, and babies more likely to be too big or too small. What does their birth weight look like? How long are they pregnant? And then are they at increased risk for things like urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, diastasis recti, or pelvic girdle pain? So that’s kind of the format of a systematic review we’re trying to answer a very specific question. From there, we go to the literature and we want to make sure that we encompass as much literature as we can. in our search strategy. So that is usually why you’ll see a list of PubMed and OVID, CINAHL, Sports Discus, like these types of different big searching platforms that are looked at. And then you’re going to get a Prisma plot that you’re going to see in the first figure. And that kind of describes a person’s search strategy. So how many hits were given when this search was done? How many were excluded because of duplicates? How many were excluded from the title and abstract because they were done in rats instead of in humans? Or they were looking at an acute effect of resistance training versus being on a resistance training program like you’re going to have a lot of those that are excluded. And then you’re going to have kind of what is included in your systematic review, and then what is included in your meta-analysis if a meta-analysis is indicated or possible. When we’re looking at a systematic review, we’re looking at a qualitative synthesis. And what we mean by that is that we’re trying to figure out, you know, where the state of the literature is. And when I’m reporting on something like the systematic review portion of a paper, You’re seeing things like, you know, how many studies were done in resistance training in pregnancy? How long were those interventions? Were they done in the same cohort of individuals? What was, how many of them were statistically significant? What was the dosage of that intervention? Those are things that kind of come under the systematic review umbrella. But I would say really now the emphasis is being placed on the meta-analysis and that is the quantitative combination of these studies and that is what gives us this forest plot. So when we are going through and doing a meta-analysis, there are a couple of things that we need to make decisions on very early on. So the first thing is on a random or a fixed effects model. This is kind of getting into the weeds, but almost all papers are going to be a random effects model, which means that we’re going to expect some variability in the population that we are working with, and we’re going to account for that variability in the calculations that we’re using for our forest plot.

PRIORI SUBGROUP ANALYSES
The second thing that we are looking at is a priori subgroup analysis. And so I’m going to use my research study to describe this. Before going into this meta-analysis and putting this forest plot together, we have to brainstorm around where possible sources of skew or bias would come into a forest plot. For example, in the resistance training intervention, it would be very different when we have resistance training in isolation versus resistance training as a component of a multi-component program. And so one of our subgroups analyses a priori we discussed was that we were going to subgroup studies that were only resistance training compared to our big meta-analysis, which included our resistance training in isolation or as a multi-pronged program. Another example in our systematic review is that some of our studies were on individuals with low risk at inception into the papers versus those that were brought into the study because they were diagnosed with a complication like gestational diabetes. we could think that the influence of resistance training on a person who has not been diagnosed with gestational diabetes versus those who have could be different. And so we did a secondary subgroup analysis where we looked at the differences between studies that looked at only individuals with gestational diabetes versus those that didn’t. And so when you are looking at a forest plot, you will see the big analysis at the top, including all of the different studies. And then after that, you will see different subgroups where there’s a repeater of what was in the main group, but it’s a subsection of the included studies. And that’s what we see. And then we try to see, you know, is resistance training and isolation positively associated with a benefit? versus multi-component or is there no difference and that gives us a lot of information too? So that’s that subgroup analysis. Then you go into the results of the paper and there is a forest plot that is there and this forest plot has a bunch of different names of studies It has the total number of incidences and the weight. It has a confidence interval with a number around it. And then on the right-hand side, there’s like dots with lots of lines and then a big thick dot at the bottom. I’m trying to explain this to our podcast listeners so that you can kind of understand. And I hope you’re kind of thinking of a study in your mind that you have seen in the past. But we’re going to kind of explain each of these different things. Okay, so when we’re looking at what we are trying to find, it is going to depend if we are looking at a dichotomous variable like did gestational hypertension get diagnosed or not? And if it is a dichotomous variable, what we’re looking at is an odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. So if we are thinking that no difference between usual care and resistance training is one, then a reduction in risk for gestational hypertension with resistance training would be an odds ratio that is less than one. When it is less than one, it becomes statistically significant when the 95% confidence interval encompasses all numbers less than one. When the confidence interval, say for example, our odds ratio is 0.8, we can say that there is a 20% reduction in risk, because a one minus 0.8, of getting gestational hypertension because of resistance training. I’m making these numbers up. But that is only statistically significant if the confidence interval is 0.7 to 0.9. then we can say there’s a statistically significant reduction in risk for gestational hypertension with resistance training in this systematic review of this meta-analysis. Where we cannot say it’s statistically significant is if the odds ratio is 0.8 and the 95% confidence interval is 0.6 to 1.2. That crossing of one means that there is a higher likelihood that there is that variation is because of chance and not because of a true difference. And so what you see is that when you’re looking at the odds ratio, the combination of all of those odds ratios from the individual studies are then pooled in that bolded line at the bottom of the forest plot to give us the confidence that we have based on all of the studies combined, that there is a true effect of resistance training in this example on gestational hypertension.

I-SQUARED HETEROGENEITY
The other kind of statistic that we’re looking at is the I-squared statistic or the amount of heterogeneity. So when you’re looking at that forest plot and you’re seeing all the dots and those lines, the heterogeneity is basically saying how close are those dots? How much spread is there in those dots? And so if the heterogeneity is low, we can say that not only did we have a statistically significant result, but across all of the studies, we tended to see a trend in the same direction. So it allows us to have more strength and confidence in the results that we are getting. If we see a high amount of heterogeneity, so like there are some that are like really favoring control and saying that resistance training is bad for gestational hypertension, and then some are having really positive effects of gestational hypertension on resistance training, that I square statistic would be high, and then we would probably have to be doing more evaluation, and that’s where we would rely really heavily on the subgroup and say, Well, is there certain subpopulations of this group that are skewing the data in one way or the other where their results may be different than the results of other individuals? And so that gives us a bit more information. So the odds ratio is when we’re looking at the presence of an event and it’s a binary variable of yes, this exposure exists or no, this exposure didn’t. When we are looking at continuous variables, we are looking at like a time on an outcome measure, like the time to up and go, we are looking at a mean difference score between resistance training and a control. So the mean difference is going to be in the measurement of the outcome measure that we are looking at. So the target would be seconds. So then from the pool, it would be plus, Six seconds or mine I guess minus six seconds would be in favor of resistance training and that your tug score is six seconds less in a resistance training arm than a control arm or if it goes against resistance training it would be plus six and Again, we’re looking at that 95% confidence interval. That average, that mean difference is also something that we would push against what our clinically relevant difference is. So we may see something that’s statistically significant at a two-second improvement, but we know that the MCID for the TUG is four seconds. So while yes, it’s statistically significant, it may not be a clinically relevant finding. So that’s kind of where we build in clinical relevance. And then again, we look at that 95% confidence interval, see what that spread looks like, and look at that I squared statistic. Where it gets a little bit more complicated is when we have things that are measuring the same thing, but measuring it in a different way. So an example in the systematic review that I did on resistance training and lower extremity strength is that there are a lot of different ways for us to measure lower extremity strength. Some people may use an estimated one rep max, and Some people may use a five-time sit-to-stand as a conduit for functional strength training. Some people may use a dynamometer for knee extensor strength. There’s a lot of different ways for us to do that. We can still do a meta-analysis on this, but what we have to do is transform all of those variables into one type of measure. And that’s when we would see something called a standardized mean difference, an SMD. And in that SMD, we’re essentially taking the impacts of all these different types of measurements that are telling us the same information and putting it into an effect size. And so the effect size gives us the amount of confidence that we can see in the influence of the intervention resistance training on the outcome of lower extremity strength. So an effect size using Cohen’s d statistic would be that less than 2 is no effect, 2 to 5 is a moderate or minimal effect, 5 to 0.8 is a moderate effect, and 0.8 and above is a large effect. And so in my systematic review on lower extremity strength and resistance training in individuals with mobility disability, we saw a standardized mean difference of 3, which means that we can be really confident there was a large influence of resistance training on the development of lower extremity strength. So kind of pulling this all together, I know I threw a lot at you. When you were looking at the forest plot, you were looking at trends in the data that are pooling all of the different intervention studies, looking at the same construct and looking at the same outcome. When we are looking at the odds ratio, this is a binary variable. There’s going to be a 95% confidence interval. And the pooled odds ratio that we look at with respect to making decisions is that bolded number at the bottom. Our I-squared statistic gives us an idea of the spread of the data and the results that we see. When we are looking at continuous variables, you’re going to see either a mean difference or a standardized mean difference. The mean difference is reported in the measurement of the outcome measure that we’re talking about. So it could be seconds, it could be points. A standardized mean difference is an effect size where we are transforming multiple different outcome measures into one output that’s pooling these things together, but we have to do it in a standardized metric that looks at the magnitude of the effect of that outcome. So how do we think about this clinically? Well, the first thing is that we need to understand where these effect sizes are and if they are significant. And then we have to put it through the filter of, is this clinically relevant? When we have something that isn’t statistically significant, the next thing to do is go into the methods and say, you know, was this dose appropriate? Was this done in the way that I would do this? And can I be confident that the interaction between what I would do in the clinic and what was done in these studies is significant enough for me to drive changes in my practice? All right, I hope you found that helpful. I’m at 18 minutes, I knew I would. But if you have any other questions about statistics and how to interpret them, please let me know. It’s really important that we know how to understand the data that we’re being presented with because that’s how we’re gonna change our clinical decisions based on what we are seeing. All right, have a wonderful afternoon, everyone. I promise hopefully I didn’t stress your brain out by talking about math too much and hopefully, this was helpful and we can do it again sometime.

OUTRO
Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review, and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you’re interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you’re there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Nov 8, 2023

Dr. Zac Morgan // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today’s episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic division leader Christina Prevett delves into the need for a shift in the perinatal space, moving away from a fear-focused message and towards one of empowerment.

Christina emphasizes the significance of understanding and respecting individual risk tolerance when it comes to making decisions about exercise and healthcare during pregnancy and postpartum.

Christina argues that healthcare providers should not impose their own risk tolerance onto their patients, but rather support and empower them in making informed choices that align with their own comfort levels.

She also highlights the presence of unwarranted shame in the perinatal space and encourages listeners to critically evaluate their own risk tolerance zones, challenging any beliefs or practices that contribute to this shame.

Christina underscores the importance of evidence-informed practice and the facilitation of movement and exercise, rather than creating barriers based on fear.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you’re looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don’t forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

CHRISTINA PREVETT

Hello, everybody, and welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. My name is Christina Prevett. I am one of our team within our pelvic health division. And if you have been catching all of the news coming out of the ice world, you know that we just announced our pelvic certification, CertPelvic. And we are so excited to bring this to you all. One of the missions that we have been kind of on this journey for over, you know, the last four or five years has been to try and flip the script in pelvic health and really create a fitness-forward approach to pelvic health, just like we are trying to do in the orthopedic spaces. And so our cert pelvic is our next Step in that trajectory. And so we are going to have three courses in our cert pelvic curriculum We have our two-day live course and then we’re gonna have two eight-week online courses level one and level two if you have taken Our live course that is going to count as your cert pelvic The only additional piece is that there is going to be an added skills check to the end of our second day. If you are interested in becoming CertPelvic, you will have to find a time when we are near your area to be able to take that skills check for the end of day two. You don’t need to take the course again. You do not need to pay a fee for the skills check. We just have to get that from you for individuals who have already taken our live course. And if you’re interested in catching our live course one more time, or getting in before the end of 2023, we have two opportunities left. Alexis is gonna be in Bayer, Delaware on the 18th and 19th of November, so in two weeks. And then at the beginning of December, December 2nd, and 3rd, I am gonna be in Halifax. And that course you’ll see is slightly less because we are making it equivalent to the Canadian dollar. So if you’re wondering why that course is at a different price, it’s because we’re creating an equivalency to the Canadian dollar. And so if you’re interested in catching us before the end of 2023, those are your last two opportunities.

EXERCISE IN THE PREGNANT & POSTPARTUM SPACE

Okay, let’s talk about exercise in the perinatal space. You know that we have been on a huge journey to reframe the idea around Pregnant and postpartum exercise it is no surprise to any of you who are listening and have listened to our division that we are very pro pushing the boundaries and that we believe from a fitness perspective that the answer should be yes For health promoting behaviors instead of flipping to the no and proving it I did a podcast episode a little while ago where I said is it ethical, you know to remove resistance training in a pregnant individual and because we don’t have an abundance of literature. And I made the argument that it isn’t. Until we have safety data to take away a health-promoting behavior, we should start with the yes. And so this kind of goes into this reframe. I was talking to Sinead DeFore, who is a Ph.D. who’s looking at diastasis recti and pelvic girdle pain literature, and she created this idea around risk tolerance within my brain and it has really helped me to solidify our thoughts and feelings about exercise our sparks notes a very first thing is that We are going to have individuals who are going to have their own Risk tolerance and I’m gonna give you a couple of different examples. So everyone is gonna have their own risk tolerance when it comes to exercise. Personally, when I got pregnant with my daughter five years ago, I was a national-level weightlifter. A barbell was an extension of my hand. I knew where it was going to go. I knew what it was going to do. I could make finite, tiny little details and I would be able to manipulate my technique. I felt extremely confident moving around a barbell during my pregnancy. Was not a runner. I had done CrossFit but I wasn’t doing CrossFit at that time so my body was not used to the impact of running and So I didn’t feel that good running after about 18 or 20 weeks of pregnancy And so I removed running from my exercise routine I was not running that much to be good with but I removed it and I kept Olympic weightlifting all the way up until delivery and That is my risk tolerance. I decided what felt good for my body and I made decisions within that. That does not mean that I do not have individuals that I have seen that were running right up until delivery and then a heavy squat or squatting below parallel just did not feel good for them. It didn’t feel good on their pelvis. So many people have their own risk tolerance. we are starting to see people push the boundaries in almost every stretch from a pregnant and postpartum fitness perspective. We are seeing individuals, part of my postdoctoral work is some of our team members are talking about contact sports, for example, and contact sports are contraindicated during pregnancy. People are told to not do equestrian, for example, during their pregnancies. And then you have some equestrian riders who feel extremely confident with the horse that they are working with and may continue to ride. Even though right now our data says that maybe we shouldn’t do that on the chance that somebody falls off a horse. I treated an individual who was snowboarding, 17 weeks pregnant, fell so hard she broke her collarbone, baby ended up being okay. Another one of these decisions would probably not have been within my risk tolerance, but individuals are starting to push the boundaries. We are starting to see changes in the military with respect to flying restrictions. We were being told that when you found out that you were pregnant you were grounded with respect to flying hours. Yeah, right. Someone says, I grew up showing horses and you couldn’t get any of those ladies I knew at the barn to get off that horse. Absolutely, right? And that is, again, literature that we are basing off of a lack of understanding. I’m sure that there are so many examples exactly like that, where individuals feel so confident with their horse that they are not worried. We don’t have any evidence to say that Riding a horse is bad, but we just don’t want to minimize the risk of falling But here’s the thing if we kind of take this back and talk about risk tolerance as grown-ups We can decide it for grown-ups or not But as grown-ups we are taking risk every single day every time we walk out of our house We are deciding if it is snowing and we decide to jump into a car. We are making a decision and we are calculating We are creating risk thresholds. When we are even talking about health-promoting behaviors, we are talking about stacking the deck in our favor or away from it, right? We are health-promoting or we are taking things that are going to increase the risk of an adverse event. But none of these things are guaranteed, and everybody is going to have their own risk tolerance zones.

BECOME A PRO AT PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES

As physical therapists who are working in the perinatal space, it is time for us to embrace that risk tolerance, embrace the fact that individuals’ risk tolerance may be different than ours. And I’m talking about kind of pushing the extremes of exercise, but I’m also talking about allowing individuals who do not feel safe continuing to do certain exercises to be allowed to step that back if that pulls them within their risk tolerance zone. We do not have a movement problem in our society. We have a lack of movement problem. All of our divisions are screaming this from the rooftops. You’re going to hear me say this in geriatrics. What that means though and what we see is that during pregnancy and postpartum exercise goes down and we see that fewer individuals are hitting the exercise guidelines despite the fact that our guidelines during pregnancy from an intensity and a Duration perspective mirror that of the general population what I mean by that is we are still trying to accumulate 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy and moderate intensity resistance training are Recommended but what we see is that during pregnancy for a whole slew of reasons Not just the fact that individuals are pregnant and getting scared away from exercise though. That is a component We are seeing that individuals are less active so Then we go into the postpartum period, and it’s the same thing.

THE RISKS OF NOT EXERCISING DURING PREGNANCY

Our division is adamantly against the six-week blanket statement that we shouldn’t be doing any exercise, and we are 100% against the five in the bed, five around the bed, five in the home type of rhetoric. The reason is that it’s going to increase our risk for blood clots, and it is unrealistic for so many individuals who do not have a village that allows them to be able to do that. If you are trying to bond with the baby and that is something that you want to do, excellent, but I also think that it’s important for us to be able to make informed decisions, which includes the fact that early movement, and I’m not talking exercise, I’m talking about getting out of bed, is really important for the management of postpartum complications. risk tolerance is going to be different. We see a lot of individuals who want to go to the gym two weeks postpartum. Are they jumping into a CrossFit workout? No, but are they becoming around their village because they feel really lonely and sad and their hormones are all over the place and somebody is going to take their baby and tell them and have an adult conversation and that’s something that they want to do completely. their risk tolerance is going to be different. Do we have some individuals who adamantly want to wait until six, eight, 10, or 12 weeks, who do not have the mind to go in, who are struggling with sleep, who are having trouble with hormones? Absolutely. And so we are going to meet them where they’re at.

REFRAMING RISK TOLERANCE

And so why is this reframe around risk tolerance so powerful? we don’t have a movement problem, which means that we need to push our recommendations within a person’s risk tolerance. And the message needs to be around facilitating movement, not creating barriers to exercise, right? As physical therapists, our job is to help facilitate movement. And when we create fear in the perinatal space, by moving or shifting a person’s risk tolerance down beyond the level that they want to accept. We are not providing evidence-informed practice, right? One, we don’t have the evidence to show that there are things that are adverse, and many of these things are mechanistic based on theory and are starting to be disproven. But the second thing is that we need to be taking our clients’ wishes and hopes into perspective and that is an equal part of the triangle of evidence-informed practice and then obviously our clinical experience. Our clinical skilled care is where we can move those buoys, and give individuals ways for them to navigate exercise so that they know what they are listening to their bodies for, in order for us to be driving change in this space. When we accept this model of risk tolerance, we get to move from the no or I don’t know to the yes within these kinds of buoys or navigational obstacles that we’re going to be able to keep individuals within. We need to think that we want to move individuals away from being more sedentary out of fear in the perinatal space and move them to more empowered movement of their bodies in order for them to feel strong and empowered. We are starting to see over and over and over again that Individuals who maintain strength during their pregnancy have a much easier time postpartum from a muscular physical reserve perspective. We see this across everything in rehab. Our body needs to be strong enough to handle what we’re asking it to do. It doesn’t it breaks down. There are overuse injuries if the tensile strength of our bone does not match the force at which we hit the floor We have a fracture we see this in orthopedics the same is true in the perinatal space like our body needs to be able to respond to the stress is on their body in the pregnant and postpartum period and if we are deconditioning our pregnant individuals we are not setting them up for success and so we need to be able to have a shifting and moving risk tolerance to meet the risk tolerance of the person that is in front of us and then if there’s obviously some big risks or red flags, we are going to educate on that. But most of the time, it’s our own discomfort because their risk tolerance doesn’t match our risk tolerance. And then we are making recommendations that are not serving them, but making us feel more comfortable. And so my call to action for you all today is to push your comfort zones. Really reflect, is there a discrepancy or difference between your risk tolerance and mine? And if there is, is that because of my own experience in this space? Is it because of my own lack of experience with somebody with this type of risk tolerance? And then how do I marry those two things to respect where the evidence is, but also where my client’s perceived risk is? And then how can I bring my own clinical practice to help marry those two things together to serve the person that is in front of me? All right, I went off on a soapbox. I can’t believe I’m already 14 minutes in. I hope that you found that helpful. This idea of risk tolerance and being able to see this as a moving target, I think is going to shift us away from a fear-focused message in the perinatal space towards more one of empowerment. And if your risk tolerance is less than your client’s, that is not bad, but it is not our job to project our risk tolerance onto a patient, especially when we don’t have any justification for that kind of shifting or that moving away from a person’s own tolerance zone. And I really challenge individuals to not make individuals feel bad. There’s a lot of shame in the perinatal space that is unfounded. And I think it’s really important for us to really think critically about these risk tolerance zones and where ours exist. All right. If you have any other questions, if this is something that is a reflection point for you, I want to hear about it. If you want to see more of the research and get more of the news coming out of our pelvic division, cause geez, things have been moving really fast in our divisions. I encourage you to sign up for our ice pelvic newsletter. It’s a research-focused newsletter that comes out every two weeks on Thursday. Our last one went out last week. If you have any other questions about our ice pelvic cert, please reach out to us. We’ve been fielding questions. We just love the interest that we’ve seen in our certification and we are so excited to show it all to you. Otherwise, I hope that Alexis sees some of you in Bayer or I will see some of you in Halifax. Have a wonderful rest of your Monday, everyone, and we will talk soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review, and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you’re interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you’re there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Nov 6, 2023

Dr. Christina Prevett // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic division leader Christina Prevett delves into the need for a shift in the perinatal space, moving away from a fear-focused message and towards one of empowerment.

Christina emphasizes the significance of understanding and respecting individual risk tolerance when it comes to making decisions about exercise and healthcare during pregnancy and postpartum.

Christina argues that healthcare providers should not impose their own risk tolerance onto their patients, but rather support and empower them in making informed choices that align with their own comfort levels.

She also highlights the presence of unwarranted shame in the perinatal space and encourages listeners to critically evaluate their own risk tolerance zones, challenging any beliefs or practices that contribute to this shame.

Christina underscores the importance of evidence-informed practice and the facilitation of movement and exercise, rather than creating barriers based on fear.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

CHRISTINA PREVETT

Hello, everybody, and welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. My name is Christina Prevett. I am one of our team within our pelvic health division. And if you have been catching all of the news coming out of the ice world, you know that we just announced our pelvic certification, CertPelvic. And we are so excited to bring this to you all. One of the missions that we have been kind of on this journey for over, you know, the last four or five years has been to try and flip the script in pelvic health and really create a fitness-forward approach to pelvic health, just like we are trying to do in the orthopedic spaces. And so our cert pelvic is our next Step in that trajectory. And so we are going to have three courses in our cert pelvic curriculum We have our two-day live course and then we're gonna have two eight-week online courses level one and level two if you have taken Our live course that is going to count as your cert pelvic The only additional piece is that there is going to be an added skills check to the end of our second day. If you are interested in becoming CertPelvic, you will have to find a time when we are near your area to be able to take that skills check for the end of day two. You don't need to take the course again. You do not need to pay a fee for the skills check. We just have to get that from you for individuals who have already taken our live course. And if you're interested in catching our live course one more time, or getting in before the end of 2023, we have two opportunities left. Alexis is gonna be in Bayer, Delaware on the 18th and 19th of November, so in two weeks. And then at the beginning of December, December 2nd, and 3rd, I am gonna be in Halifax. And that course you'll see is slightly less because we are making it equivalent to the Canadian dollar. So if you're wondering why that course is at a different price, it's because we're creating an equivalency to the Canadian dollar. And so if you're interested in catching us before the end of 2023, those are your last two opportunities.

EXERCISE IN THE PREGNANT & POSTPARTUM SPACE

Okay, let's talk about exercise in the perinatal space. You know that we have been on a huge journey to reframe the idea around Pregnant and postpartum exercise it is no surprise to any of you who are listening and have listened to our division that we are very pro pushing the boundaries and that we believe from a fitness perspective that the answer should be yes For health promoting behaviors instead of flipping to the no and proving it I did a podcast episode a little while ago where I said is it ethical, you know to remove resistance training in a pregnant individual and because we don't have an abundance of literature. And I made the argument that it isn't. Until we have safety data to take away a health-promoting behavior, we should start with the yes. And so this kind of goes into this reframe. I was talking to Sinead DeFore, who is a Ph.D. who's looking at diastasis recti and pelvic girdle pain literature, and she created this idea around risk tolerance within my brain and it has really helped me to solidify our thoughts and feelings about exercise our sparks notes a very first thing is that We are going to have individuals who are going to have their own Risk tolerance and I'm gonna give you a couple of different examples. So everyone is gonna have their own risk tolerance when it comes to exercise. Personally, when I got pregnant with my daughter five years ago, I was a national-level weightlifter. A barbell was an extension of my hand. I knew where it was going to go. I knew what it was going to do. I could make finite, tiny little details and I would be able to manipulate my technique. I felt extremely confident moving around a barbell during my pregnancy. Was not a runner. I had done CrossFit but I wasn't doing CrossFit at that time so my body was not used to the impact of running and So I didn't feel that good running after about 18 or 20 weeks of pregnancy And so I removed running from my exercise routine I was not running that much to be good with but I removed it and I kept Olympic weightlifting all the way up until delivery and That is my risk tolerance. I decided what felt good for my body and I made decisions within that. That does not mean that I do not have individuals that I have seen that were running right up until delivery and then a heavy squat or squatting below parallel just did not feel good for them. It didn't feel good on their pelvis. So many people have their own risk tolerance. we are starting to see people push the boundaries in almost every stretch from a pregnant and postpartum fitness perspective. We are seeing individuals, part of my postdoctoral work is some of our team members are talking about contact sports, for example, and contact sports are contraindicated during pregnancy. People are told to not do equestrian, for example, during their pregnancies. And then you have some equestrian riders who feel extremely confident with the horse that they are working with and may continue to ride. Even though right now our data says that maybe we shouldn't do that on the chance that somebody falls off a horse. I treated an individual who was snowboarding, 17 weeks pregnant, fell so hard she broke her collarbone, baby ended up being okay. Another one of these decisions would probably not have been within my risk tolerance, but individuals are starting to push the boundaries. We are starting to see changes in the military with respect to flying restrictions. We were being told that when you found out that you were pregnant you were grounded with respect to flying hours. Yeah, right. Someone says, I grew up showing horses and you couldn't get any of those ladies I knew at the barn to get off that horse. Absolutely, right? And that is, again, literature that we are basing off of a lack of understanding. I'm sure that there are so many examples exactly like that, where individuals feel so confident with their horse that they are not worried. We don't have any evidence to say that Riding a horse is bad, but we just don't want to minimize the risk of falling But here's the thing if we kind of take this back and talk about risk tolerance as grown-ups We can decide it for grown-ups or not But as grown-ups we are taking risk every single day every time we walk out of our house We are deciding if it is snowing and we decide to jump into a car. We are making a decision and we are calculating We are creating risk thresholds. When we are even talking about health-promoting behaviors, we are talking about stacking the deck in our favor or away from it, right? We are health-promoting or we are taking things that are going to increase the risk of an adverse event. But none of these things are guaranteed, and everybody is going to have their own risk tolerance zones.

BECOME A PRO AT PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES

As physical therapists who are working in the perinatal space, it is time for us to embrace that risk tolerance, embrace the fact that individuals' risk tolerance may be different than ours. And I'm talking about kind of pushing the extremes of exercise, but I'm also talking about allowing individuals who do not feel safe continuing to do certain exercises to be allowed to step that back if that pulls them within their risk tolerance zone. We do not have a movement problem in our society. We have a lack of movement problem. All of our divisions are screaming this from the rooftops. You're going to hear me say this in geriatrics. What that means though and what we see is that during pregnancy and postpartum exercise goes down and we see that fewer individuals are hitting the exercise guidelines despite the fact that our guidelines during pregnancy from an intensity and a Duration perspective mirror that of the general population what I mean by that is we are still trying to accumulate 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy and moderate intensity resistance training are Recommended but what we see is that during pregnancy for a whole slew of reasons Not just the fact that individuals are pregnant and getting scared away from exercise though. That is a component We are seeing that individuals are less active so Then we go into the postpartum period, and it's the same thing.

THE RISKS OF NOT EXERCISING DURING PREGNANCY

Our division is adamantly against the six-week blanket statement that we shouldn't be doing any exercise, and we are 100% against the five in the bed, five around the bed, five in the home type of rhetoric. The reason is that it's going to increase our risk for blood clots, and it is unrealistic for so many individuals who do not have a village that allows them to be able to do that. If you are trying to bond with the baby and that is something that you want to do, excellent, but I also think that it's important for us to be able to make informed decisions, which includes the fact that early movement, and I'm not talking exercise, I'm talking about getting out of bed, is really important for the management of postpartum complications. risk tolerance is going to be different. We see a lot of individuals who want to go to the gym two weeks postpartum. Are they jumping into a CrossFit workout? No, but are they becoming around their village because they feel really lonely and sad and their hormones are all over the place and somebody is going to take their baby and tell them and have an adult conversation and that's something that they want to do completely. their risk tolerance is going to be different. Do we have some individuals who adamantly want to wait until six, eight, 10, or 12 weeks, who do not have the mind to go in, who are struggling with sleep, who are having trouble with hormones? Absolutely. And so we are going to meet them where they're at.

REFRAMING RISK TOLERANCE

And so why is this reframe around risk tolerance so powerful? we don't have a movement problem, which means that we need to push our recommendations within a person's risk tolerance. And the message needs to be around facilitating movement, not creating barriers to exercise, right? As physical therapists, our job is to help facilitate movement. And when we create fear in the perinatal space, by moving or shifting a person's risk tolerance down beyond the level that they want to accept. We are not providing evidence-informed practice, right? One, we don't have the evidence to show that there are things that are adverse, and many of these things are mechanistic based on theory and are starting to be disproven. But the second thing is that we need to be taking our clients' wishes and hopes into perspective and that is an equal part of the triangle of evidence-informed practice and then obviously our clinical experience. Our clinical skilled care is where we can move those buoys, and give individuals ways for them to navigate exercise so that they know what they are listening to their bodies for, in order for us to be driving change in this space. When we accept this model of risk tolerance, we get to move from the no or I don't know to the yes within these kinds of buoys or navigational obstacles that we're going to be able to keep individuals within. We need to think that we want to move individuals away from being more sedentary out of fear in the perinatal space and move them to more empowered movement of their bodies in order for them to feel strong and empowered. We are starting to see over and over and over again that Individuals who maintain strength during their pregnancy have a much easier time postpartum from a muscular physical reserve perspective. We see this across everything in rehab. Our body needs to be strong enough to handle what we're asking it to do. It doesn't it breaks down. There are overuse injuries if the tensile strength of our bone does not match the force at which we hit the floor We have a fracture we see this in orthopedics the same is true in the perinatal space like our body needs to be able to respond to the stress is on their body in the pregnant and postpartum period and if we are deconditioning our pregnant individuals we are not setting them up for success and so we need to be able to have a shifting and moving risk tolerance to meet the risk tolerance of the person that is in front of us and then if there's obviously some big risks or red flags, we are going to educate on that. But most of the time, it's our own discomfort because their risk tolerance doesn't match our risk tolerance. And then we are making recommendations that are not serving them, but making us feel more comfortable. And so my call to action for you all today is to push your comfort zones. Really reflect, is there a discrepancy or difference between your risk tolerance and mine? And if there is, is that because of my own experience in this space? Is it because of my own lack of experience with somebody with this type of risk tolerance? And then how do I marry those two things to respect where the evidence is, but also where my client's perceived risk is? And then how can I bring my own clinical practice to help marry those two things together to serve the person that is in front of me? All right, I went off on a soapbox. I can't believe I'm already 14 minutes in. I hope that you found that helpful. This idea of risk tolerance and being able to see this as a moving target, I think is going to shift us away from a fear-focused message in the perinatal space towards more one of empowerment. And if your risk tolerance is less than your client's, that is not bad, but it is not our job to project our risk tolerance onto a patient, especially when we don't have any justification for that kind of shifting or that moving away from a person's own tolerance zone. And I really challenge individuals to not make individuals feel bad. There's a lot of shame in the perinatal space that is unfounded. And I think it's really important for us to really think critically about these risk tolerance zones and where ours exist. All right. If you have any other questions, if this is something that is a reflection point for you, I want to hear about it. If you want to see more of the research and get more of the news coming out of our pelvic division, cause geez, things have been moving really fast in our divisions. I encourage you to sign up for our ice pelvic newsletter. It's a research-focused newsletter that comes out every two weeks on Thursday. Our last one went out last week. If you have any other questions about our ice pelvic cert, please reach out to us. We've been fielding questions. We just love the interest that we've seen in our certification and we are so excited to show it all to you. Otherwise, I hope that Alexis sees some of you in Bayer or I will see some of you in Halifax. Have a wonderful rest of your Monday, everyone, and we will talk soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review, and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Nov 3, 2023

Alan Fredendall // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Fitness Athlete division leader Alan Fredendall discusses the research, physics, clinical context, and patient input that goes into deciding if mechanics with lifting are "good" or "bad".

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn from our Clinical Management of the Fitness Athlete division, check out our live physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses. Check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

ALAN FREDENDALL

All right. Good morning, folks. Welcome to the PT on ICE Daily Show. I hope your Friday morning is off to a great start. We're here a little bit early in the garage. We're going to be talking about some double unders today. Welcome to Fitness Athlete Friday. My name is Alan. I'm happy to be your host today. Currently have the pleasure of serving as our Chief Operating Officer here at the company, as well as the Division Leader in our Fitness Athlete Division. We love Fitness Athlete Friday. We would argue it's the best day of the week. On Fitness Athlete Friday, we talk all things relevant to the CrossFit athlete, Olympic weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, anybody that's recreationally active in the gym. We also talk about our endurance athletes, whether you're running, rowing, biking, swimming, triathletes, If you have a person that's getting after on a regular basis, Fitness Athlete Friday has a topic for you. Some courses coming your way from the Fitness Athlete Division. We have a couple live courses before the end of the year as we get ready to close out 2023. This weekend, as in tomorrow and Sunday, November 4th and 5th, both Mitch Babcock and Zach Long will be on the road teaching. Mitch will be down in San Antonio, Texas, and Zach will be in Hoover, Alabama. Even though it's last minute, both of those courses still have some seats. And then your final chance to catch Fitness Athlete Live will be the weekend of December 9th and 10th. That's gonna be out in Colorado Springs, Colorado, and that will be with Mitch as well. Online from the Fitness Athlete Division, our entry-level course, Clinical Management Fitness Athlete Level 1 Online, previously called Essential Foundations. The next cohort of that class begins November 6th. We love that class. That is a great entry-level experience into all of this stuff if you have not taken it yet. We take you through the very basics, back squats, front squats, deadlifts, presses. We get into some basic gymnastics with the pull-up and introduce you to Olympic weightlifting with the overhead squat. Along the way, we have case studies relevant to athletes with those particular issues that we discuss with those movements. We talk a lot about loading and we get you introduced to basic programming, both for injured athletes and also how to recognize CrossFit style programming, strength style programming to better prepare you for those folks who want to continue on to our level two online course, previously called Advanced Concepts, who really want to drill down into programming, advanced gymnastics, advanced Olympic weightlifting, and truly become the provider of choice for athletes in their region through the clinical management fitness athlete certification. So that's what's coming your way course-wise from us in the CMFA division.

WHAT ARE WE DOING WITH THE DOUBLE UNDER?

Today we're going to talk about double-unders. This is personally an issue I've struggled with for a long time and probably maybe aside from pull-ups and handstand push-ups, one of the more basic movements we see in the gym that still a lot of your membership base will struggle with, maybe you personally struggle with, and I want to talk about what are we actually trying to do with the Double Wonder, some tips and tricks and cues to think inside your mind as you're going through them. I want to spend some time talking about the equipment involved in jumping rope because I think there's two sides of the equation, people with very basic equipment and people with maybe equipment that they don't need that's maybe too expensive, too advanced, And then I also just want to talk about how to begin to better practice double unders so that you can work towards achieving them and being able to complete them during a workout, in large sets, when the CrossFit Open comes up, or just in your regular workouts at the gym. So first things first, with double-unders. When I ask a lot of athletes in the gym when I'm coaching, when they say, oh my gosh, I just did five double-unders in a row, I say, great, great, what were you thinking about? And overwhelmingly, the majority of the people say, I don't know. I couldn't tell you what I was thinking about. And that strikes me as very different from a lot of stuff that we do in the gym. People usually have maybe one cue or maybe even a couple cues in their mind when they're setting up for a heavy deadlift, when they're setting up for a clean and jerk or a snatch or a handstand pushup. They often don't kick up upside down or go to max out their snatch and tell you that they had nothing going on in your brain. But something about the double under, people think it's just magic, how you learn these and how you get better at them. And unfortunately, it's not magic. Fortunately, it's just physics. So I want to talk about really at a base level, at a nerdy physics mathematical level, what are we doing with the double under? We are translating linear force. We are creating force across the lever that then transforms into rotational force where your jump rope handle meets the bearing.

FIX THE SET-UP

If your jump rope is nice enough to have a bearing. So a lot of times the setup, even with just the handles is wrong of looking at a jump rope. Again, it's quite a basic piece of equipment. It's got some handles. you to hang on to in a rope. Even a cheap moderate jump rope of $20 should have some sort of bearing set up so that it spins a little bit. We are trying to create force at the end of the handle that as we flip that jump rope it turns into rotation through the rope and that by doing it both hands at a time with that flicking motion we spin the jump rope. What we're not trying to do is physically spin the rope ourselves with our shoulders, right? We're trying to create rotational force through a flick. So the first thing is making sure that you are even handling your jump rope appropriately. If you are cinched down with a full grip, right where the handles meet the bearing, first of all, you can physically block the bearing if you're not careful. If you hold right here with a depth grip, that bearing cannot spin anymore, right? It's going to be extraordinarily difficult to easily create rotational force here and you're going to naturally be that person who has to spin your arms to spin the jump rope. That's exhausting. It's not a great way to do single unders and it's an even worse way to do double unders. So first things first, where are you grabbing the handle? You should be grabbing further down the handle, ideally with a loose grip, as low on the handle as you can get, right? The longer the lever, the more force amplification we have, right? The more force is going to be transferred and transformed into rotation down here versus the higher we grab up towards that bearing. So a nice loose grip, thinking about flicking, creating linear force at the bottom of the handle that creates a spinning force for me up at the bearing. So that's number one of making sure that you're even using the jump rope correctly. The next thing is making sure it's sized correctly. I always laugh when I see people in the gym who I know are taller than me, which is not very useful because most human beings are taller than me, but I know someone is a couple inches taller than me and I see them using a rope shorter than a rope I would use and I think What the heck, why are they using such a short rope? It makes sense why trying to do double unders, they're bringing their knees up to their chest and bending their knee to try to clear the rope because the rope is so short. How do we sign the jump rope? We take the jump rope, we hold both handles, we step one foot, we try to even it out as much as possible, bring it towards our body, and the length of that rope should be at our nipple or maybe a little bit higher. If it's down at our stomach, it's too short. You're gonna have to do some really unnatural jumping things, like piking your hip, or kicking your legs back, or both, just to be able to clear that short rope. Likewise, being a little bit longer is okay, but this thing up to my chin or above my head, I have a lot of slack behind me now. I'm moving a lot of extra weight I don't need to, and that's all the more drag factor on the rope that's gonna mess up my timing as I try to learn double unders. So making sure we're holding the handles in the appropriate place and making sure that we understand how to measure our jump rope. A really nice jump rope will have maybe a nut or a screw here to adjust. This is a typical, what we call a class rope. This is just a $20 rope from Rogue. You'll often see these in the wall at a gym for everybody in class to use. These can't be adjusted. They go based on your height. There should be a table or a chart or the coach should know what color you should be using based on your height, assuming that you know what your own height is, to make sure that you're using a jump rope that is long enough with maybe a little bit of extra slack, but is not extraordinarily short or long. So that's first things first, using linear force to create rotational force, making sure the rope is sized to us correctly, and making sure we're holding the handles in the right spot so that we're not hampering ourselves from creating that rotational force.

SOMETIMES IT'S THE WRENCH

We have a saying, with jump rope, with most things in life, it's usually not the wrench, right? It's not the equipment, it's the mechanic. But sometimes it is the wrench. A lot of folks start trying double-unders with maybe the class rope they have, and I think that's a great place to start. Now the issue is a lot of folks will start trying double-unders, they'll look at people in the gym who are really great at double-unders, and not recognize that that person probably started with the class rope, and they'll immediately go out and buy a $200 competitive CrossFit game speed rope. There's a couple issues with the wrench itself of making sure you have the right wrench. We've already talked about length. A really nice jump rope, again, will have a way to adjust the length that you can undo a screw or a nut and make it longer or shorter and get it really dialed in. These ropes, again, are a fixed length but making sure the length is exactly correct. The next thing that most people don't consider is that this jump rope has some weight. Yes, the handles have weight, but that's going to be relatively fixed based on the brand that you have. So not considering the weight of the handles, what is the weight of this rope? This is a class rope. This is about 2.5 ounces or so, which I would call a medium weight rope. When we are doing jump rope, In learning double-unders, the best thing you can do is use a rope that's a little bit heavier.

null: Why? Two reasons.

SPEAKER_01: When you spin a heavier rope, you can hear it slapping on the ground in the gym, even over the loud music. That helps your brain learn the timing. A heavier rope also forces you to develop wrist speed. When we're doing double-unders, it's not about how fast you jump, it's about wrists. And a really light rope doesn't force you to learn that speed because it costs you almost no energy to go through that movement pattern. So for a lot of folks, they're trying to purchase the most lightweight rope ever, and I'm going to show you some different ropes here in a second, when in reality they should probably be working with a heavier rope. Again, this is a class rope. This is maybe two and a half to three and a half ounces, somewhere in the middle. What's going to help a lot of folks Smartgear brand rope. You can buy this from Rogue or from RX Smartgear directly. You can see just by looking at these two ropes, significantly thicker, right? This is a 4.1 ounce rope. The handles are different. Yes, they spin a little bit better. They have a little bit better hand grips. You can see here different spots to put your thumb along the handle. But most importantly, the cable is heavier. This is going to teach hand speed, this is going to build up endurance with the double under, and it's also both the sound and the feeling of this rope is going to help learn timing a lot better for our jump rope. So making sure that we have the right rope. Again, almost everyone trying to get good at double unders immediately goes and buys the $200 speed rope, when in reality they should probably buy this. Now the nice thing about these ropes, as you can see, I'll bring it up really close, is this is just a keychain type carabiner. When I'm ready for a lighter rope, the most expensive part of a jump rope are the handles. The cable is usually cheap or sometimes even free if it gets frayed. If you fray your actual rope, you can email Rogue, you can email RxSmart here, they'll send you a new cable that you can reattach to your handles and you can use the same handles forever. So as you get better, you can detach, put a lighter cable on, make it easier and more energy efficient as you actually start to string together double-unders. But early on, you're going to want a heavier rope, something around four ounces. That's the biggest recommendation I can make to folks who are trying to learn double-unders, and especially to those folks who have 19 different speed ropes at home. They've got a second mortgage on their house full of jump ropes just to pay for them all. and they're going lighter, lighter, lighter, thinking they need a lighter rope, a faster rope, lighter handles, diamond grip handles, when in reality they just need a heavier cable. So when in doubt, go heavier. Again, four ounce rope compared to maybe a two and a half or three ounce rope. Once you can start to turn over bigger sets of double unders, 25, 30, 50, you're able to start doing them in workouts, your efficiency, your endurance with them improves, now you're ready for a cable itself is basically non-existent. This is aircraft grade aluminum. This is about eight tenths of an ounce. So almost 500% lighter than that heavy rope I just showed you. This weighs almost nothing. It is very hard to feel when you jump rope with this cable and it's very hard to hear as well, especially if you're in a CrossFit style gym in the middle of workout with loud music playing. What's different about this besides the cable weight? The handles are so much nicer. They are diamond grip. My thumbs can lock on. I can hold very low on the rope. Again, I want to have as much time for that force to build up and transfer along the length of the handle as I can. I can hold just my index finger and my thumb and really develop that flicking motion. What's also very nice is look at the spin on this handle. right? That thing spins forever. Very, very, very efficient for large sets of double-unders, but only once you can actually do them. So this is kind of the in-stage progression of somebody who looks at a workout that has a couple rounds of 30 or 50 or maybe even 100 double-unders and says, no problem, I got These ropes are about $200. And again, the most expensive part arguably is the handle. If the cable frays, you can replace it. But a very, very, very high quality jump rope intended for folks who have already learned how to do big sets of double unders, ideally using a heavier, cheaper rope. So that is what we would call a speed rope. So that's the wrench.

BUT IT'S USUALLY THE MECHANIC

Now let's talk about the mechanics. because there are a lot of things we can do, a lot of cues we can give that can very quickly make double unders a lot better. The first thing is understanding, again, in a double under, what changes is my hand speed. Jump, spin, spin, jump, spin, spin. It is a double spin of the rope. It is not an increase in my jump rate. A lot of folks, off the ball of their foot. Because in a single-under, we're only clearing the rope once, we can get away with a very small jump and just clear that rope once. We see a lot of boxers do this. You see a lot of people in the gym who have jumped rope a lot in the past do this with single-unders. They can crank out 150 single-unders in one minute with that very fast, low jump. That's not gonna cut it for a double-under. Why? The rope has to pass twice. A lot of athletes in the gym will ask me, I have no problem getting it over the first time, but it gets caught the second time. The answer is yes. The rope has to come back around again twice and you have to be in the air the whole time. That's why it's called a double under. You're trapping the rope on the second time through, which is why you're not getting your double under. How and why are we trapping the rope? Most commonly, is we do not increase our jump height, we just now try to jump even faster. All we're gonna do there is trap the second pass of the rope that much more quickly. We're just getting more efficient at bad double-unders. We need to consider a smaller, taller, slower jump. We should practice single-unders on the ball of our foot, and we should practice a little bit taller jump, but not try to pick up our legs not jump speed. If you correspondingly increase your jump speed, you're going to trip because you're now trying to basically get in rhythm and jump twice for two rope swings. That doesn't make sense. Keep your jump speed the same. Stay tall, vertical on the ball of your foot, and jump a little bit higher. Practice single-unders that way. When you can begin to turn over 50 or 100 single-unders like that, now you know you have the jump height, the jump speed, to be able to begin to turn over double unders. Remember, wrist speed, not jump speed, and stay on the ball of your foot. A lot of folks will do some really dramatic stuff to get that rope over twice, and they will land on their heel. Again, the rope has to pass twice. If you land on your heel, there is no physical way that rope can pass under your foot for its second time through. You're going to track the rope underneath your foot. So small, short, sorry, tall, vertical jump.

PRACTICING & DRILLING DOUBLE-UNDERS

Make sure we're practicing wrist speed. A penguin drill is a great drill to give people, to have them practice maybe what's a new jump height and cadence for them. And at the top of their jump, have them slap their thighs twice to imitate the double flick of the jump rope. You'll find a lot of athletes who think they should be able to do double-unders, struggle a lot with that drill. They're used to that short, very fast jump cadence for single-unders. Asking them to slow down and jump a little bit higher wrecks them. It also messes them up mentally when now they have to focus on actually doing something with their hands. You'll find they're probably not as ready for double-unders as they thought they were. So double-unders, not magic, just physics. We are creating force across a lever, the handle of the jump rope. We're holding it as low as possible. We're trying to create rotational force where the rope meets the handle at the bearing. We're holding it as low with as loose of a grip as we can. We're thinking about flicking the wrist, not spinning the shoulders. Sometimes it is the wrench. Make sure the rope is the correct length. Make sure newer athletes who are beginning to experiment with double unders use a heavier rope, something three, four, maybe five ounces, and that we reserve those speed ropes for once we're actually able to string together bigger sets of double unders with a heavier rope.

PROGRESSIVELY OVERLOADING DOUBLE UNDERS

The final thing is how to progress these. A lot of folks want to be able to do more unbroken sets, Can you just practice more sets of double unders? Yes. The key thing though is that we practice that. We don't try to do it in the middle of the workout under an extreme amount of cardiovascular fatigue and that we consider double unders no different than a back squat or a clean and jerk or a deadlift. That we take principles of progressive overload and we carry it over to our body weight, cardiovascular stuff, especially higher scale, like double unders. How do we do that? Things like a Zeus Rope. or a drag rope are great. A drag rope is literally climbing rope with handles. It has, you can see the same handles as some of the other jump ropes I've shown you. The only difference now, there is no handle spin. The only way I'm going to rotate this rope is by being really aggressive and really fast with my hands. This is a nine ounce, I guess you'd call it cable. Again, it's technically just a length of climbing rope. This is nine ounces. So this is 900% heavier than the speed rope. So if I want to get better at double unders where I can look at a workout that has a couple rounds of maybe a hundred double unders and it has some other stuff in there too that's also going to make me tired from a cardiovascular perspective, how do I know when that workout shows up that I can blast through those with my speed rope? Well, when I go back and take class workouts that maybe have small sets of double unders 20 or 30 at a time, I bring my drag rope to class. And I do smaller sets with a heavier, slower rope that continues to progressively overload my double-unders so that when big sets do show up in different workouts, I can handle those no problem with my speed rope. So it takes practice, intentional practice. Folks are always disappointed that they don't magically learn double-unders 18 minutes into a 20-minute AMRAP. That's not how it works. Sometimes it does, but it usually doesn't. Practicing this stuff at home with a cheap jump rope from Rogue that's 20 bucks, practicing 10 minutes a couple times a week is really going to go a long way. I always tell folks when they're practicing double-unders the same way I tell them when they're practicing things like pull-ups. When you're learning to kip, when you're learning that motion, forget about getting your head over the bar. Just learn the rhythm. That's the most important thing you can do. I say the same thing to folks who are going to be going home and practicing double-unders. Don't focus on actually getting the double under. Focus on doing the mechanics correctly. Use a timer so that you're not just in your garage for an hour and you're breaking stuff because you're so frustrated or the neighbors are worried because you threw your jump rope into the street. Set a timer, do as many as you can, and then take a break for two minutes and do a couple sets of that. Make sure that you aren't treating it as a workout, but that you're treating it as practice and that you use different methods once you actually can do double unders. to continue to progressively overload your double unders. So double unders, not magic, physics, make sure your wrench is set up, but make sure your mechanics are dialed in as well. And make sure if you want to get better at these, that you actually spend diligent time to practice and make sure that it's actually practiced and it doesn't turn into a second workout that day. I hope this was helpful. I hope you have a fantastic Friday. If you're going to be at a live course this weekend, we have 10 of them going on, I believe. So I hope you have a fantastic weekend. We'll see you all next time. Bye everybody.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Nov 2, 2023

Dr. Jeff Moore // #LeadershipThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, ICE CEO Jeff Moore discusses the idea that moving into a leadership role requires a shift in mindset from focusing on individual accomplishments and deliverables to prioritizing the building of culture and guiding the team. Jeff emphasizes that one of the hardest things about transitioning into a leadership role is separating your sense of worth from the tangible outcomes of projects. Instead, leaders need to concentrate on steering the team in the right direction and creating an environment that fosters productivity and engagement.

Jeff describes that a true leader's job is not to solve every problem or complete every project themselves. Instead, their role is to provide guidance and support to the team, ensuring that they stay on track and between the "buoys." This means constantly having touch points to build culture and considering where the team should go, as well as where they should not go.

Jeff also highlights the importance of reframing what being productive looks like in a leadership role. It suggests that leaders should focus their energy on three main areas: culture building, organizing and strategizing, and problem-solving. Culture building is described as the leader's top priority, as they need to create an environment that people want to be a part of. Organizing and strategizing involves evaluating when to intervene and when to let capable team members come to their own conclusions. And problem-solving requires knowing when to provide guidance, but not getting caught up in completing the task oneself.

Overall, Jeff suggests that moving into a leadership role requires a shift in mindset from individual achievement to team success.

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

JEFF MOORE

All right team, what's up? Welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. My name is Dr. Jeff Moore, currently serving as a CEO of ICE, and always thrilled to be here on Leadership Thursday, which is always Gut Check Thursday. Let's get right to brass tacks. What's the workout this week? It is ascending squats, but of decreasing challenge, and then the reverse for our gymnastics. So it's gonna look like this, kind of an interesting workout. So it is for time, You're gonna open up with nine overhead squats. That barbell prescribed weight's gonna be 135, 95, so scale accordingly. Paired with 21 pull-ups. Then you're gonna increase your squat number 15, but moving to front squat, same barbell weight. gymnastics going to 15 chest-to-bars and then 21 back squats and then 9 muscle-ups. So you got kind of this 9, 15, 21 climbing a number of a decreasing complexity on the squats and then the opposite 21, 15, 9 as your gymnastics get more challenging. So should be a very interesting workout. Just one time through that for time. All right, regarding upcoming courses, it is all about the certifications this week. So if you have not heard, we launched our entire brand new suite of new and renovated certifications over on ice. So we've got our brand new pelvic certification. We've got our dry needling certification now. The group has launched that advanced course. We have our brand new ortho certification, the endurance athlete certification. on top of a tremendous amount of renovation and facelift on all the other ones. So if you have not browsed our new certification offerings, go to PTOnIce.com. That certification tab is right on the top. Jump in there and look at all those different search. Remember, One thing that separates ice certs from everybody else is live testing is involved in every single one of them. So regardless of which one of those you jump into, there is live testing. We believe that is really what holds the standard. So just know that you will be examined in person to make sure you indeed have the goods before we throw that stamp of approval on your work. So that is what's basically, involving all of our worlds this week is getting all the certifications launched. Hope those really improve not only your skill set next year, but your ability to market effectively that you're a specialist in these areas and really take over your geography and serve your community. So enjoy those certifications, check them out. All right, it is Leadership Thursday.

BREAKING UP WITH DELIVERABLES

We are talking about breaking up with deliverables. A challenging but necessary conversation. Challenging because… There's very few things, especially for really high performers, that is more satisfying than completing a really big project, right? Something you've been working on and chipping away on, very few things feel better than putting a bow on something like that, crossing that off that to-do list that you've been looking at for months as you kind of worked your way through the project, not to mention just delivering a beautiful deliverable. Nothing feels better. The bigger leader you become, the better leader you become, the less you will get to experience this. If your leadership trajectory really takes off, you will literally never, again, get to experience that wonderful feeling of wrapping up a project. The reason for this is it almost never makes sense For you to finish anything, right? Once your job is getting the train on the tracks, your job is approving the project. Your job is saying, you know what? That makes sense to put resources towards that. Considering all the other options available, your job. is figuring out the right combination of people that will maximally effectively take over that job and really bring it to completion as fast as possible and be able to scale it. So is it the right gig? Who are the right people to do it? What resources do they need? How can I collect those in the most cost and time effective manner? Those are your jobs. But once that train is on the tracks, proper delegation should always bring it to the finish line. It would be very rare, very rare, that a task needs your personal involvement end to end. Just because you want it to, doesn't mean it does. In almost every case, your job is going to be saying, yep, that's the right thing that we should do with our resources. These are the right people to make that happen. And here are all the resources they need to be freed up and made available so they can execute properly. Those are all of your jobs. The actual doing of it, the execution, the part you want to do, right? Cause it just, again, feel so wonderful to be a part of creating and finishing something like that is something you should almost always hold yourself back from. Now, I know what you're saying. You're saying, but that's what makes it feel like I've accomplished something. Like getting something to the finish line is what feels rewarding. You have got to reframe if you're truly moving into a leadership role. Like you're going to be organizing and strategizing a number of people that are in your circle and your job is kind of commander in chief. If you're heading in that space in whatever your division might be, you've got to reframe what being productive looks and feels like. You gotta reframe this, and you gotta think about three big buckets where your energy is gonna be going, and none of them are gonna be about bringing a project to execution.

CULTURE BUILDING

The first one is culture building. Your number one job, right, is that glue that keeps everything together, that makes the energy of the organization feel like something that people who are a part of it want to be a part of. Number one is culture building. In every single touchpoint, with another individual in the group is culture building. It doesn't need to accomplish anything, right? These touch points, these little moments of interaction don't need to finish anything. They don't need to accomplish anything. What they accomplish is you understanding each other just a little bit better. What they accomplish is you seeing where the other person's coming from, is a little bit of trust building because you had that moment of connection. They accomplish that. No, it's not finishing anything. This is an infinite game. Culture never has an end point. You never win culture, right? You nurture culture. And it's with every single touch point that you do so. So one of your biggest buckets as a leader is gonna be culture building. And culture building has no conclusion. So you'll never get that feeling of finishing.

INNOVATING

Number two, energy bucket number two is innovation. Time spent pondering solutions is one of your most important jobs. And here's the rub, here's the really uncomfortable part. 90% of your time will be considering solutions that you don't move forward with. You certainly can't finish anything you never start. And 90% of your time is going to be exploring options that don't wind up being the right call. But that is a critical part of your job. There's no way that you can rule down where your resources should go if you don't consider all the options and say no to most of them. So because so much of your time is going to be spent evaluating possibilities that literally never get off the ground because you decide they shouldn't, obviously you won't have any sense of completion there. But yet, if you're not in that role, you will never allocate your resources properly in a way that allows the company to move forward efficiently. Innovation, and namely deciding what shouldn't get off the ground, is a huge spend of your time and has no completion.

PROBLEM SOLVING

And finally, number three is problem solving. One of your key roles as a leader is evaluating when should you intervene. Oftentimes, my number one recommendation there is to restrain yourself, right? To let very capable, high-performing people come to their own conclusions, but be evaluating it from a 30,000 foot view. But you do need to sometimes say, you know what? I'm gonna jump in here. A little bit of restraint is always a good thing, right? But knowing when to jump in is very important. Now, here's the key. When you jump in, you jump in with a couple pieces of information or a little bit of guidance, again, to get the train back on the tracks. What you don't do is follow the train. Right, that's falling right back into that temptation of wanting to get something to completion. That's not your job anymore. Your job is, ooh, this isn't going in the right direction. Watch it, study it, think about it, find your moment, and then jump in and say, team, can I ask that we look at one thing a little bit differently? What are your thoughts here? Okay, now you jump in, you change the energy of that environment, of that project, you get people chiming in as a group, you decide, Oh, this is the one change we've got to make. And then very importantly, you get back out because you've got to go do that somewhere else. If you stay on that ride, you're not getting back over and solving that same problem in seven other spots. The people can handle it. Your job is just to steer, just to get them back in between the buoys and then get out of there. One of the hardest things about truly moving into a leadership role is you've got to divorce your sense of perceived worth from deliverables that you're a part of. Your energy needs to be in constantly having touch points to build culture. Your energy needs to be spent thinking about where should we go and maybe more importantly, where should we not go? Your energy needs to be in and out of different projects when you see an area that your experience or wisdom can nudge people in the right direction and get their momentum built back up before you remove your energy from the scenario. These things never feel done because they never are done. None of those buckets even move closer to a perceived finish line. You just keep nurturing and spinning those plates at all times and never ride any of them to the end.

DIVORCE YOURSELF FROM DELIVERABLES TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF YOUR BUSINESS

You have to divorce yourself from deliverables, otherwise you're never going to take the true position of an effective leader. Give that some thought. I know you're high performers. I know you love finishing projects. I know for many, many, many years that has filled your cup, but it's killing your team. Try to reframe it. Let me know if you have any thoughts. PTOnIce.com. Thanks for being your team. We'll see you next week.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

 

Nov 1, 2023

Dr. Dustin Jones // #GeriOnICE // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Modern Management of the Older Adult division leader Dustin Jones discusses the difference between sarcopenia (the loss of muscle mass) and potentiapenia (the loss of muscular power). Dustin reminds listeners that performing functional outcome measures & then creating a treatment plan based on functional deficits uncovered during assessment is the most important thing in ensuring patients receive the individualized care they need: "Assess, don't assume." Dustin also discusses the utility of using functional outcomes to assess & track progress so that insurers like Medicare will continue to pay for treatment.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about live courses designed to better serve older adults in physical therapy or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - DUSTIN JONES

All right, welcome y'all. This is the PT on ICE Daily Show brought to you by the Institute of Clinical Excellence. My name is Dustin Jones, one of the lead faculty within the older adult division as we call MMOA. We're going to talk today about a really interesting topic. We're going to name the enemy and that is potentiopenia. We're going to name the enemy particularly when we're working with older adults and that is potentiopenia. This is brought to you by a listener question, a commentary that they wrote and I want to dive into the topic of power, strength, Sarcopenia as well. What should we really be focusing on? How can we screen? Before we get into the goods, I want to mention about some upcoming MMOA live courses. MMOA live is a part of the cert MMOA curriculum. Part of that curriculum is a live course. Also our MMOA level one online course, which was formerly called MMOA essential foundations. And then MMOA Level 2, which was formerly called Advanced Concepts. You complete all three, you get your cert MMOA. We have three upcoming weekends where you can go to that live course. We're gonna have Annapolis, Maryland and Central South Carolina. This upcoming weekend, November 11th, we're gonna be in Wappinger's Falls, New York. And then right before Thanksgiving, November 18th, that weekend, we're gonna be in Westmont, Illinois. So if you are looking to get some Con Ed before the end of the year, be sure to check us out. PTOnIce.com is where you can find all that.

POTENTIAPENIA

All right, so naming the enemy, potentiopenia. So this is a term you probably have never heard about because it's not been coined, it's not been researched, it's not been agreed upon in literature. This is a word that was made up by Dr. Ronald Michalak. So Dr. Michalak is an orthopedic surgeon that's been practicing for roughly 20 plus years that has quitting his surgical practice to go back and pursue his PhD in Rehabilitation Science. Dr. Michalak is an avid listener to the PT on ICE Daily Show, so I want to take the time to shout out to him, but also for all of y'all that listen to this show that aren't our typical physical therapy crowd, right? The OTs, the speech-language pathologists, the other healthcare providers. I know we have some PAs, some NPs in here, but we're really grateful for y'all tuning in because we're starting to see we have a fitness-forward army clinicians that are trying to solve the same problems. This is one example. So Dr. Mitchell like you know 20 plus years doing orthopedic surgery you start to see some patterns right? You start to see the issues with focusing on the tissue, right? Of focusing on, oh, that bone-on-bone, we should probably just go ahead and replace that whole joint, and that will solve all your problems, right? There's some issues to that, that when we focus so much on the anatomy, the structure, that we apply surgical interventions to non-surgical problems, that creates issues, right? And so over his career, he started to see, man, the biggest issue is not the quote-unquote bone-on-bone, it's the fact that these folks are deconditioned, they're weak, they're not able to do the things that they want to do and it leaves them susceptible to some of these medical situations that I'm often performing surgery on. What can I do to prevent them from even having surgery? And so we started to dig into the research and science and what he has come to the conclusion of is we are really missing the boat to where we're focusing on the wrong things and what we need to focus on particularly with this population is their lack of power. hence the term potentiopenia, the lack of muscular power. So, I want to give some context for this discussion because I think it's really interesting of how much progress has been made in this area, particularly in geriatrics and geriatric rehabilitation.

SARCOPENIA

So, sarcopenia, you've heard us talk about this so many times on the PT on ICE Daily Show. If you've taken any of the MMOA courses, you've heard this term. Sarcopenia was first coined in 1989 by Dr. Rosenberg, and at the time, the definition, the accepted definition of sarcopenia was age-related loss of muscle mass. That we thought, oh man, these folks are losing muscle mass, therefore, they are losing their strength, they are losing their ability to do what they need to do. This is a big issue. It's age-related, but we may be able to do something about it. As this was studied more and more, and just this whole concept, was being critically you know thought about that the term of sarcopenia or the definition of sarcopenia was missing a little bit right because you can have someone that is losing muscle mass but may still be really strong or you may have someone that does have a good bit of muscle mass that is rather weak or they're not able to produce their force quickly aka they have low power So, in 2008, Dr. Clark really started to push against this definition of sarcopenia and say, hey, this isn't the issue. The issue is the lack of strength, the age-related loss of muscular strength. And he coined the term dynopenia. That was a back and forth, back and forth. And now in terms of the term of sarcopenia, what we're seeing is that it's starting to incorporate some of the things that Dr. Clark really was pushing for. And now you're often going to see sarcopenia defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. That's what we speak to in the MMA course. And so a lot of the screens that you're seeing of being able to identify folks that have sarcopenia are mass related screens of actually measuring muscle mass and having cutoffs based on certain age groups and so on and so forth. But then there's also functional measures, right? Gait speed is one, grip strength is another one, the SPPB, the short physical performance battery test can indicate that someone is at risk of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia has changed a ton over the past few decades. Now, what's interesting is that the amount of research, which is so massive in this particular topic, that we have really good evidence to show, man, if this person scores below one meter per second, for example, on the gait speed, that this individual is at risk of sarcopenia, also a host of negative health outcomes. It's very predictive. We have a lot of data to show that poor performance on some of these outcome measures is a big issue and very predictive and warrants medical treatment or physical therapy, if you will, or occupational therapy, some of these rehabilitation-based services. Now, here's the issue. Here's what I think Dr. Michalak is going towards, is a lot of these screens that have been used to say, hey, this person has sarcopenia, age-related muscle mass and strength, that these screens may not actually be measuring what we think, right? If you think about gait speed, normal gait speed, for example, is that a measure of strength? Not really, right? Is it a measure of, let's say, power, the ability to produce that strength quickly? Potentially, right? Definitely, if it's a fast gait speed, or if we're looking at gait speed reserve, the difference between max gait speed and normal gait speed. Think about the 30 second sit to stand test, where we're standing up and sitting down 30 times. Is that a measure of strength? You can make a strong argument that, no, not necessarily, but it's more of a measure of how people can use that strength quickly to perform that transfer. Same thing could be said for the five times sit to stand. And so these outcome measures that are often tied to quote-unquote sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, isn't really measuring that. We can say that those tests are very predictive of some of these negative health outcomes. That's not what we're talking about. What we're talking about is do these tests actually measure, indicate what they're saying that they measure, right? Now, here's the, I think the important part about this is that if I am performing a five-time sit-to-stand test or a 30-second sit-to-stand test and think that, oh, this indicates that this person has impaired lower extremity strength and I focus on strength-based interventions, right, I'm just worried about getting them stronger, not necessarily trying to help them get stronger, produce force quicker, aka power.

THE NEGLECT OF POWER-BASED TRAINING

And so what Dr. Michalak is really proposing is that our focus on age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, the focus on strength has resulted in the neglect of power-based training. We need to really think differently about these terms and ultimately what they result in. I think we should have a new term, potentiapenia. That was his argument. This is all in a beautiful commentary that I loved reading that I'm going to link in the notes. So here's our take on this. I agree that… we have really dropped the ball on power-based training, right? That we often neglect that in this population for many reasons. One is just we haven't named the enemy as one. Two is that we often have ageist assumptions about what people can handle, right? That, oh, that's too intense for them or they will get hurt. It's not as well studied as strength-based training. There's a lot of reasons that go into that, but I do agree that we have really dropped the ball there. A new term, creating a new term, and everything that's associated with that, I don't know if that's the answer, but I do think we need to continue to be critical of the term sarcopenia and what that actually represents. It's already changed to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, which is lovely, and I would love to see that conversation continue to include power as well. Clinically, here's what I think is really important for us when we think about some of these deficits that folks are undergoing and we're throwing around some of these terms.

STRENGTH VS. POWER TRAINING

I think the big thing that needs to be focused is we're diving into the weeds of strength versus power and you know reps and sets and volume and all that type of stuff that when first one is when we're working with individuals that are relatively sedentary or inactive and Movement is king. I don't care what they do. The fact that they are moving is ultimately important, right? We got to get people moving first and we need to be less picky of what that looks like, especially with sedentary and active individuals. That's the first thing. The second thing is we need to really think about our assessments and challenge our assumptions with this. This is why in our courses we always say assessments over assumptions. It's very easy for us as clinicians, when you're doing an assessment, you're doing the five-time sit-to-stand test, 30-second sit-to-stand test, to assume, oh, this person needs to do more lower extremity-based strength training, right? That's a very common thing for us to correlate. Now, that test may not be and probably isn't testing pure strength, right? There's other ways to do that. One rep max testing, estimated one rep max testing. We can use dynamometry as well. There's other methods to test strength. These functional and very practical outcome measures may be more a testament to someone's power ability. So when we use these tests, particularly the 30 seconds sit to stand, five times sit to stand, I think is a great example. that we need to be thinking probably about strength training, but we also need to be thinking about power training. Can they produce that force quickly? Because it ultimately is an indicator of power, the ability to produce that force quickly and do that transfer. So what your outcome measures tell you, we need to be very careful of how that informs the intervention, right? And ultimately what we're often going to find, I think this is not an or conversation, strength training or power training, in the realm of ice, you will hear this so often, it is and not or, right? Probably both, strength and power, we can do both. In reality, when we do get people stronger, you often see, especially in folks that are untrained, you are gonna see an improvement in power production. You could do specific power training, where you're doing force movements quickly, you're probably using lighter loads, and you're probably gonna see an improvement in strength, right? That's gonna happen with a lot of untrained individuals. But I think in the context of rehab, in the context especially of One Rep Max Living, that we probably want to do both. Heavy loads are really good. Heavy loads provide an amazing stimulus to promote muscle mass, our strength, but also the strength of our bones, also our soft tissue remodeling. It makes us more resilient individuals. But fast loads are really good too, right? They give us that type 2 muscle fiber stimulation to prevent some of that preferential decline. in those fibers. That quick speed is so practical for so many things that we do in the real world and also in high-risk situations. It's an and conversation. We want to do both. Now, Dr. Mitchell, I had two specific questions that I also wanted to hit on. Could referrals be written or phrased better from the physician end to encourage PTs to try to help get these individuals moving toward fitness? Now, I want everyone to listen here, and by and large, the PT on ICE Daily shows largely physical therapists, physical therapy assistants. Think about what this physician just asked. This physician is basically saying, where are my fitness forward clinicians, right? Where are my fitness forward clinicians? Where are the people that I can trust with my patients? I love this question. I think from our angle, from kind of the rehab fitness side of things, Let it be known. What are you about? Lock arms, lock shields with us, the ICE tribe, the ones that are really pushing this fitness forward message because there are healthcare providers looking for you. Now, Dr. Mitchell, from the physician's standpoint, I do think it is helpful to make it clear as a physician that you have that fitness forward approach. And oftentimes, we don't see that on referrals, right? It's the diagnosis and treat, which you love as a PT, to be honest, but if you do run a 30 second sit to stand and acknowledge that it is under or below a particular cutoff let it be known and let it be known what you are thinking about that it is a potential loss of power production potential right and let the PT do the job of assessing to determine is this a bigger power issue or a bigger issue of just producing force of strength.

FUNCTION-FORWARD HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS

But let it be known, I love it whenever I see another healthcare provider perform some type of screen, like a 30 second sit to stand, a timed up and go is another one, that tells me that this is a function focused healthcare provider. And we're speaking the same language, especially when we're coming from the MLA tribe. We speak function, we speak that fitness forward mindset, include some of that information and that's really going to get the point across particularly to the fitness for clinicians. I would also say Dr. Michalak is go to PTOnIce.com, look at the find an ice clinician map and build relationships with that person that is local. The second question that he asked was, are there any insights into Medicare billing or reimbursement that would allow them to do so and actually get paid for their expertise? So the question here is mainly looking at, he's interacted with some PTs where he sent the referral that was not pain based, where these clinicians said, I can't get this covered, right? I treat pain, I get paid to treat pain. That is not correct, right? So you can definitely get reimbursed to have the fitness forward approach when you use appropriate outcome measures. When you can demonstrate medical necessity through the performance of these validated outcome measures that we cover extensively in our MMOA level one online course, and a little bit as well in our MOA live course, when we're using those outcome measures to demonstrate, hey, this person has a score, which based on the literature is showing that they are at a higher risk of whatever, negative health outcome, usually it's a fall, that that warrants your services. It is medically necessary. So we can have fitness-forward physical therapy. This is what we often see in the context of home health. We treat more function than pain in the context of home health. Outpatient, not so much. It's more of a pain driver, but you can still have a fitness-forward approach in the context of outpatient. These outcome measures are absolutely key because they demonstrate medical necessity. Multiple outcome measures I should say great conversation. So what I want y'all to do if you like this topic I want you to come to Instagram and I'm gonna drop a couple links. You could also send me a direct message At Dustin Jones dot DPT and I'll send you the links as well because it's a really great conversation. I think by and large Yes, we need to get people stronger We're already really pushing forward with that and I love that but we may need to take it to the next level of power based training In terms of a new name, potentiopenia, I don't know. I'll let the really smart people debate that and discuss that, but I'm going to keep pushing the message that we need to build people's resilience. We need to end one rep max living and really show that people may be quote unquote old, but not weak. Also that they may be quote unquote old and not slow. Y'all have a good rest of your Wednesday. I'll talk to you soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 31, 2023

Dr. Jordan Berry // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Spine Division lead faculty member Jordan Berry as he discusses the reverse hyperextension exercise as the go-to exercise for the low back. The reverse hyperextension provides a decompressive effect on the spine, often reducing symptoms, while simultaneously allowing for strengthening & mobility through the full range of motion of spinal extension & flexion.

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Lumbar Spine Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

JORDAN BERRY

Good morning, PT on Ice Daily Show. This is Jordan Berry, Lead Faculty for Cervical and Lumbar Spine Management Courses. Coming at you on Clinical Tuesday, we are chatting today about why the reverse hyper is king. We love the reverse hyper when we're either building strength in the back, trying to modify symptoms and pain in the back, but we're gonna talk about today about all the different exercises and machines, equipment that we have in the clinic when we're talking about the lumbar spine, why the reverse hyper is king. Before we get into that, just a couple upcoming courses. We've got a few spine courses left before the end of the year. So if you're trying to catch cervical spine management, you've got two options left this year. You've got November 11 and 12 is going to be in Bridgewater, Massachusetts right outside of Boston. And then we also have December 2nd and 3rd out in Hendersonville, Tennessee. So two options left for cervical spine. If you're trying to catch lumbar before the end of the year, you've got three options. You've got Fort Worth, Texas coming up November 4th and 5th. And then two options, December 2nd and 3rd. We've got Charlotte, North Carolina, and then Helena, Montana. So a few options left before the end of the year. We've got a ton of dates on the books already for 2024. So hoping to see you at one of those live courses either before the end of the year or maybe sometime in 2024. So let's dive into the content today.

THE REVERSE HYPEREXTENSION

So again, chatting about the reverse hyper and why the reverse hyper is king. So let's define king to start with. So when I think about an exercise, ideally it would do three things. So it would do a combination of reducing someone's pain, improving the mobility in the lumbar spine, and then building strength and endurance in their back as well. Like if I had one exercise that could do those three things, that's what I would consider king. So reducing pain, improving mobility and building strength and endurance all at the same time. And so yes, there are multiple techniques and exercises that we have that are incredible for reducing low back pain. but they don't do an awesome job at improving someone's mobility or strength. And then we've got exercises that are awesome for range of motion. However, they don't do a good job at reducing pain. And then of course we have some awesome exercises for building capacity and building strength in the lumbar spine, but maybe they don't do a lot for improving range of motion. What I'm saying is the reverse hyper is the king of all three of those if you package that up into one exercise. And so to start with, If you're not familiar with the Reverse Hyper, I would say YouTube it or look it up or try to find one even better and test it out in person. But if you're not familiar with that machine, there's a, essentially you're laying on a platform. So it's elevated a few feet in the air, almost looks like a GHD machine, but you're laying across it and you're holding it with handles in the front. So your torso's laid out on the area. and then your legs are essentially hanging off the side of it. So the pad that you're laying on hits right around the hip crease, legs are laying off the machine, and then it's plate loaded. So you have this pendulum underneath that you can load with weight, load with plates, and then the strap goes around the lower leg. And the exercise is essentially just contracting the posterior chain. So you're lifting the legs up and down, And then it's taking your lumbar spine through full flexion and full extension. And again, hard to explain verbally, um, on the podcast, but look it up on YouTube, um, get out to a gym that has one and test it out. But I want to talk about the three reasons why I think this exercise is king.

STRENGTHENING THROUGH THE FULL RANGE OF MOTION

So the first one is it's strengthening through full range of motion. Now, if we're just talking about building capacity and strength in the lumbar spine, no argument, the deadlift is king. The deadlift is an incredible exercise for building strength and capacity in the posterior chain. However, the deadlift doesn't utilize a lot of range of motion in the lumbar spine. Like, when we coach the deadlift, what we want to see is essentially straight lines. Straight lines or strong lines. So, we coach it to have a neutral spine position throughout, so the lift is more efficient, right? But, we're not actually utilizing a lot of range of motion for the lumbar spine. And we would never treat another joint like this. So, you know, if you're only utilizing hip hinge type of movements, then you're missing a ton of range of motion. And think about treating an Achilles tendon or rotator cuff. We would never utilize just a very small amount of the range of motion. We always talk about strengthening through the full range of motion. So why is the spine any different? So the reverse hyper, as you kick those legs up and down, right, you're taking the lumbar spine through full flexion and full extension. and you know an exercise similar to the Jefferson Curl in a way where we're utilizing a lot of range of motion of the spine but Jefferson Curl is much easier to cheat on because if you have really good posterior chain mobility then you can essentially do one massive hip hinge on the way down. And it looks like you're really utilizing lumbar flexion, but you're not. The reverse hyper, because you're locked in laying on the pad, it's much harder to cheat. And so we love this exercise for strengthening through the entirety of the range of motion.

DECOMPRESSIVE EFFECT

Now, second, there's what we call a decompressive effect. So on the actual reverse hyper machine, not a variation on the actual machine, you have this pendulum weight underneath that is plate loaded. And as you lift the legs up and down, that plate swings pretty far under. And so as you're flexing the low back, because the weight is underneath and has some momentum to it, you almost get this decompressive traction like effect. Now, why this is so awesome is this exercise can work for someone who has almost any levels of irritability. So, for high levels of irritability, like when someone's back is really jacked up and they have a lot of pain, it can sometimes be challenging to find an exercise that relieves symptoms and feels really nice. And you'll be surprised to find that for those individuals that can't tolerate other forms of exercise, they will really like the Reverse Hyper. And even the heavier you go on it, the better it feels sometimes because it's more weight underneath that is almost tractioning the spine. And in my mind, what I think is happening here is we're essentially creating a pump. So when we have that pressure gradient that we're creating, when you contract and relax and contract and relax, And that pressure gradient is going to essentially pump fluid and water into the lumbar spine. And I think about the couple of research articles that we referenced in lumbar management, they're both from Paul Beatty, 2010 and 2014. And he's looking at diffusion weighted MRI. And in the first study, we're looking at interventions like prone press-ups and lumbar PA mobilization. Second study four years later, lumbar spine thrust manipulation. But what they found in both studies is the individuals that had a significant symptom reduction, so a massive pain reduction, following the intervention, we saw an increase in hydration, the diffusion coefficient, in the discs in the lumbar spine. So essentially the discs brought in fluid, brought in water content, and that matched up to who had a significant reduction in pain. What do I think is a massive, massive pump that we could utilize in the clinic? It is the reverse hyper. So I can't prove that there's no research for that, but I would love to see something like that in the future. But I really believe that's what's happening is one of the ways that we're reducing symptoms is the diffusion coefficients. We're creating that pressure gradient is drawing in fluid to the lumbar spine and helping to reduce pain. I think that's why some individuals they have pretty high levels of pain, pretty high severity, are able to tolerate that type of exercise.

SCALING THE REVERSE HYPEREXTENSION

And then lastly, the third reason why the reverse hyper is king is it's easily scalable. So yes, the actual reverse hyper machine, the official true reverse hyper machine is a bit harder to find in commercial gyms, but there's a scalable option for pretty much anyone. You know, you could regress it anything from a GHD machine where you're on the backside of it. So you're holding with your hands where the feet would go and lifting the legs up and down. You could throw a band around the bottom of it and have some banded resistance. We could utilize just a bench. We could either lie on the bench and so the end of the bench would hit the hip crease and have our legs hanging off. Or we could go on top of a physio ball on the bench to get more of the curve in the lumbar spine that mimics the true machine. Or something as simple as just holding something at home. Like sometimes in the clinic for my clients that don't have a lot of equipment at home, I'll have them just lay across our coffee table or a bed or some sort of table that they have where the edge of the table hits the hip crease and they can just lift their legs up and down in its simplest form. It's an awesome exercise for, again, not only increasing range of motion, reducing pain, but also building strength and endurance in the lumbar spine. So there's pretty much a variation for anyone where you can mimic this type of movement.

CONS OF THE REVERSE HYPEREXTENSION

The pushback with the reverse hyper over the last few years has really been two things. Number one is the cost. The traditional reverse hyper machines were a couple thousand dollars and they took up a significant amount of space. So if real estate is an issue in the clinic, a lot of the old reverse hyper machines took up the space of about a squat rack. And so because of that, not a lot of gyms and not a lot of physical therapy clinics utilize that. But thankfully, a lot of companies are solving that issue. A couple companies like Rogue and Titan and a couple smaller ones are now making reverse hypers that are not only significantly cheaper, but are more compact as well. Some of them even fold up. So they take up pretty much no real estate in the clinic. So because of that, That is why we think the Reverse Hyper is the king of exercises for the lumbar spine. So again, there are exercises that yes, might be best for pain, might be best for building range of motion, might be best for building strength for any N equals one. But I'm arguing if you gave me one exercise that could do all three, I'm taking the Reverse Hyper all day. That's what I've got team. Thanks so much for taking a few minutes to listen. I would love to hear some thoughts on this. So if you're utilizing the reverse hyper, either in your personal training, um, just from a performance standpoint, or if you're utilizing it, um, in the rehab setting, I would love to hear comments, how you're using it, what you think about it. Um, drop those in the comments and, uh, and we'll chat about it. But other than that team have an awesome Tuesday in the clinic. Um, if you're coming to a cervical or lumbar course in the future, I will see you soon. Thanks team.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 30, 2023

Dr. Jessica Gingerich // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member Jessica Gingerich discusses simple, but often overlooked interventions for treating patients with symptoms of pelvic prolapse including the Kegel, unilateral hip strengthening, and proper breathing & bracing.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - JESSICA GINGERICH

Welcome to PT on Ice Daily Show. My name is Dr. Jessica Gingerich and I am on faculty here at Ice with the Pelvic Division, which means that it is Monday again. We are getting super close to Halloween. I'm really excited. I'm definitely a Halloween girly. Today we are going to talk about what may be missing during the plan of care when it comes to prolapse. So this is another hot and relatively scary topic for a lot of mamas, but also for a lot of clinicians in this space. So we're going to talk about a few housekeeping items before we get started. We are currently in our last cohort of the year for the online course. This is something we are gonna put the pedal down come January. We've got a lot of exciting things coming up. So if you have not signed up for this course, head over to ptonice.com, just sign up. We also have a few more courses, live courses, to round out the year. So, if you're looking to dial in your internal assessment with that kind of higher level population, that athletic population, head over to PTOnIce to sign up there as well. My hope after this podcast is that you guys want that. You want to sign up for that live course. You want to dial in your internal assessment, dial in your interventions, and just guns a-blazin' out in this population. For those of you in the ICE Students Facebook group, you will hear more about the revamped certifications from Jeff tonight. Otherwise, stay tuned to Hump Day Hustlin' emails for details. So if you haven't signed up for Hump Day Hustlin' emails, again, that's all on the website. It's free. We just want to get out as much information to you guys as we possibly can. So we have some really fun new certifications coming up that Jeff is gonna dive into later tonight. So as we begin our PT careers, a lot of us prefer a specific population, right? We want to treat the older adult, the pregnant person, et cetera. We want to dial in our skills. And we love to see that, right? Like that, I love that. I want to get really good at that one thing. I want to go to the provider that is that provider. I am the person that you want to see if you are experiencing X, Y, and Z. We hear that a lot as faculty, especially in the pelvic space is, you know, well, I only want to kind of treat this type, this, the urinary incontinence or, you know, low back pain. And as a faculty, we've all kind of experienced those same thoughts and feelings. Again, it's intimidating when you get into this space. Well, we quickly learned that you can't just pick and choose. If you have someone that's experiencing urinary incontinence, they also are likely experiencing something else as well. If you are in the pelvic space, you're going to see all things.

PELVIC PROLAPSE

The ones that are at the top of the list, at least that we hear about as faculty, are the ones that are scary are pelvic pain and prolapse. So today we're going to focus on treating prolapse and specifically what we may be missing in our plan of care. It is going to be outside of the scope of this podcast to talk about the assessment of, um, like the subjective or objective assessment of prolapse. So if you are unfamiliar or you feel like you're just kind of shaky on this, again, that live course is waiting for you. Once we know the pelvic floor is strong or weak, or that it's a timing issue, or that they may or may not be tender to palpation internally or externally. And when I say externally, I mean hips as well. And that they may or may not have objective signs of prolapse. we then get to develop our plan of care. Now notice that I said may or may not because these clinical patterns are not identical. You will see so many different clinical patterns when it comes to symptoms of prolapse. So let's just say your patient comes in with feelings of heaviness, pressure, or dragging, and it feels like they may be sitting on something. That's something how they're describing it. When they're in the shower, they feel, as they're bathing, they may feel something physically. The heaviness gets worse after they have a bowel movement, void, go to the gym, or have been on their feet all day. So what's your next plan of action? Well, first and foremost, we wanna encourage you guys to stop focusing on the biomechanical components of a prolapse. Of course, there is that person or that type of prolapse. We're maybe talking about surgery. That does happen, but it doesn't happen without needing that pre-physical therapy, the stuff that they're doing beforehand, getting stronger, learning how to poop and pee. learning how to brace. So all of this stuff is still happening, even if surgery is part of the discussion. So first and foremost, let's stop focusing on the biomechanical components. Let's start focusing on the symptoms. So understanding what makes the pressure heaviness better, what makes it worse. Can we, part of their plan of care, ramp up the things that make it feel better and ramp down the things that make it feel worse? That has to be followed with this is not gonna be your forever. This is not gonna be you never doing that thing because it ramps up your symptoms and always having to like sit and be immobile because it ramps down your symptoms. We have to think about this on an irritability scale just like we do with pain. We have to be able to bring down their irritability, so then we can make them better by loading them. So now that we know that, I'm gonna give you four points to go home with today that are great points to start with. When you have that person come in with a script that says pelvic organ prolapse, or doesn't say that, it says pelvic pain, but then you start asking them questions and you're like, hmm, they may have symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse.

REMEMBER THE KEGEL

We have to remember the Kegel. This is number one, the Kegel. It has gotten so much hate over the past few years, especially on social media. I don't think that was anyone's intent to just say never do Kegels, but it matters. Teach your client how to do a Kegel. Lift and squeeze, shut off the holes, come to the attic. But we have to remember the relaxation component to the Kegel. Teach them how. to relax. Have them focus on this. A lot of times people feel like they can multitask a cubicle. If they are new to this and they don't know and they didn't even know they had a pelvic floor, they need to go in a room where it's quiet with no kiddos running around and focus on the up and the down component of a cubicle. Something that I love to say in the clinic is the relaxation component of a Kegel is sometimes more important than the contraction. Everyone always thinks we need to go up, up, up, up, up. And when I say everyone, I mean typically our clients. And they forget that this actually has to happen as well. Or, not that they didn't forget, but they think that they may be in that relaxed position and they're not. and that's where that internal palpation can be golden. Again, people tend to focus on the contraction, so being constantly contracted can also lead to symptoms of heaviness. So maybe their symptoms of heaviness are coming from this versus actually symptoms of prolapse.

UNILATERAL HIP STRENGTHENING

Number two, single-sided hip strengthening. get their hips stronger, always, but even here, get their hips stronger. And I don't mean with a TheraBand. Throw it out. If you want to warm them up with it, great. But we've got so many options. Step downs, step ups, we've got single leg RDLs, we've got variations of that. We have Core stuff that we can do, like the options are endless. We can do side planks, we can do hip thrusters. Don't forget about strengthening their hips.

INSTRUCTING THE BRACE

Number three, teach them how to brace. Symptoms of heaviness can happen due to faulty bracing strategies. Bracing is not only for lifting heavy either. We need to prepare mom for the demand of life. And mom is holding Johnny who has a runny nose and she's trying to wipe his nose and he's flinging his head back. She's going to be bracing her core and she's not even gonna think about it. So let's prepare her for that. Number four is find and encourage frequent rest positions that ease or make their symptoms go away. This could be lying on their back. This could be seated, this could be laying on their stomach, it could be leaning over the counter, anything that makes their symptoms ease. Again, follow this up with this is not forever, this is a for now, we wanna get those symptoms, the symptom irritability down. And once we get those symptoms down, what can we do? Everything that we just talked about in one through three. So to recap, find the symptom aggravators, find the things that make their symptoms go away or ease. There may be multiple clinical patterns to prolapse-related symptoms. Prolapse can be scary to a lot of women. It is, if they've Googled it, they are gonna come in wide-eyed, or if the doctors told them that, there might be tears. But it can also be really scary to clinicians if we don't know how to treat this. You have four places to start. The Kegel. Gets a lot of hate, but we need to start using it. Don't forget about the hip. The hip muscles are gonna be supporting structures to the pelvic floor. Bracing is not only used for heavy lifting, and using positions that ease symptoms to lower irritability, which will increase our loading capacity. That is it. Start there. So team, I hope this helps. I hope you have a great week and enjoy your Halloween and we'll see you next time.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 27, 2023

Dr. Mitch Babcock // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Fitness Athlete lead faculty Mitch Babcock discusses how to approach setting up at a competitive event, including looking the part, preparing to capture leads, and knowing what is possible in the context of a short session with a potential patient.

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn from our Clinical Management of the Fitness Athlete division, check out our live physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses. Check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - MITCH BABCOCK

All right, here we are. Good morning, everyone. Welcome to the PT on ICE Daily Show. I'm your host on Fitness Athlete Friday. I'm Mitch Babcock, lead faculty in the online Essential Foundations Level 1, Level 2 courses and our live Fitness Athlete course on the road where we do all things barbell in your hands all weekend long. I'm pleased to be joining you guys this beautiful Friday before Halloween here, October 27th. And my apologies for nine minutes behind the clock as our CrossFit hour this morning was jamming and ran a little bit long. Today's topic is something that we derived off the ICE Students page. So shout out to all of you that are active on the ICE Students Facebook page. We always appreciate the engagement, the questions, the comments, the thought. It spurs topics like these. You don't even know what kind of good info may come from a question that you pose on the ICE Students Facebook page. So thanks for being a part of that to everyone.

01:18 - THE ART OF THE 10 MINUTE EXPOSURE

The topic today is the art of the 10 minute exposure. We're talking about, hey, someone posted a question of, I have an opportunity to set up at a local CrossFit gym or a CrossFit competition that's going on. And I want to know what should I do? Should I treat for free? What should I be doing? How long should I be doing it? And so we want to talk around that concept today of like, let's say you have 10 minutes with a free prospective client and you're trying to win them over in that fitness athlete space. What are some things that you need to be doing and doing well? And so that's going to be our topic of discussion today. And just before I dive into that, I do want to let you know that next weekend November 4th and 5th. Both Zach and myself are gonna be out on the road. Zach's gonna be in Hoover, Alabama, and I'm gonna be in San Antonio, Texas. Team, we are running out of dates to catch the live course at the end of 2023, so if you were hoping to wrap up that cert, or you wanted to hit that course and get dialed in on all your barbell dosage, treatment, refinement, everything, there's like a total of three weekends left at the end of the year. Anna Marie Island just sold out, so that one's off the map now in Florida. Shout out to everyone that's gonna be in Florida. We got Colorado Springs, we got Hoover, Alabama, and we got San Antonio, Texas. So if you want to catch us next weekend, we've got two dates. Check the PT Online's website and we will see you there at those courses. Okay, let's paint the picture. You are a newly minted business owner of your own. You've started your own practice, maybe in a CrossFit gym or near one. And you're looking to do this fitness athlete thing on the out of network side of things. And you want to anchor your ship tight to a CrossFit community in your town, which is smart. And you have an opportunity now to go to a CrossFit competition, market yourself, get your name out there, your business exposure, all of that. What should you focus on? I wanna start with looking the part.

05:07 - PHYSICALLY LOOKING THE PART

Aesthetically, physically, from a business perspective, from a clothing perspective, all of the above. That if you're gonna go into this environment, that you need to pull up on the right horse. I don't want you showing up to a biker rally on a scooter and thinking like, I don't know why I didn't blend in with this culture, this community, right? Humans still operate on that first impression basis. That is still a key component. Those first three seconds that someone looks at you, sees you, makes all these internal assessments on what your business is like, what kind of information they can gather from you, what kind of expert you are. We have to respect that first impression and we have to bring our best foot forward. So let's start with your setup. your nice pop-up table, right? Whatever that is, they're cheap on Amazon, you can get a nice brand new table for 100 bucks, it's black top, looks good. Go on Vistaprint or Banner Buzz or one of these websites that will print out a nice custom fit tablecloth that will stretch over an eight foot pop-up table that has your business logo branded across the front of it. So you've got your treatment table and you've got a nice table up front that's going to hold all your brochures or anything else that you have on it. Marketing materials wise, that's a very nice printed stretch fit cover. You're going to invest a couple hundred dollars into having those things ready at any event you go to and market. 5k races, CrossFit events, whatever, right? Tent or not, really doesn't matter. Indoor comp, outdoor comp, you may wanna invest in a little pop-up tent, but let's just assume you're set up inside and you don't need to worry about that. You've got your treatment table, you've got a table up front. You need to personally look the part as well. And I don't just mean the clothes you wear, and yes, I do mean the clothes you wear, but I also mean physically. You need to physically look the part. If you're going in here and working with fitness-forward athletes, you should look the part like you train from a fitness-forward approach yourself. If you're not there yet, and you're trying to inject yourself into that community, anticipate a hard ramp up, right? You need to look like you work out, you train, you've exercised, you do CrossFit, you have some calluses on your hands, that you can speak to the expertise that these athletes are expecting you to have. That is just a cold truth that no one really wants to admit and talk about. If you can't tell the person in front of you how many burpees you do in seven minutes, you're probably not ready to set up at a CrossFit comp yet. Your personal expertise probably has some developmental work to be done on the back end prior to you setting up and going out there and being like, yeah, I can solve all your problems for you. I know exactly what you're going through. So get yourself dialed in from a physical perspective. Two, get your wardrobe updated, right? Do not roll into a CrossFit comp rocking that same polo that worked in the in-network setting and the khaki pants that you wore Monday through Friday. We're not in that setting anymore, right? So invest a few hundred bucks into a nice clinic wardrobe that looks good. Some nice athletic pants, joggers, whatever. Black always goes well. And get yourself a nice top and take it to your local screen printing place and have your business logo screened on the top of it. everyone's wearing the cotton freaking t-shirts with their low company logo on it but not everybody's wearing that that next level nice t-shirt whether that's lulu or whatever you go and you buy your stuff from you get that nice t-shirt you get your company logo on it it just stands out it just looks a little bit better a little bit more professional and a leg up on the competition you're going to business suspense that stuff anyways you might as well get a shirt you like you feel good you look good in and go get your company branded on the front of it So step one, looking the part. Both your setup, your table, your banner, your clothing, right? And physically looking like you train and you exercise and you know what you're talking about when it comes to this stuff. Two, Treat for free. Everyone's talking about should I charge people at these comps. I say that you're there to gain exposure. You're there to convert people back to your clinic. You want them to come to your operation. So you need to funnel everything through that filter. Everything needs to be geared around how do I get in front of people, show them I know what I'm talking about, and then get them to schedule an eval and come see me at my clinic. It's not about a transactional thing here. It's about giving things to the consumer in that environment where you're in front of hundreds of them, over delivering for free, and then converting on that at the end of the sale.

09:49 - CONVERTING LEADS

And that's a key part. You need some way to capture leads and convert leads. The best way to do this is having some sort of QR code available. Everybody's scanning QR codes these days. Having a flyer printed out on a little plastic flyer holder that when they walk up and it says right there, free 10 minute session with Dr. So-and-so. Scan here. Boom, that's easy. Boom, pull out my phone, scan it. It takes them to something, a lead generation on your website. That could be sign up for my newsletter, name, email, phone number, city, whatever. That could be put in your contact information. We're going to reach out after today and kind of be in touch with you. Whatever that is, whatever lead funnel that you want people to go to, that's where that QR code directs them to on your website. So they scan the QR code. Boom. That holds their place in line. And then you're calling the next person up 10 minutes at a time. Hey, I got 10 minutes. What's going on here? In that 10 minutes, your goal is to address the areas that most need addressing, to over deliver the best you can, and then to convert that individual after the sale. Give, give, give, and then ask. Give, give, give in that 10 minutes. Here's what I think is going on. This is common. These get blown up. This gets overworked. This is out of position. This is stiff. We need to mobilize this. Here's some things that I like to do. Let's get some needles in that area. Let's do some cupping. And at the end of it, say, hey, I would love to earn your business. If you would, please take my card. I'd love to have you call and set up an appointment. I can actually get you scheduled right now. This looks like something that needs some work. Would you like to schedule right now while I got a few minutes? Don't be afraid of the ask. You're giving free content, you're giving free knowledge, you're giving free experience, and you're giving your time and service to that individual. Do not be afraid for the ask at the end of it, right? Can I earn your business? I'd love the opportunity to work with you, get you in the clinic. My e-mail rate is this. Can I get you scheduled for next week? Convert those leads. We stink at this as a profession and something we definitely have a lot of work to do on getting better when that conversion, that sales conversion process kicks in, right?

10:43 - TRIAGE & TREAT

And then the last thing I have, if we're looking the part, if we are converting our leads is to know what works and deliver on that. Team, if they're at a CrossFit comp, they don't need pain science information right now. Okay? I'm not saying there's not a time and a place for that. What they need is something to help them recover. Their back is likely blown up. It feels like there's a hundred gallons of blood shoved right in their erectors right now. They want their back to loosen up and feel better. Their legs are probably imploded. They want their legs to feel better. Their shoulders are probably imploded. They want them to feel better. Right? Understand what these comps and these things are going to ask people to do. Lots of pull-ups, lots of squats, lots of deadlifts. Know what works for those things so that you're efficient in your clinical approach in those 10 minutes you have with someone. We're not trying to solve all their pain and all their problems in 10 minutes. We want to show them that we have tools that can help them. And if you give me more time, if you give me an eval, if you give me a couple sessions, I can get to the root of your problem. So you're having things at the disposal, ready to go for shoulder, like high-volume pull-ups, what am I gonna do to address the lats and the biceps? High-volume squats, what am I gonna do to address the legs and the quads? High-volume deadlifts, what am I gonna do to address the low back? Are you gonna bring needles and stim and hook people up and get them stimming? Cool, maybe get two treatment tables so you can get one person started on that and you get the other person on the table right after that. Are you gonna do some cupping on there, try to increase some blood flow? Great, get it set up, get it rocking, take a bunch of pictures. Another good thing to ask someone for is to have them take a picture and post about your company on social media. Remember, they're getting this for free. They're willing to do something in exchange. Scan your QR code? Sure. Post a picture? Sure, I can do that. Tag my business? I would really appreciate the exposure. We're just getting started. I love working in this community. I love working out in CrossFit. I'd love to be able to help athletes like you down the road. If you could post about my business, that would help me a ton. Thank you so much. They're thankful for your time, your service, and your free delivery of something to them, and they're willing to exchange that in terms of something else for your business. So there's some things for you guys to think about. The art of the 10-minute exposure. You've got 10 minutes in front of somebody. Treat them for free. Have some way of funneling and converting those leads. And don't forget to ask for the sale. Can I get your schedule? Can I get your book? Can I get your e-mail? Look the part. clothing, wardrobe, physically, and then your environment that you're set up, your tables, and your banners, and your marketing materials. And don't forget to ask for something on the tail end. Let's take a picture. Let's post about it on social media. Convert those leads, team. Get those people that you're there, you're giving your time for, for free. Convert those people into prospective clients that are on your books for the next week's following. I hope this was helpful. I hope you took something from it. that you know what works and that you're going to deliver on what works in that 10 minutes for that patient. Team, thank you so much. Shout out to anyone that's going to be at our courses to the end of the year. We're looking forward to wrapping up 2023 with a bang. Next weekend, we're in Hoover, Alabama and San Antonio, Texas. And still some spots for you to join us if you want to. And have a happy Halloween. I know we're rolling into it this weekend. Our gym has a Halloween WOD planned for tomorrow. So a costume WOD for tomorrow and then Halloween on Tuesday. So let me be the first to wish you a happy Halloween weekend, team. Thanks so much. Go kill it in clinic today. Have a great one, everybody.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 26, 2023

Alan Fredendall // #TechniqueThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, ICE COO Alan Fredendall discusses different ways to use band tension to make bench pressing easier for those dealing with pain, weakness, or stiffness, as well as techniques to add accommodating band resistance to improve bench press performance.

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ALAN FREDENDALL

Good morning, everybody. Welcome to the PT on ICE Daily Show here on Instagram, here on YouTube. My name is Alan, happy to be your host today. Welcome to Technique Thursday. You may have seen this the last couple weeks. We had Paul on here and Ellie on here last week talking about some dry needling techniques. We're happy to bring techniques back. They used to be on Tuesdays, but now they're on Thursdays. So the goal of Technique Thursday is to show you some sort of manual therapy technique maybe a variation you've never seen before and likewise to maybe show you some tips and tricks with a certain exercise. The goal being something hands-on that maybe you could use in the clinic later today in front of your patients. So if you're joining us on the podcast and you're just listening to my voice, you're not going to get a lot out of this episode. So go on over to the Ice YouTube channel and find this episode so that you can watch the video. Before we get started today, it's Technique Thursday, which means it is Gut Check Thursday. This week's Gut Check Thursday, five rounds for time, a 400 meter run, 50 double unders, and 15 burpees. Much more cardio focused, body weight focused than last week. So last week we had an EMOM of calories on the bike and some bench press. So if strength and power is not really your thing, then maybe some lighter, long-duration cardio this week is your thing. You're thinking maybe 3-5 minutes around there, a relatively fast 400, ideally an unbroken set of double-unders or single-unders, and then a relatively fast pace on those burpees, trying to get that workout done, maybe somewhere between 15 and 25 minutes. Courses coming your way today, I wanna highlight our Extremity Management Division. The last three courses coming your way this year are coming up in November and December. So the weekend of November 11th and 12th, we're gonna have Mark Gallant, aka Mark Gallant, aka Mark Lanz. He'll be down in Woodstock, Georgia, the weekend of November 11th and 12th. And then the weekend of December 2nd and 3rd, you can catch Extremity's newest Lee faculty member, Cody Gingrich. He'll be out in Newark, California. That's gonna be in the San Francisco Bay Area. And then Lindsey Huey, the very next weekend, the weekend of December 9th and 10th, she will be out in Fort Collins, Colorado for the very last extremity management course of the year. So if you're looking to catch that course, check one of those three courses coming your way in November and December.

02:29 - BANDED BENCH PRESS TECHNIQUES

Today's topic, we're going to talk about some banded bench press tips. So you might be thinking, Alan, this seems like a topic for Fitness Athlete Friday, and you could be correct. But I hope by the end of today's episode that I get you some buy in that bench press is really appropriate for almost all of our patients. And today we hope to explain why and show you how you can introduce this movement to everybody. So when we think about bench press, we mainly think people who are already active, who are in the gym, either bench pressing, recreationally because they like it, they like to have a big puffed up chest, maybe they're doing it competitively, maybe they're a powerlifter or a strongman type athlete, and bench press is one of their events. And bench press does show up occasionally in CrossFit, so we do, not as often as powerlifters or strongmen, we do bench press in CrossFit as well. What's really cool about bench press is it's one of the four primary movement patterns of our upper body. If we think about our shoulder and chest complex, our upper body in general, what movement patterns can it fundamentally do? It can move things vertically. We can vertically pull, right? That's our pull-ups, our muscle-ups, our toes-to-bar, that's getting out of the pool functionally, jumping over a fence or something like that, some sort of vertical pulling pattern. We can press things overhead as well. the turnover of a snatch, things like that, moving weight overhead in a vertical pressing pattern. But then probably the more neglected patterns across fitness, recreational or competitive, is horizontal movements. We have our horizontal pulling, things like bent over rows. And finally, we have our horizontal pressing, things like bench press, but also more functional movements like pushups and burpees, right? Getting off the ground. So we like to use bench press here a lot with our older adults. It's a great way to load the shoulder complex, especially somebody with a painful or stiff shoulder that maybe can't even begin to initiate vertical pressing, maybe not even prone with body weight on the table, maybe not even in a landmine press, they have a really hard time due to stiffness, due to pain, whatever, even lifting any sort of weight vertically overhead. We know there's some carryover from horizontal pressing to vertical pressing. We're working primarily the pecs with the bench press, but we are getting some delt as well, and we're able to lift in a horizontal press pattern to maybe 115 degrees. So this is a great way to reintroduce load to the shoulder complex, even if we can't vertically press. Now today, I want to show you some ways to make the bench press easier for folks, whether strength is limiting them, range of motion is limiting them, or pain is limiting them.

04:57 - MAKING THE BENCH PRESS EASIER

So we're going to show you two techniques to make the bench press easier, and then we're going to show you a technique to make the bench press harder. So the easiest way to offload a bench press is a banded bench press like I have set up here in the rig. So I have two bands, half-hitched over the pull-up bar, the upright of the squat rack. onto the bench press in the center of the barbell so that I can still grab whatever grip width I want and now the bands are offloading that barbell for me. if I have pain maybe above a certain percentage I'm already bench pressing in the gym this can make bench press feel a little bit lighter so that it's more comfortable and tolerable and I can still get into the gym and maybe I can't bench at 75 or 80 or 90 percent of my max like my training has me doing but I can go in the gym at 60 percent with some bands on the bar and maybe I can move some weight at 60 percent so at the very least I'm maintaining or maybe a little bit incrementally increasing my strength as we calm pain down and build tissue resiliency back up. So pretty simple, half hitch the bands, put them over the barbell, lay back down in your normal bench press pattern, and then what you're going to feel is with no plates on the bar, you're going to feel almost like you have to pull the bench press down, and then the bands, if you have no weight on the bar, are really going to pull the bench back up for you. So you're able to really move through the movement pattern efficiently. So this can be great to train the bench press as well. And now we can put plates on there. What's great about this is we can get plates on the bar for maybe somebody who just the empty bar is challenging. By being able to put maybe even 10 pound plates on the bar, it helps them feel really successful, like they moved some weight around the gym. even if all they can normally lift without the bands is the empty barbell. So they get to go home and tell their spouse or their kids that they lifted a bench press today with the greens on or the yellows on, right? So it can help build success with that novice athlete. Folks who have pain or stiffness, we're now able to load at least in a partial range of motion of the shoulder, begin to strengthen within that range of motion that will hopefully now also allow us to transition to a vertical pressing pattern. If you don't have a way to set this up, another great tool is the slingshot. So this is from Mark Bell and colleagues. Anytime you've used a hip halo, maybe to do some monster walks, if you've used one of the official hip halos, that's also a Mark Bell product. If you have one of those, you probably recognize this looks very similar. So there's really no difference here and what I'm about to show you from what you get with the banded unloaded bench press, except now I don't need a squat rack with uprights to hang bands, but this is going to come up on my upper arm. I'm going to put both sides in. and now this is the slingshot. So now, as I sit down on this bench, there's going to be a tension that's created at the bottom of my bench press that's going to push me back out of the bench. So I'll lay back and show that to you all. If I were to pull a barbell back down, that band would stretch and help me out of the bottom. Now, what's great about the slingshot that you can't do with the barbell and the rig is I can translate this now and I can do push-ups or burpees with this on as well. What's really, really, really cool in the literature is how correlated maximal bench press strength is to push-up and burpee capacity. That is to say that the stronger your bench, it tends to track that you can do more push-ups. The reverse is also true. The more push-ups you can do, the likelihood is that you have a stronger bench press, and you can train one or the other to improve the other one. you can just do push-ups for a year and as long as you're progressing, how many push-ups you do, you're progressively overloading your push-ups, you will see an increase on your bench press and vice versa. So same thing, maybe somebody's not bench pressing at all but they come in and they have pain with push-ups or burpees, we can use the slingshot to offload that bottom position and make them feel more comfortable so they can continue to doing push-ups or burpees in their training program that we know that will translate down the road to bench press strength and vice versa. So two different ways to make the bench press a little bit easier, whether somebody's new, whether somebody needs to learn the range of motion, whether they have stiffness that prevents vertical pressing, or they just have a painful bench press and they currently can't lift as heavy as they would like.

07:53 - USING BANDS TO IMPROVE BENCH PRESS PERFORMANCE

Now we can also transition, we can use bands to make lifts a little bit harder. So now, instead of these bands over the barbell offloading, We're going to put these down on the floor to this pair of dumbbells you see down on the ground. Key here, really heavy dumbbells. I've got 50s here. If you try to do a banded bench press with like 25s, the resistance of the bands is going to pull the dumbbells off the ground. So keep that in mind that you need some heavy dumbbells to anchor for you. Setting these up, don't overthink it. Loop it halfway through, underneath the handle of the dumbbell, and then loop it up and over the barbell, right? You can see this is even challenging the 50-pound dumbbell. If I had even 45s or 40s, it would be lifting this dumbbell off the ground. Same thing on this side. Half loop on each side. up and over the inside. There we go. So now, the resistance is going to be coming out of the bottom. Because it's an elastic band, it's going to give us the least tension in the bottom, and it's going to give us increasing tension as we drive out of that bench press. Now, there's some criticism of this, of the weakest point of the bench press is the bottom, so why am I doing a training method that makes the weakest part, the easiest part to train with a banded bench press. The answer is that when I have accommodating resistance out of that bench press, I need to activate more and more and more and more and more muscle fibers to drive out of that bottom. So yes, It will never improve the dead stop where the bar is touching my chest at the bottom. The only way to train that is to go through full range motion bench press more often. But the benefit I'm going to get is I'm going to activate more muscle fibers, which in the future is going to translate to being able to recruit those more easily when I bench press in the future. And also I have to continually increase my velocity out of the bottom of the bench press to overcome the steadily increasing resistance from the band. That band is going to get tighter, tighter, tighter, tighter as I get out of the bottom. I'm going to have to continually increase my velocity out of the bottom or I'm not going to be able to go anywhere. That's really helpful for anybody that's maybe stuck at a certain weight at their bench press. They can go to the bottom and they can drive out, but it's really slow and grindy and maybe they're stuck at a weight like 315 and they said, hey, I haven't added weight to my bench press in a year. This can be a great way to break some plateaus. It can also just be a way to overload the bench press. If my max bench press is 315, I can put 275 on here. Yes, the bottom is going to feel easier, but as I drive out, it's going to feel as hard as 315 maybe coming up. And now I can get more volume in, in a way that my speed is maintained, that's going to translate into having an overall stronger bench press down the road. So pretty simple, bands on the barbell, on racket. A lot of tension at the top, right? This is super tough even with no weight. As I come down, easier, easier, easier, and now I really have to focus on increasing speed continually to get out of the bottom of the bench press. With an empty barbell, that would be pretty difficult for maybe even a set of five. So don't knock it till you try it. There's a lot of criticism about bands and chains. Obviously the most important thing is the weight on the barbell over time, but this can be a great way to just change up variance in your bench press, to break through a plateau, and even to overload your bench press, to be able to lift a weight Maybe you use a bench block, you come down to maybe 80% of the range of motion and drive out, and now you're working at a weight that's maybe heavier than your one rep max bench press. Again, the goal, recruit more muscle fibers and kind of overload that bench press pattern. So banded bench press, why? Folks who maybe have a lack of range of motion or lack of strength overall in the chest and shoulder complex, who maybe not right now are able to show you any sort of vertical pressing pattern. It is a great way to offload a bench press for somebody that maybe is already training the bench press that has pain, and then we can flip the resistance. Now we can give resistance as we drive out of the bench press. Why? Accommodating resistance, help improve our barbell velocity, help break through plateaus, recruit more muscle fibers. So play around with banded bench presses. I hope this was helpful. Have a fantastic Thursday. If you're going to be on a live course this weekend, I hope you have a wonderful weekend. Thanks for listening. Bye, everybody.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 25, 2023

Dr. Christina Prevett // #GeriOnICE // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Modern Management of the Older Adult division leader Christina Prevett discusses that the fountain of function is muscle mass and estrogen in the aging female. Christina breaks down these two areas for function, and what we have physical therapist can do to help encourage both muscle mass and estrogen preservation.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about live courses designed to better serve older adults in physical therapy or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION


00:00 - CHRISTINA PREVETT

Hello, everybody, and welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. My name is Christina Prevett. I am one of the team within our Modern Management of the Older Adult Division. In our division, we have three courses in our geriatric curriculum. We have our eight-week online Essential Foundations course. We have our eight-week online Advanced Concepts course. And we have our two-day live course. We have a couple of courses that are left in the remainder of the year. We have a course coming up in November in Chandler, North Carolina. We have another course coming up in South Carolina. And we have a course coming up in Texas in December. So if you are near those courses or you are looking to get in some content before the end of the year, I encourage you to check those courses out. and you'll be able to get in with some of our faculty before, you know, we ring in 2024.

01:18 - THE FOUNTAIN OF FUNCTION

Today I'm going to talk about the fountain of function. And so this is a reframe that I think is really important. And we're going to talk about what those fountains of function are. You'll notice that I did not say fountain of youth. We have this idea in our society that youth is the goal, to not feel like we're getting older in any way, to not show signs of age on our faces. And don't get me wrong, I see my aging face, I was like, oh, my face doesn't look like I am 21 anymore, and I look at the wrinkles on my face, and I have those emotions. But the idea for my life is not to try and get younger. It's to try and optimize my reserve and try and live the way that I want to live with the most amount of function possible into my 30s and 40s and 50s and 60s and hopefully all the way up to 100. Because at MMA and within ice in general, Aging is a privilege. It is something that I am very thankful for because the alternative is not that great. We're not gonna be able to reverse back time, but we can have a really successful aging process, especially when we put in the steps to live the way that we want to live, whatever that filter means for us. So I'm not looking for the fountain of youth. I am looking for the fountain of function. And so the two types, the two areas that are the fountain of function in aging women, so I'm going to talk about female anatomy, is muscle mass and estrogen. And these two things, especially when taken together and optimized to the best of our capacity, is going to allow us to have more function towards the end of our life. So let's talk about muscle mass. You have not been following the Institute of Clinical Excellence in any ways if you don't know that LODE is our love language across all of our division, across all of our faculty, and that is absolutely true in the geriatric curriculum as well. And I love it so much that I did an entire PhD on the influence of resistance training in an aging body. When we look at resistance training, we are accumulating a growth and a continuation, a plethora of education and research that looks at the impact of resistance training on health outcomes. And I just posted a paper that was a narrative review from Stu Phillips, who is one of my committee members on my PhD.

04:18 - THE COMING OF AGE OF RESISTANCE TRAINING

And he talked about the coming of age of resistance training and how we are starting to see some accumulation of evidence that is mirroring and is just as strong as literature that we're seeing in aerobic training to prevent stave off different chronic diseases, including some cardiovascular diseases. And so there means that there, as of course, we're going to target the aerobic system. This is not to say to not do cardio in stead, just do resistance training, but it's showing that there is a continual and persistent growth of literature talking about the impact of resistance training on health outcomes. So what we see is that those who have more muscle mass tend to have lower all-cause mortality. They are less likely to develop cardiovascular conditions. They are better able to manage diabetes. They're less likely to get diabetes. We know that muscle mass is protective around things like osteoporosis, right? Tensile strength of the bone is important and we need impact, body weight movements, resistance training across the lifespan in order to optimize that. We see that individuals who are stronger or less likely to have sarcopenia, right? Sarcopenia is clinically relevant amounts of muscular weakness that are preventing a person from completing their day-to-day tasks. It's a totally important output of frailty. Fried's physical phenotype of frailty talks about physical reserve and physical capacity as an output of individuals seeing these constellations and signs and symptoms that lead to vulnerability to external stress. That external stress includes things like hospitalizations and being able to withstand different stressors with respect to immune system insults, including things like COVID-19, pneumonia, and the flu that allows individuals, while they are sick, to have that reserve and resiliency to lean back on in order for individuals to be able to get back to baseline or improve past baseline, post-hospitalization, or acute insult. All this to say, we know that individuals need to be trying optimize their muscle mass in their earlier life and then hold on to it for as long as possible. If you are in a setting where you are not working with individuals who have optimized their muscular mass, we also know that muscular mass can be developed and we can see improvements in physical function with resistance training at any age when we start including in our 90s. The mechanism at which strength develops is a little bit different. We're looking a lot more at neuromuscular efficiency. However, we can absolutely see that it can improve function. And so whether you are 30 or you are 85, muscle mass is a fountain of function and it allows us to withstand stress.

12:24 - ESTROGEN FUNCTION & MENOPAUSE 

Now let's kind of talk about this second piece, which is estrogen. I've done several podcasts on menopause, but I want to talk about the influence of estrogen around female physiology, because I think this is really important. So when we are going through the menopausal transition, on average, individuals will start menopause between 50 and 51. Definition of menopause is when you've gone a full calendar year, 12 months without a menstrual period. That is your menopausal transition. But individuals can be experiencing perimenopausal symptoms that are indicators of dwindling or are coming down of estrogen status for up to 10 years prior to the transition into menopause. And so individuals who are in their early 40s can start to see the influences of loss of estrogen on their body. And then that influence is persistent as individuals get older. When we're talking about menopause, we often are putting this into two camps. So we have vasomotor symptoms, which are these symptoms that occur because of an acute withdrawal of estrogen. These are things like night sweats and hot flashes. As individuals transition through menopause and we get into our later life, into our 60s, 70s, 80s, and beyond, those symptoms tend to decline. So those vasomotor symptoms that occur as our body transitions to reductions in estrogen status they tend to go down as our body gets used to this new state of equilibrium that occurs without estrogen. In the opposite direction, the second kind of camp that we speak about when individuals are going through menopause is genitourinary syndrome of menopause or GSM. And that is signs and symptoms across the female physiology that are responding to losses in estrogen. and anywhere where there is an estrogen receptor within our body, they are going to experience changes when individuals transition through menopause. And we oftentimes will, in the pelvic health space, talk about changes to our reproductive anatomy, which are unbelievably relevant, but we have to also extrapolate that out and talk about different areas where estrogen is influencing female physiology and how, if you are working with an aging female, they are experiencing changes because of that change in estrogen status. And so within the reproductive track, we see that there is changes in ligamentous stability around the pelvis. And I hate that word stability, but it's a change in the turnover of the way that our ligaments are restructuring. So we have a little bit more ligamentous breakdown than buildup, right? That turnover rate is different. And so we have this shift between static support in the pelvis to the requirements or dynamic support around the pelvic floor. We see that individuals start to have vaginal atrophy. We see that the vaginal microbiome starts to change. We don't have the same cervical mucus secretion. And so things like chafing and redness can be more prevalent in a person who is postmenopausal. We can see fusing of the labia minora and majora. and this can lead to increased risks for pelvic floor dysfunction. So when we are in estrogen low states, rates for pelvic floor dysfunction go up. This includes anal incontinence, urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, dyspnea, or painful punitive intercourse, and other aspects of the reproductive tract. We also see, because of this change in the vulvar anatomy, that we have an increased risk for things like urinary tract infections, that increased risk for urinary tract infection also influences individual's physical function. We know that recurrent UTIs can be a cause of changes in cognitive status for our aging females. And so something that is extremely relevant for our aging women. Other things that we see is that as individuals go into an estrogen depleted state, increased risk of cardiovascular disease goes up. Individuals as they transition through menopause, we see that in general, men tend to be more impacted by cardiovascular disease. That is shifting for a lot of different reasons, but that risk profile increases when individuals are in an estrogen depleted state. We see a change in central adiposity where weight starts to increase. Adiposity accumulation can increase, especially visceral fat accumulation, which has a risk profile in and of itself for different chronic diseases. And then we see, for example, in our bone microarchitecture that the influence of estrogen allows for continual bone regeneration and that profile again starts to switch and there's an increased risk for things like osteoporosis in an estrogen deficient state. So there's a lot of things that get impacted, right? Our skin gets impacted, our breast tissue gets impacted, our urinary tract, all of our mucosal membranes, not just in our vulva, but across our entire body, and this has impacts. And so when we are thinking about working with these individuals, one of the things that is starting to become really recommended is topical estrogens. And there's a lot of debate about this because of a study that had been done a little while ago that looked at increased risk for sex-related cancers, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, et cetera, with systemic estrogen. However, what we are starting to see now and many of our menopausal experts like Dr. Mary Claire and Dr. Rachel Rubin are really trying to have this public health approach to medicine saying that we are not doing our females a service when we are saying that there is a risk profile when subsequent studies have not been able to substantiate or replicate those findings. And so there's been a big shift in the last five years to the need for or the desire for many women who are really suffering with genital urinary syndrome of menopause to be able to take things like topical estrogens in order to really significantly reduce their symptom burden. And I'm not just talking about their pelvic floor, which is an extremely important part of their sexual health, also a vital sign of aging, but also, you know, all of these other physiological signs of estrogen deficiency that are impacting our outcomes, right? We see that individuals with that combination of muscular mass, we are seeing individuals with negative consequences of osteoporotic fracture. if we were able to be preventative in this approach where we are talking about estrogen supplementation when these symptoms start to arise, especially when they hit a threshold of bother, where there's going to be this spectrum, some individuals are very bothered and very impacted by the signs of vasomotor symptoms and genital urinary syndrome of menopause, and then some individuals are not, but for those individuals with bother, is this something that should be taken? Is this something that they can talk to their physician about? Is there this literature to support these topical estrogens? And we are starting to see this mounting of evidence that is starting to come up to help individuals in the aging process. So many of our aging adults are being told that this is just what they should be living with. This is because they're going through menopause. Deal. We saw this in the peripartum space where there's a lot of advocacy still happening with respect to not having this thought process that as soon as you have a baby that pelvic floor dysfunction is just something that you should live with. We're starting to see this rise up in our perimenopausal and postmenopausal population, where they are not accepting that this is what they should be doing. They're not being dismissed anymore for these symptoms, and it's super important. When we take this lifespan approach, this education becomes extremely relevant. Talking about the peripartum space, I truly believe that that is where we start to tell females that they are not resilient, that they are somehow fragile, that they need to be concerned for their organs falling out and all these different pelvic floor dysfunctions. And then they are not encouraged to be as resilient as they could be by taking part in heavy resistance training or impact activities or things at higher intensities. We start bringing that intensity down and the idea of, ooh, be careful or, oh, monitor this or, oh, if you have these symptoms, it's time for you to stop participating in those activities. We are seeing this shift and what this shift is going to do earlier in life is it's going to set up are aging individuals with this mindset that pelvic floor dysfunction one is not inevitable two that reserve is protective when it comes to muscular reserve and three they're going to be advocates for their own health and that includes their hormonal health and that includes not accepting that some of these symptoms of menopause are things that they just need to live with, but things that can be medically managed. Genital urinary syndrome of menopause is a syndrome condition. It is a medical diagnosis, and therefore it is something that we can be treating. As physical therapists, us being educators and conduits of that knowledge translation is extremely important. And then we are going to optimize function for these individuals. Last point that I'm going to make, because I ended up being a lot more long-winded than I thought I was going to be, is that we are now seeing this interaction between menopause, genital urinary syndromes, and long-term health outcomes. We are seeing that individuals with higher physical activity, combination, aerobic resistance, or both, are having a much lower GSM burden than those who are not. And so again, it comes back full circle, whether this health promotion is extremely important, that not only are we gonna optimize a person's muscular reserve, we're gonna make that fountain of function be extremely relevant, but we're also going to make the quality of that function a lot better because their quality of life is better because we are not allowing them to just live with these symptoms and be dismissed by our medical system, us included, that just expects this to be the way that it is. And so this advocacy piece is extremely important and it's something that we are going to be screaming from the rooftops. All right, everyone, I hope you have a wonderful week. I'm going to be diving a lot more onto my page and I'm going to be collaborating it with ICE and MMOA around hormone therapies for individuals with GSM. I am not a medical physician, so I encourage you to reach out to your urogynecologist and urologist in your area. Get that relationship with them so that you can start having these conversations and we can start talking about risk profiles. All right, have a wonderful week. If you are not on our MMOA digest, I encourage you to sign up for those newsletters. Otherwise, have a wonderful week and I will talk to you all again soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 24, 2023

Dr. Mark Gallant // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Extremity Division Leader Mark Gallant emphasizes the importance of having a well-coached and appropriately dosed set of exercises for patients. He stresses that these exercises should be ones that the therapist is extremely familiar with and knows exactly how to prescribe. By having a clear understanding of these exercises, the therapist can confidently explain to the patient the objective criteria and expectations for progression.

Mark acknowledges that sometimes our egos can hinder us, leading us to believe that we can come up with a better plan for each individual patient based on the information we have at that moment. However, he argues that research has shown that the human brain is a sensitive instrument that responds quickly to changes. Therefore, having a preset plan of exercises allows for consistency and efficiency in treatment.

Additionally, Marj suggests that having a set of exercises that can be progressed by increasing work volume, range of motion, load, or speed, while keeping the exercises relatively similar, can be beneficial. This approach allows the patient to become more efficient with the exercises and increases their buy-in. It also reduces stress for the physical therapist and ensures that enough time is given for each intervention to make a meaningful impact.

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Extremity Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - MARK GALLANT

What's up PT on ice crew we got Instagram here YouTube over here. I'm Dr. Mark Lantz coming at you here on Clinical Tuesday, lead faculty in the ice extremity management division, alongside Lindsey Hughey, Eric Chaconas, and Cody Gingerich. Happy to be here this Tuesday. Before we get rolling, a couple of housekeeping things. We've got a few more courses for the extremity division coming up here for 2023. I'll be in Woodstock, Georgia, second weekend of November. and then Cody and Lindsey each have opportunities early December, so check that out on the ICE website. More importantly, if you've been looking to get a certification through ICE and the overall ICE cert seemed like a bit much to chew off right now at this stage of your career, we are happy to announce that we've launched the Ortho cert. If you take the two spine management courses, cervical management, lumbar management, the extremity management course and total spine thrust manipulation, take a short test at the end of whichever the last of those four that you take, you can become ortho certified. So that is officially launched and on the website. So definitely head over there and check that out and we hope to see you on the road soon.

01:39 - INDIVIDUALIZED CARE

So today what I want to talk about is individualized care. your ego is killing our profession. And what I mean by that, or what we mean by that, is that when we go around the country and we mentor folks, or we help out and talk through cases with individuals, watch people treat, one thing that we're starting to see as a trend is that folks are jumping around quite a bit in their plan of care. So that patient comes in for one visit, they're given a certain set of manual therapy techniques, a certain grouping of exercises at a specific dosage, and then each subsequent visit that person comes in, the plan dramatically changes. They're given a new set of exercises, there's different manual therapy techniques done. They are getting a completely unique plan of care each visit. And what we're recommending is that there needs to be a plan, that for any given pathology, you have a plan of what this is typically gonna go like. With that individualized care of jumping around from place to place, visit to visit, what we believe is that it is a reaction to old school physical therapy, what we like to call physical therapy 1.0, where a person would walk into a clinic, they would be put on a new step or a bike for five to 10 minutes, the physical therapist would wave the ultrasound wand on wherever their area of pain is, and then they would be given an exercise sheet. And it would be very specific to, here is the foot and ankle exercise sheet. Doesn't matter what you have going on, here is your foot and ankle exercise sheet. Here's our shoulder sheet. And if you were lucky, you would have a tech that would take you through that. If you were not one of the lucky few, you would either be given that to go run through in the clinic on your own, or even worse, just sent home with this exercise sheet.

04:17 - INDIVIDUALIZED PLANS OF CARE

So we swung the pendulum hard to everyone gets an individualized plan depending on what they show up with the clinic that day. So if their pain has changed, if what the exercise is looking has changed, then we ditch the entire plan and then we're going to go to this very individualized thing each visit. The problem with this is it's hard for the patient to buy in if everything changes each visit. They're not sure what the plan is. Humans love to have a target in a bullseye. So if that person knows like, ooh, here's the plan that we laid out during the first couple visits. And here's where I am along that plan. It allows them to be more bought in. They're going to comply with the plan more. They're going to be more adherent to the plan because they can see the target they're shooting for. And they can very clearly see where they currently sit on that plan. In addition to that, if we're jumping from thing to thing all the time, we're actually likely not giving any one intervention enough time to do its thing. So we know with exercise, the research is fairly clear now that exercise for musculoskeletal pain is the most bang for your buck intervention from a cost perspective and from a getting the job done perspective. It takes time. If we're jumping from thing to thing every visit, then we're likely not giving those interventions enough time to actually make changes. And in addition, it takes people time to get used to doing an exercise. So if we switch to exercise each visit, we're not allowing that person to become efficient with that exercise. And then finally for us, if we're seeing anywhere, depending on what type of setting you're in, between six and 20 individuals a day, creating six to 20 unique plans of care. Every single visit for every single person becomes wildly exhausting. I've lived it. Everything that I'm saying here, I have personally done for many years. That type of physical therapy becomes exhausting. And it's likely part of the reason why we have such a high burnout rate in our profession. If the expectation is a unique individualized plan of care for every individual, every day. That becomes a lot for any one given physical therapist. Whereas if you know, for X pathology, for my rotator cuff related shoulder pain folks, I know that I can modulate their pain, decrease their symptoms with these three to four manual therapy techniques. I know that my bread and butter early on exercises are gonna be these four to five exercises that I can coach extremely well, that I know exactly how I want to dose, and that I have an expectation of when the person can do these, what the next group of exercises that I'm gonna move on to, and I can clearly explain the objective criteria to the patient of what that's gonna be. Now, our egos often get in the way of this, because many of us, myself included, I'm speaking to myself more than anyone, believe that for any given person that comes in, that we're going to be able to give them a better plan based on the information that's coming that day than the preset plan before that may seem more cookie cutter that we're afraid of. What we know about the human brain, now having a lot of research over the years, it is a very sensitive instrument and it's going to respond quickly and rapidly to what's changing in the moment. So therefore your plan or what that person is coming in can be highly deviated by anything that's happened to you that morning or that day. If you had a stressful interaction with your boss, if the kids were having a hard time getting ready for school, if someone called you right before the patient came in and gave you some bad news, that is all going to very dramatically sway what happens in that session and how you go about what you're going to do in that session. Even more dramatically, our patients are in pain. which means that their nervous systems are gonna be all over the place. And so their drama and their brains are gonna be very sensitive and that is also gonna shape those interactions. So we're leaving a lot of interpretation to that interaction. Whereas if we have a plan that we know if this is looking like this, I'm gonna go this way, if this is looking like this, this is how I go based on the plan for this pathology, we are far less likely to succumb to the sways of any given day. When we look at other professions, professions that have higher stakes than physical therapy typically, we see that they use systems and plans to deviate from those in the moment sways. Pilots are the easiest example to talk about. When you have a pilot, it doesn't matter if that pilot is on his second day of the job or if they have 36 years of experience. That pilot has a checklist for almost everything that could possibly happen on a plane. If the weather looks like this, this is our checklist of what we're going to do. If the wind changes this way before we land, this is what we're going to do. And that pilot follows the checklist, not what they're feeling in the moment based on their experience. So much so to the point where there's a second person there, the co-pilot. whose primary job is literally to say, hey, why aren't you following the checklist? We got to go back to the checklist. We know this works. 99.9% of the time go to the checklist.

09:30 - RECIPE REPETITION 

For those of you who have been following ICE for a long time, our CEO, Jeff Moore, spent a lot of time working in restaurants and kitchens. And if you were lucky enough to take a class with Jeff or got to spend some time with Jeff, we used to always get all these stories about his time in the kitchen. And a lot of those things I still think about to this day, the stories he told as far as patient care. And one of the main ones that stuck with me was a chef that he worked with, who now has a Michelin star, by the way, told Jeff that for any given recipe, you need to cook this 1,000 times before you start to deviate from the plan. Doesn't matter if you're the greatest chef in the world, you don't add salt, you don't add fat, you don't add any flavor profiles until you have cooked that recipe 1,000 times. Because that 1,000 times is going to allow you to see how this thing really responds, what could possibly go wrong, what could happen, how you really get the full breath by committing that much. That's the same with our plan of care. There is no way that we can confidently say to the human in front of us, for most people what we see, if you follow this plan, this is where we get to. If we're changing the plan all the time, we never get to experience that to show the patient and to say confidently. So we want to have the plan for any given pathology that we're going to give most people. Another example, is the 12-step plan in recovery. I am not in recovery myself, so if I'm butchering this, I apologize to anyone who is in recovery. But with the 12-step program, it's 12 steps. You run the steps, and people who have addictions all over the country have been using this 12-step program to help deal with their said addiction. And when you look at that plan, it's a simple, not easy plan, and you follow those steps to a T. Again, same as the co-pilot, they have a mentor or a sponsor who helps them work those steps. If that person is struggling or deviating, what that mentor's job is to do is say, hey, make sure you go back and are following these steps and are not deviating. So lots of examples of really solid professions and organizations that use a plan to get the job done.

12:07 - STICK WITH THE PLAN: MODULATE PAIN, INTRODUCE MOVEMENT, PROGRESS MOVEMENT

So what should the plan look like for us, for any given patient? When you have a pathology, rotator cuff related shoulder pain, plantar fasciitis, things that you need to know. Early on, what are the manual therapy techniques or exercises that you know can modulate pain and decrease symptoms for most people? Have a few of these that you know you can do effectively and work for most folks as part of your plan. Then have your bread and butter exercises. What are the exercises that are gonna be the main, let me back up for a second. Before you have your bread and butter exercises, what are the few exercises that you're gonna have that are for that irritable patient that you know before they can tolerate a lot of load that we're gonna give them? So your pain modulation techniques, your lower level exercises that are not gonna overstress the tissue while we're trying to calm this down. Part two, what are your bread and butter exercises? What are the handful of exercises that you know tend to work best for any given pathology that you can coach really well, that you can dose really well, that you can manage workload really well? And then finally, what is the criteria that that person needs to demonstrate to move on to their more advanced exercises? And then a final piece to have in your mind is what does this look like If the person does have a flare up or relapse, how do we coach them? What point in the program do they go back to if they are indeed not ready to progress? So again, what are the things that can modulate pain and that can calm symptoms down or exercises that are not going to require a lot of stress to the tissue while things are calming down? What are your bread and butter exercises for any given pathology? What are the most common things that you're going to give in most people's plans? And then finally, what are you going to have as your criteria to progress these people on and having a game plan if they do flare up or regress? What this is going to allow, it's going to allow the person to go, ooh, I know exactly where I am on Mark's plan of care at this time and where I need to go to take the steps to move forward. It's also going to allow you to not have to switch exercises so much. You're not going to have to get overly creative with your exercise prescription. And by doing this, what you're typically going to be changing is same exercises, but you're going to be increasing the work volume. You're going to be increasing the range of motion. You're going to increase the load on the exercise and you're going to increase the speed on the exercise while keeping the exercises relatively similar or the same so that the person can become more efficient with that exercise. It's going to allow the patient to buy in way more. It's going to take our stress way down as a physical therapist. And if there is that small percentage of folks who do indeed need a more nuanced program because they are actually not responding over time, or they're having a lot of trouble adhering to the plan, it's only a small percentage of the folks, which takes a lot off of the mental stress for us as physical therapists. Love to hear what you all think about this in the chat. Definitely hit us up. Love to see you on the road in Woodstock, Georgia next month. Cody and Lindsey have courses early December. Check out the ortho cert on the website. Have a great day in clinic today. Hope you all crush it. See you soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 23, 2023

Dr. Alexis Morgan // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic lead faculty Alexis Morgan discusses the research & practical approach to helping runners return to running beginning at 4 weeks postpartum. She references research that about 50% of postpartum patients begin reintroducing running at approximately 4 weeks postpartum, with varying degrees of symptoms. Alexis emphasizes utilizing the symptom behavior model to monitor symptoms, educating & encouraging patients that about 85% of all individuals have some sort of symptom(s) with running, and that volume is an important variable to have a successful return to running.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ALEXIS MORGAN

Good morning, Instagram. Good morning, fellow ice people. Welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. Welcome to Monday. It is the start of another week. And we are so excited to be here. Really as we're wrapping up the end of this year, we still have a lot going on at the end of the year that I want to tell you all about this morning. And then we are really getting already very excited about 2024. And just want to talk to you all about some of the things that are going on. If you are in the ICE Students Facebook group, you've been to an ICE course or you were just recently added in because you just finished a course this weekend, welcome. You've seen some announcements in there as well a while back. And I just want to highlight a couple of things. So let's get started on that before we discuss four weeks returning to running, four weeks postpartum. So number one, we've still got three more chances for a live course, or you've got three more chances to hit us in the pelvic division at a live course. So this, not this weekend, but next weekend, if you're listening live, November 4th and 5th, we will be in Bozeman, Montana, and then a few weeks after that in Bexar, Delaware. And a few weeks after that in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. That is the first weekend in December, December 2nd and 3rd. So those are your three chances to get into seeing this Pelvic Live course, experiencing it, having fun with us, learning so much about pelvic floor health. not just for pregnancy and postpartum, but in general, across the lifespan, men and women, pregnancy, yes, but also all things pelvic health. So those are your three chances, Bozeman, Bexar, Delaware, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. So if you're on the fence, go ahead and pop onto those. Second, thing that we i want to share with you all is about the pelvic level one course so our name is changing as you all have heard us talking about and we're actually going to be taking a little break through the next few months and our new level one cohort is going to start in january so Be sure, we've already got people signed up for that, gearing up, ready to experience the new content. Very regularly, we are always reading the research on a weekly basis. And once enough of it stacks up, we've got to reframe the way that we're teaching, particularly in the space, because it changes so incredibly rapidly. And so with that, we are updating that material. So that is coming up on, that will be on the website soon. Actually, that is actually already on the website. So that is on there. So a lot of things coming up at the end of this year, the beginning of next year. We've got even more announcements, so stay tuned. And we're gonna be announcing a couple more exciting things in our ice pelvic newsletter. So if you're not already signed up for the pelvic newsletter, go ahead and sign up for that because we've got even more things to discuss and share with you all.

04:31 - RETURNING TO RUNNING 4 WEEKS POSTPARTUM 

So all of that aside, let's go ahead and discuss this four week return to running. This is a topic that a handful of years ago really was not discussed. No way are we going to be facilitating someone running one month after giving birth. That's what we thought a handful of years ago. But fast forward, we've got several examples of elite level athletes which then trickles down to our recreational level athletes, we've got several examples of people returning to running. And it's actually even showing up in our literature. And when we are starting to see this, it's kind of interesting in the pelvic world, like we have all of these thoughts and beliefs and oftentimes you're you're gonna run into some strong opinions surrounding those, and a deep connection here. We've gotta have that connection with our beliefs, but also be willing to let that go once the evidence and once the, even the anecdotal evidence that your clients show up to you with, once that narrative begins, and it's maybe opposite of yours, we need to be able to let that go and to explore and ask questions and be curious about, well, what are some other possibilities? And that's exactly what we're seeing in this four-week return to running. So what we've seen is people aren't running. Runners will run, as we always say, in pregnancy and then early postpartum. And what we know is that the longer someone runs in their pregnancy, the sooner they're going to run in that postpartum phase. And in Shefali Christopher's study looking at returning to running and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, she actually saw that it was close to half of those individuals, 46%, reported returning to running at four weeks. And so we've got some information to kind of digest, right, as therapists. And what we know, and again, in her research, what we know is that when runners return to running, we're seeing that musculoskeletal injuries or musculoskeletal pain does occur. And so that's the number one thing that we want to be educating our runners on and we want to be looking out for. But rather than waiting until they've hit certain guidelines, what we are proposing and what we are doing, what I am doing clinically, what a lot of our faculty is doing clinically is we're educating our patients. And we urge you to educate your patients as well. Based on this evidence, this is what we're seeing. We're seeing that when we're returning to running, we're actually, many people are experiencing musculoskeletal pain, about 85% of people. Not just those that are returning at four weeks. The median time returning at 12 weeks. So that's significantly before and significantly afterwards. We educate them. So we can, Educate them. They know that okay. There's a risk of injury. There's a risk of musculoskeletal pain Of course, just like with everything and what we tell them is when you feel something You need to let me know That visit is so much easier to discuss that if it's already been planned. So you schedule your person a couple weeks out. Go ahead and return to running and see how that feels. We're gonna control for the volume. We're not gonna go out and run five miles for the first time in eight weeks. We're gonna control that volume. Build up slowly and see how they feel. If you're experiencing some mild knee pain or some hip pain, we are gonna address that. All the while, absolutely, we're doing our basic hip strengthening, right? I say basic, not just talking about a basic squat, but also your accessory movements like clamshells to work on that rotation. Or better yet, some single leg standing you know, the standing variation of the clamshell or the hip abduction with your foot on the wall. That way you're working both sides. We love that accessory work to decrease the risk of pain. But even while they're working on that strength, they're still, everyone is still at a risk. And so the best thing they can do is talk to you about it as soon as they experience that. And tell them, okay, let's back down on that volume right when they're when they experience that let's say they bumped it up to a two mile total volume of running maybe they were doing one minute of running 30 seconds of walking and they had just bumped all of that volume and those intervals up experience that bit of lateral knee pain let's bump that back down. What were they doing last week? Let's repeat last week's volume. Let's repeat last week's running workouts and let's calm that system down. That's how we'll address it from that pain aspect. And then of course, we're going to be continuing to build that accessory strength training and coaching their running, looking at their running form. We're not afraid of them experiencing that pain. In fact, we know more than likely they're going to experience that. Again, 85% of runners are experiencing some level of pain, typically in the lower extremities, not necessarily their pelvis or pelvic floor. So we know we're gonna bump into that. So we educate them on the factors, and then we schedule a visit to where we're gonna follow back up on that. That's already in their calendar, they already know. That way we can discuss those itty bitty issues that they have, and we can address them before they get bigger. That's exactly the same thing that we want to do with pelvic heaviness, symptoms of heaviness, really fatigue, we've talked a lot about that on the podcast here and of course in our courses, but pelvic floor heaviness or fatigue is another symptom that we're going to address in the exact same way. We're gonna decrease their volume. We're gonna educate them about it first and talk with them when they experience it, but they are going to decrease their volume when that occurs. We're gonna continue to be building that hip accessory work. All the while we're working pelvic floor strength, but pelvic floor and hip accessory movement, that's what builds up strength and endurance for the run. Just like how we expect them to experience pain, what we're realizing is that we expect them to bump into some symptoms of heaviness as well. We, as the rehab providers, are not scared of that. Just like we're not scared of them experiencing pain. We know they bump into that and we get them to back off immediately. We know they're not gonna have an issue there. We know they're gonna meet all of their goals and continue to run. We know this with the symptoms of pelvic floor heaviness as well. Heaviness, in most cases, many cases can come on with a lot of emotional concern. And honestly, in some cases, pain can do that as well. You've all experienced that with your patients. Very similar with pelvic floor heaviness. I see it very, we all see it very heightened in that emotional response. But if we can educate them on this first, if we can tell them, Hey, You're gonna bump into this. This is a symptom of fatigue. What you're gonna do when you bump into it is you're gonna back down. You're gonna back down in that volume. You're gonna wait to return to your next running workout until those symptoms have died down, because your body is telling you that that's too much. But you're gonna return, and we're gonna talk about it on our next visit, and you are absolutely gonna run that 5K at Thanksgiving. or you're absolutely gonna run that New Year's Day 5K, whatever that may be for them. So, educating them about symptoms, whether it's pain, whether it's heaviness, of course, leaking. I feel like we as pelvic floor PTs have educated people so, so much on leaking, but similar conversation here. you're probably going to have leaking with some point of return to running. Again, it's muscle fatigue that often precedes that return or that leaking. So we're going to probably experience it. If that athlete is running to a fatigue level, that's okay. We've gotta understand where their capacity is and where that lies and where that threshold is for leaking or for heaviness or for pain. We figure out where that threshold is, we go down from that. We build capacity and we bump that threshold up. That's the name of the game in all things that we do. That is the name of the game in pelvic floor health, in returning to running, even when they're returning early, like at four weeks. Realize runners are gonna run. Many of them are already going to run at four weeks. So go ahead and have that conversation at your two-week follow-up. Better yet, go ahead and have that conversation in their late pregnancy. Prepare them for what they're going to experience in that return to run. Prepare them for it to decrease fear and to improve education and awareness. Education goes such a long way in this area, but we've also gotta have that follow-up. We've gotta have that action item, okay? When they experience the pain or the heaviness, what you're going to do is X, Y, Z. Decrease that volume, right? Maybe return to some, diaphragmatic breathing and regulate your nervous system if it's someone who's has a heightened level of concern, right? We're going to repeat last week's workouts after symptoms have resolved. Give them several action items that way they feel empowered to make those decisions for themselves. All of that and then have that follow-up appointment with them already scheduled a couple weeks out. And that way, you can address all of these issues that are small, and we ensure that it does not continue to grow. So that's a very different way of guiding someone in this return to running, where someone is starting to run early, we don't have the time to go through all these strength and all of these assessments, but we just say, hey, let's use our symptoms as our guide. Let's start small, 15 seconds of running, 30 seconds of walking. Let's start small and add that in and let's see how you do. That is an example of us coming alongside someone who's already going to be running. This is how we stay in their corner as opposed to, Hey, you're not ready to run. Person's like, I know I'm ready to run. I mentally am so ready to run. I'm not gonna go back to that person. I'm gonna go run. We lose people when we have this black and white yes and no and I am the boss. We gain people, we gain people's trust and confidence and their willingness to work with us if we come alongside them. So that's what we're advocating for this return to run. Absolutely, you're gonna work on strength, overall building capacity, calf. We're gonna work on coaching them and how do they look with running and running form and their cadence. And we're going to be addressing all of these factors. Let's do it by letting them run and coming alongside them. That's a bit different than what you might be doing. That's different than what we used to do several years ago. What do you think? Do you want to try it? Have you recently tried it? Or are you concerned? Think we might be missing something? I'd love to hear your thoughts on this. Have a wonderful Monday. Hope to see you on the road at one of our three courses at the end of this year. And we will talk soon. Thanks for being here, y'all.

OUTRO

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Oct 20, 2023

Alan Fredendall // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/fulltext/2019/12000/validity_and_reliability_of_the_rear_foot_elevated.9.aspx

https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=9900&issue=00000&article=00300&type=Fulltext 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Fitness Athlete lead faculty Alan Fredendall discusses the research, physics, clinical context, and patient input that goes into deciding if mechanics with lifting are "good" or "bad".

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

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EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ALAN FREDENDALL

Good morning, everybody. Welcome to the PT on ICE Daily Show. Happy Friday morning. I hope your morning is off to a great start. My name is Alan. I'm happy to be your host today here on Fitness Athlete Friday, the best darn day of the week. I currently have the pleasure of serving as our Chief Operating Officer at Ice and a lead faculty member here in our Fitness Athlete Division. Fitness Athlete Friday, we talk all things CrossFit, power limping, Olympic weight lifting. recreational bodybuilding, running, rowing, biking, swimming, triathletes, marathoners, anybody who's out there getting after it on a regular basis, we address all things relevant to that population. Some courses coming your way really quick from the Fitness Athlete Division. Your last chance to catch us online for our eight-week online entry-level course, Clinical Management Fitness Athlete Level 1 Online will begin November 6th. So that's just two weeks away. That'll be our last cohort of the year. That class will take us right through the holidays. and then we'll take a little break. The next cohort after that will be available sometime in the spring. So if you've been hoping to join us for that class, November 6th is your last chance for the next couple months. Live courses coming your way between now and the end of the year as we get into the back half here of quarter four. You can catch Zach Long down in Birmingham, Alabama. That'll be the weekend of November 4th and 5th. That same weekend, Mitch Babcock will be in San Antonio, Texas. The weekend of November 18th and 19th, Mitch will be in Holmes Beach, Florida. Beautiful place, just actually took a vacation there a couple weeks ago. Wonderful place to get to, especially in mid-November if you're from the Northeast or the Midwest, Florida's a great spot that time of year. That class just has one seat left, so if you've been looking to get baby both to Florida and to fitness athlete, that is your chance. And then our very last live course of the year from the fitness athlete division will be December 9th and 10th. That will be out in Colorado Springs, Colorado. That course will also be with Mitch Babcock. So check us out online, check us out live. We'd love to have you here at the end of the year before we get into the holidays.

02:16 - DOES FORM MATTER?

Today's topic, we're going to take a deep dive into form and mechanics. Does form matter? How much does it matter? We hear this question a lot in our courses as we're introducing movements, instructing the basics of how to perform some of the most basic movements, your squats, your deadlifts, your presses. This may be a question that you get from athletes or patients in the clinic and for a long time and even right now this is kind of a very dogmatic campy approach to this topic of yes form is the most important thing or no form has no application at all we've even heard things like Sheer force is an artificial construct created by physical therapists to scare people away from moving. Physics doesn't matter as much as we thought it did. That movement, however it happens, is normal, natural, and that's how the human chooses to move, and there is no right or wrong way to move. So, where's the magic lie? Where's the evidence lie? What actually works in practice in the gym with real human beings? And what are some pearls to take away from the discussion on form? So often we get questions of does it really matter if the low back rounds during a squat or a deadlift? Does it really matter if the back hyper extends with overhead lifting? Who cares if someone catches a snatch with a bent elbow or they never reach full extension of the elbow at the bottom of maybe a pull-up? If someone presses their jerks or snatches out, is it really that big of a deal? So today I want to approach this topic from a couple different directions. I want you to go back and watch last Thursday's episode or listen to it on evidence-based medicine about making sure we're addressing all of the facets of evidence-based medicine when we approach a really hot topic like this that also has a room for a lot of interpretation one way or the other. We need to look at what does the evidence say, we need to look at what does our friend physics say, what does our clinical experience say as far as What is our anecdotal experience with clinical pattern recognition with actual patients and athletes? And then what does the patient say? What matters to the patient? Patient expectation and input matters. So let's start from the top.

04:42 - WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE SAY?

What does the evidence say? As much as we don't want to hear this, we don't have a lot of strong evidence either way in this discussion about form. When we talk about what does the evidence say, we have nothing concrete or strong for or against poor mechanics and lifting. We have a ton of research out of the functional movement screen space that looks at movement quality and its association to injury. And time and time again, I have to declare my bias. I hate that test. I think that test is total garbage. I think the research supports that that test is total garbage. And when we look at does particularly unweighted movement transfer to predicting injury, we have stacks and stacks and stacks of research across a wide variety of populations, recreational athletes, tactical athletes, first responders, professional athletes, that shows the association between quality and injury prediction or injury risk reduction is simply not there. We do have some research that looks at the effects of lifting, and I'll put lifting in air quotes here for those of you listening on the podcast, that lifting with a rounded back does not seem to cause low back pain or make current low back pain worse with the caveat of when we look at that systematic review and meta-analysis from O'Sullivan and colleagues a couple years ago, that the papers they included did not have any patient lifting more than 25 reps across the span of a day at a weight heavier than 25 pounds. It's really hard to take research like that and extrapolate it to our population who might be deadlifting two or three times their body weight, cleaning or snatching their body weight, doing dozens or hundreds of things like pull-ups and handstand push-ups and double-unders, really getting a lot of load through their body, running, crossfit, lifting, whatever. That research really has no application. It's really hard to even call that lifting, right? Those are just kind of activities of daily living. We can't take research like that and extrapolate it to somebody dead lifting with a low back and say these are the same. They are just simply not. We also need to be mindful of the research that we do have. When you look at papers on deadlifts with low back pain, on the effects of lumbar reversal with lifting, what you'll find in those studies is that one of the variables that the research authors always control for is the lifting mechanics themselves. You'll often see, if you actually read the full paper, not to harp on that, but when you read the full paper, when you read the methodology, what you will find is that very often those folks are instructed how we would instruct a movement in the gym, which is to try to maintain a brace-neutral spine, modifying the load or modifying the range of motion to maintain that, to therefore reduce that as a variable in the research study. That if we cannot control mechanics, that's one more variable that maybe takes a little bit away from our conclusion when we look at the data. Of trying to standardize the mechanics as much as possible is how we can narrow down the focus of that research study on whatever the intervention is and whatever the outcome and feel really confident that the association there is direct and that other variables aren't at play. If we can't say deadlifts are safe, deadlifts increase low back strength, deadlifts improve low back pain, if we look at a study and there was no control on how the deadlift was performed or how the mechanics were performed through those deadlifts. One study does sumo deadlifts, another does conventional, one does trap bar, one allows back rounding, one does not. You'll see when you read those studies that controlling for those variables, controlling for those mechanics, is one of the ways that variables are reduced. And so it's hard to look at those studies as well and extrapolate to altered mechanics, what we might call a movement fault, and translate that to the population that we're working with. It's hard to take research and say, you know what? I'm gonna do everything this study did except change everything about it, right? That doesn't mean you're implementing that research and practice. You're taking the general idea and you're kind of going your own way with it. You no longer have that evidence base to stand on. From the research, we do know that symmetry can be objectively quantified, we can assess it, and we can intervene on it. Very often, physical therapists are very comfortable at calling out and identifying qualitative faults without really understanding what might be going on, how to assess it, how to measure it, how to track it, or how to change it. But if we look at some really nice research papers, a great one came out this year, I'm gonna butcher this name, I'm so sorry, Yuja Kovic and Sarah Bond came out this year, looking specifically at asymmetries and change of direction in basketball athletes and finding that there are ways that we can objectively quantify things like asymmetries, strength, speed, motion, quality, asymmetries, that we can also intervene on them. This study in particular sought to reduce the change of direction asymmetry by overloading the slower slash weaker limb with three times as much training volume compared to the stronger or faster side. That looking at an 11% or so difference in change of direction speed, able to reduce that down to just 4% simply by overloading the volume on the weaker, slower, basically problem area. In this case, it was the lower extremity. A very simple study, just using some lower extremity strengthening, three times as much volume as the contralateral limb. We know we don't need a biodex or some other form of fancy isokinetic testing or force plates in our clinic to have ways to objectively identify and assess maybe quality that is associated with asymmetry that is maybe the cause of pain, aggravating current pain, aggravating past pain and or limiting performance. Great study by Helm and colleagues 2019. wanted to validate the five rep max rear foot elevated split squat. Maybe you have heard of this as the Bulgarian split squat, but essentially kicking up that back leg, doing a five rep max on each leg. In this study, they used a barbell. In the clinic, you can use dumbbells as well, trying to find a five rep max per side, and then quantifying and objectifying the asymmetry side to side. Finding it's a very reliable, very valid way as compared to things like Biodex, and force plates to develop an idea of asymmetry from side to side. I would argue a paper like that we can extrapolate to the upper extremity, we can do something like a landmine press, we can do something with our lats or back with something like a bent over row and really start to think if we're seeing movement faults that we think are the cause of symptoms or some sort of performance issue to start getting more objective in how we assess, reassess, and intervene on these things. So that's what the evidence says. It doesn't say a lot. Besides that, we need to help people get stronger and we need to quantify where their strength is at as they're starting their rehab program and then reassess it as they're finishing in order to be sure that person actually got stronger and actually closed the gap on any sort of perceived or actual asymmetries that we found.

11:38 - WHAT DOES PHYSICS SAY?

What does physics say? This is something that we tend to ignore a lot, that we exist as human beings on a planet with things like gravity, and that we are subject to certain physical characteristics that we can't avoid. Physics would say that the shortest route between two points is a straight line, and anything else, any other extraneous movement is a force leak. Any amount of force leak doesn't matter what your sport is. If you're an Olympic weightlifter, a powerlifter, a crossfitter, a gymnast, a swimmer, a runner, The more inefficient your mechanics, the more extraneous movement, the more your leg kicks out into circumduction in your run, the more your lower back rounds and extends back and forth as you go through deadlift reps, the more you bend your knees or bend your elbow in your pull-ups, it doesn't matter. The more extraneous movement you have, the more you're leaking force out of your system, the more you're limiting your top end performance. I have yet to this day see anybody break the deadlift world record by doing a Jefferson Curl. Yes, under extreme loads we might see a little bit of low back rounding, but we don't see people intentionally initiating a 1500-pound deadlift with a Jefferson curl mechanic. They tend to approach the barbell over and over again in a similar fashion, either setting up in a conventional or sumo deadlift and really doing everything they can, again, to minimize extraneous movement, put the maximum amount of weight through the ground to lift the highest load up in the air. That is performance, that is physics. We have to remember, unless we can invent some sort of technology or better understand physics, we can't get around that. So that's the evidence, that's the math. What does our personal experience say? Our clinical experience, maybe some of you would say this is anecdotal, but remember, part of evidence-based medicine is our clinical experience.

13:59 - WHAT DOES CLINICAL EXPERIENCE SAY?

Our clinical experience would say that those folks in the gym that we see performing pull-ups, overhead movements with things like a constantly bent elbow, tend to be the people that we most often see over in the PT clinic for stuff like elbow pain. That the folks who rock up on their toes, catching their cleans, their snatches, because they lack ankle dorsiflexion, are the folks that we tend to see coming into the clinic with things like knee pain. That those folks who always quarter squats, no matter how much we try to help them get to a deeper range of motion, a greater range of motion, whether it's working on their mobility, elevating their heels, giving them a squat to target, whatever our coaching cues corrections are, those tend to be the folks in the clinic with things like knee pain and hip pain. And those folks who show up with lumbar rounding in the bottom of their deadlifts, as they're pulling the deadlift off the floor, the bottom of their squat, catching a clean, catching a snatch, those tend to be the people who come to see us for low back pain and hip pain in the clinic.

18:01 - WHAT DOES THE PATIENT SAY?

And that connects really well to the third part of evidence based medicine of what matters to the patient. We have to understand these folks are often aware of their faults, especially the more they've been training, the less faults they tend to have, and they're more acutely aware of the ones they have left, and they also know the association between the faults they have and maybe aggravation of symptoms, re-aggravation of symptoms with maybe a previous injury. Understanding as well that we don't just always work with the lead athletes, that our goal is to introduce movement to everybody who comes into our clinic. How hard is it to introduce movements, even basic movements like the squat or deadlift, to patients who maybe never done this in their life before? Not even with a barbell. Maybe we just hand Doris a kettlebell for a goblet squat, or we have Frank just deadlifting a kettlebell off the ground. How tough is it for that person who is a complete novice to this If our instruction is, hey, Frank, you know what? Mechanics don't matter. Points of performance are arbitrary constructs created by rehab providers and fitness professionals to scare people like you into purchasing more care than you need. How helpful is that to teach movement to somebody new? What are they going to say? Uh, okay. So like, is there a way I should do this? Is there a best way? Well, Frank, it doesn't matter. All human movement is good and natural movement. Just do whatever feels good. That's not very helpful, right? And you would never do that in the clinic with a patient. You would never do that in the gym with an athlete. If you do actually do that, I challenge you to film that and send it to me because my gut tells me that nobody actually does that because you know how stupid you would sound and how likely it is for the patient to be successful if that's your approach to instructing movement. Likewise, if we do have that more experienced athlete, what good does it do to tell that person who has extreme low back pain, when their spine rounds in the bottom of the squat, there may be somebody who's filming their lifts to try to figure out why do my squats bother me? And our answer is, hey, there's no evidence to support that your spine flexing is a source of your pain. Same issue, right? Same outcome, entirely different patient population, but same outcome. Okay, that's not very helpful. I can see my tail tucking here, and I notice that when that happens, that's when I feel my extreme low back pain. That person has already associated that in their mind. What good does it do to tell them that there's no evidence to support that that's what's happening? They're experiencing it firsthand, right? We need to be mindful of the way that we instruct this, both with new and experienced athletes, patients in the gym and the clinic, that mechanics do seem to matter. People seem to have a natural awareness that at least some sort of standardization of performing a movement seems natural and that some sort of association exists between maybe symptoms and faults. We always acknowledge the resiliency of the human body, that yes, it can develop tolerance in different positions, such as lifting with a rounded back, but we can also still do stuff at the same time to limit pain with lifting. We can modify the range of motion. We can modify the load, the volume, whatever, to a more tolerable level. We need to get a lot more comfortable living in the gray area. Yes, we can recognize injuries multifactorial. Yes, the body's capacity can be temporarily reduced by things like sleep, stress, illness, nutrition, but we can also still manipulate movement to be more comfortable and enjoyable and also help that person work on strengthening in a manner that we know is very evidence supported that's going to reduce the likelihood of future injury. I have an athlete on my caseload right now, very, very impressive athlete, been doing CrossFit a long time. every time she's under an extreme amount of cardiovascular fatigue, or she's doing something like a 10 rep max with a back squat or a three rep max clean or something like that. Usually under a high amount of fatigue, she demonstrates some lumbar reversal associated with that lumbar reversal is always extreme low back pain. She is aware of that. She's somebody that films her lifts. She knows every time she rounds her low back in the bottom of her squat, that is what usually will kick up an episode of low back pain that could last short term, a couple of days, or could really set her back weeks or maybe months. So she's very aware of her spine rounding, the association of form with the development of symptoms, and aware of how bad those symptoms can get. So what are solutions with that in regards to does form matter or not? Well, the first thing we can always do is help reduce that pain acutely, right? Of that person is an extraordinary pain in our clinic, regardless of what we're going to do with them in the gym, regardless of how we're going to address their form, we have ways to reduce their acute pain. We can modify those squats, we can do things like belt squats, we can do lightweight, high tempo squats, tempo squats at maybe 30 or 40% of her max where she's maybe taking three, five, seven seconds to sit down to that squat to maintain or continue to build strength in a way that doesn't aggravate her symptoms. We can do alternate movements if a squat pattern is not tolerable at all, hip thrusts, deadlifts, et cetera, to train lower extremity general strengthening. Yes, we can build up general strength and endurance of the low back, the legs, the posterior chain as we're getting more comfortable, but we can also spend some time working with that athlete on their mechanics of what's going to probably help you the most is that under extreme fatigue, you know how to breathe embrace, you know when to call it for the day when you know you're extremely fatigued, so you don't find yourself in this position again and again. And yes, the final step there is probably to layer in some intentional lifting in that what we would say poor mechanical position, right? Let's also add in some rounded back lifting so that we expose ourselves to the movement so the only time we encounter it is not under a 10 rep max on the 10th rep where we tend to encounter our symptoms. So let's do things like sandbag cleans and sandbag squats and yes, Jefferson curls and other things like reverse hyper extensions. Let's do all the things. We don't have to focus just on form but also form matters. We need to train in that position so that when we get into that compromised form position, it is going to have a less likelihood to be symptomatic and set that athlete back.

21:09 - MECHANICS & PERFORMANCE

And finally, we need to go beyond pain into performance. What does the evidence say? What does physics say? What do we say? What does the patient say? What does performance say? What can you possibly help an athlete with who comes into your clinic, who wants to pay you $150 an hour to improve their snatch, and you say there are no optimal mechanics to complete the snatch. We know that's not true, right? People who win gold medals in clean and jerks and snatches tend to lift a certain way. They tend to all show relatively the same mechanics. That tells us that mechanics seems to matter a lot in regards to high level performance. There's a reason those Olympic weightlifters tend to initiate their pull off the floor in the same fashion, going through their first pull, their second pull, their receiving position, the jerk overhead or the catching of the snatch. There's a reason that it looks pretty much textbook no matter who the athlete is, how tall or short or big or small they are or what their race or gender is. They all tend to show the same mechanics time and time again. It seems like it's physics at the end of the day. We don't see anybody breaking the snatch world record with a rounded back deadlift to a muscle snatch, do we? And I think that tells us a lot of now beginning to shift towards using mechanics to push performance. And again, as long as we can be objective about it, I think that is the way to go.

24:41 - SUMMARY

So what does the evidence say? We have nothing strongly for or against poor mechanics and lifting. is it relates to people actually performing resistance training not just picking up pins off the floor with a rounded back. We need to be mindful that research studies tend to standardize points performance for lifts such that everyone is performing the same thing the same way every time. What does physics tell us? It will always tell us unless something miracle happens with a change in physics that the shortest route between two points is a straight line Mechanics matter in performance. Straight lines are strong lines. What does our clinical experience tell us? That people who tend to move like crap, especially under increasing amounts of load and or volume, whether it's due to poor mobility, going too heavy, going too fast, those tend to also be the people who need a lot of healthcare treatment, right? Those folks who tend to move quite well tend to have maybe one particular fault, that they're usually aware of, and that they're usually also aware of being associated with their symptoms, and we need to be mindful of that. And what do those patients say? People who are already active are usually aware of that fault, they're usually aware of when and how they demonstrate it, and they are usually aware of that it's associated with some sort of symptom, development of a new symptom, re-aggravation of a previous injury, that sort of thing. We know the group of people we probably need to help the most are inactive patients. The other 90% of the population, right? The majority of the people in our caseload. Inactive patients, people who are complete novices to movement, can't learn things in a structured manner that they're going to be able to repeat them on their own in the gym or at home in the garage or whatever. if our approach is that physics, points of performance, faults, are just artificial constructs that we create to scare them and somehow fleece the general public out of their money. And then also finally, something to remember is that you'll be stuck on a hamster wheel in your clinic forever just treating people in pain if you're not able to transition people to the lifelong fitness and performance side of what we can offer them. At a certain point, mechanics do matter as it relates to top end performance, as it relates to goal setting. And you're crazy if you think, quote unquote, normal people don't want to increase the amount of weight they can snatch, or how fast they can run their mile. We need to be mindful that with top end performance, when people want to see their 5K time come down, or their one rep max back squat go up, that mechanics really, really, really do matter. So mechanics, do they matter? It depends, but there's probably more to be said for mechanics mattering for a performance aspect, for instruction aspect, and for overall higher quality and the ability to perform more movement more often, which is the goal. If we are aware of mechanics, but also being mindful that sometimes they don't matter, especially if we're not being objective about assessing them, reassessing them, and what we're doing to intervene on maybe trying to improve mechanics. Tough discussion, but I think it's worth one having. I hope you all have a fantastic Friday. If you're gonna be at a live course this weekend, I hope you have a great time. We'll see you all next week. Bye, everybody.


OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.




Oct 19, 2023

Dr. Ellison Melrose // #TechniqueThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Dry Needling lead faculty Ellison Melrose discusses an alternate technique to dry needle the lumbar multifidus.

Take a listen to the podcast episode, watch the video, or read the full transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about dry needling, especially dry needling with e-stim using the ITO ES-160 stim unit, take a look at our Upper Body Dry Needling course, our Lower Body Dry Needling course, or check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ELLISON MELROSE

Good morning YouTube and good morning Instagram. This is PT on ice daily show. I am Dr. Ellison Melrose and I am currently lead faculty with the dry needling division of ICE. So we are going to go over a alternative approach for dry needling the lumbar multifidus today. Um, before we get into that, I want to go over our upcoming courses. So this, the remainder of 2023, we have, um, a handful of courses. This weekend, Paul's going to be out in Anchorage, Alaska, and I believe that is capped. After that, he will be down in Seattle, Washington on November 3rd through the 5th for the upper quarter. I will be out in Rochester, Minnesota for upper quarter dry needling on November 18th through the 19th. We will both be teaching the first weekend in December. So December 1st through the 3rd, Paul will be in Bellingham, Washington, and he will be hitting upper quarter then, and I will be out in Clearwater, Florida, so opposite sides of the states, doing lower quarter. So if you guys have a chance to find us out on the road, or want to join us for the remainder of 2023, those are the courses. We have one other one also in Fayetteville, Arkansas, the second weekend in December, where we'll be doing lower quarter. out there. So if you guys have any questions about those courses coming up, feel free to message us here or yeah, stay tuned for those courses. And then 2024 we'll be starting out pretty hot with some more courses and our advanced course as well. It will be, will be coming, um, in 2024.

02:10 - COMMON APPROACH TO DRY NEEDLING THE LUMBAR MULTIFIDUS

So what I wanted to do today was to go over an alternative approach for, uh, dry needling the lumbar multifidus. So there, We are not gonna go over clinical reasons for needling the lumbar multifidus, but for those who have been taught how to needle the multifidus, there is one technique that is used fairly widespread across all educators, and that is the wrap-over technique. For demonstration purposes, I am going to be using my knuckle as the spinous process, and then we will be demonstrating it on a human body as well. For that wrap-over technique, so we have our spinous process here, Wrap over technique, we use two fingers to compress within a one centimeter gutter, just lateral to the spinous process. And we create a target window with our fingers and treating within that zone. In order to treat bilaterally, so both sides, you have to walk around the table to treat the contralateral side, which is fine, But when we're talking about clinical efficiency, it may be conducive to be able to treat or to needle staying on the same side of the patient. So we have an alternative approach for needling the multifidus where you are able to stay on the same side of the patient, and that will be your dominant side. So I am right-handed, so I'm going to be treating from the right side of the table treating the lumbar multifidus. I'll demonstrate first the wrap over technique and the alternative technique.

04:02 - ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO DRY NEEDLING THE LUMBAR MULTIFIDUS

For that alternative technique, so instead of using that spinous process, our palpation hand, two finger, stepping over that spinous process and compressing into the gutter, what we are going to be doing is we are going to be using our palpation hand, index and middle finger to orient us to where that lateral border of the spinous process is. In the lumbar spine, we have about a one centimeter gutter where we can feel fairly confident that we're going to be directing our needle towards the lamina with a directly posterior to anterior approach. From there, if we go outside that one centimeter gutter, we need to angle the needle medially to ensure that we have contact with the lamina as we need that laminal contact to ensure that we are at the depth of the multifidus. We are going to stay within that one centimeter gutter for today's demonstration, but we will start with that wrap over technique and then the alternative approach. The alternative approach, instead of using that two finger digital compression, we are going to be using the spinous process and either our middle or index finger to find that lateral border. So, first we want to find the spinous process and take the mid pad of our palpation finger and palpate that lateral border of the spinous process. From there, we're going to take our middle finger or our index finger, depending on which side we are treating, and compress tissue down within that one centimeter guide. From there, we're going to create a treatment window between our two fingers and treating directly posterior to anterior. towards laminal contact.

07:19 - ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE DEMONSTRATED

So it'll make more sense when we're demonstrating it on the patient. So let's go ahead and do that. I'm just going to angle this camera down towards my patient. So here we have an exposed lumbar spine. I'm going to just orient myself to where we are. I am standing on my dominant hand side. From there, We'll just go over palpation. So spine is processed, we can palpate the lateral borders with our thumbs here. For that wrap over technique, we're going to take our pads of our palpation hand, stepping off, compressing tissue down, treating within that one centimeter gutter, okay? So let's start with that technique and then I'll show you the alternative approach after. So, palpating that lateral border of the spinous process, two fingers stepping off, compressing down into that gutter, keeping that needle angle directly posterior to anterior, so vertically, tapping, advancing the needle towards laminal contact. So in order to treat the ipsilateral side now, I would have to walk around the table and straddle that needle to do the same compression and same technique that we did on this side. So what I will demonstrate is the alternative approach and then we'll do another segment down below of the alternative approach just to show you how efficient this tool can be. So, instead of using those two fingers to hug the lateral border, I'm going to be using my middle finger on my palpation hand to palpate the posterior aspect of that spinous process. From there, I'm going to take the middle aspect of my pad and hug that lateral border of the spinous process. My index finger is then compressing into that gutter creating a nice treatment window. Again, we want to be aware of where that one centimeter gutter is and treating within that zone, directly posterior to anterior. So vertical, vertical needle approach here. So compressing down towards laminal contact. So there we have the alternative approach on that ipsilateral side. From there, thinking clinical efficiency, if we were going to set up multiple different segments in the lumbar spine, if we started proximally or superiorly and worked inferiorly, kind of like you're reading a book, that is going to be the easiest way to avoid some awkward hand positions with the needles. So we will needle the segment just distal to the ones that have needles in. So from there, Instead of using my middle finger to contact that lateral border, I'm gonna be using my index finger. We are treating the contralateral side from where I am standing. So again, we can appreciate the lateral borders of the spinous process. Take the pad of our index finger and hug that lateral border of the spinous process. Compress my middle finger now and create a treatment zone between my two fingers. Again, appreciate that we have a one centimeter gutter. Now we want to be treating directly posterior anterior to contact lamina. From there, I'm going to do a firm guide to compression, firm tap, advance the needle to laminal contact. And then we can do the same thing on the ipsilateral side. so middle finger palpating the posterior aspect of the spinous process wrapping to that lateral kind of hugging that lateral where it starts to curve creating a one centimeter gutter with my index and middle finger treating within that zone directly posterior to anterior towards laminal contact. So there we have, we went over the wrap-over technique and the alternative approach and just looking at the clinical efficiency that being able to stay on that ipsilateral side of the patient can do. I have a very small treatment room, so it allows me to not have to kind of wiggle my treatment table back and forth, and allows us to get a handful of segments within a couple minutes, which I think when we're thinking about using dry needling in the clinic, we want to save as much time as we have for using our electrical stimulation, as the new research is showing how beneficial that can be for treating pain, neuromuscular priming, also, um, recovery or hemodynamics, improving hemodynamics. So we want to get the needles in as efficient as possible as to allow for some optimal treatment time with the Eastern. So we, again, just to review with this technique, we are going to be using our index and middle finger. And instead of hugging the lateral border of that spinous process, we are going to be treating, um, with those fingers just off the lateral border, creating a one centimeter gutter between those two fingers, treating directly posterior to anterior and maintaining laminal contact to ensure we are at the depth of the multifidus. Thank you guys so much for joining me this morning, going over the alternative approach for dry needling the multifidus. And I hope to see you out on the road sometime this year or next year.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to PTOnIce.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 18, 2023

Dr. Jeff Musgrave // #GeriOnICE // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Modern Management of the Older Adult lead faculty Jeff Musgrave discusses the significant issue regarding the lack of individualization and care for older adults with cognitive impairments. Jeff points out that many older adults on their caseloads are at different stages of cognitive impairment, but this often goes unnoticed until it progresses to advanced dementia. The problem lies in the one-size-fits-all approach to treating cognitive impairments, where individuals with mild impairments are grouped together with those with severe impairments, or they are treated the same as the general population without screening for cognitive impairments.

This lack of individualization and care for older adults with cognitive impairments is also evident in nursing homes. Jeff mentions a study from Germany that examined a population of nursing home residents. The residents were grouped based on their cognitive and physical impairments. However, the study found that there was a lack of personalized care, as a more diverse group was randomly assembled with varying levels of cognitive and physical function, and they all received the same basic intervention.

Jeff emphasizes the need to tailor care to the individual's cognitive capacity, just as their physical capacity is considered. He uses the analogy of coaching a peewee football league, where practice would not be taken to the local NFL team if the capacity is not appropriate. Similarly, individuals with cognitive impairments should not receive interventions that are beyond their cognitive abilities. However, in the current state of rehabilitation for those with cognitive impairments, interventions are often not matched to their cognitive abilities. This lack of individualization and care for older adults with cognitive impairments is a significant problem that needs to be addressed.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about live courses designed to better serve older adults in physical therapy or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - JEFF MUSGRAVE

Welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. Good morning, my name is Dr. Jeff Musgrave. Super excited to be with you this morning, talking about a topic that's really important to me, but also reviewing a research article eight days off the press, a new technique called clustering to give better care to those with dementia on our caseloads. But before we get into that, if you're looking to up your Geri game, we are available. We've got some extra seats in our New Jersey course in Matawan, New Jersey this weekend. If you want to hop on that train, we'd love to have you. We've got space for just a few more. Next weekend, if you want to join us for live, we'll be in Annapolis, Maryland or in Central South Carolina. Last cohort of Essential Foundations just kicked off. We've got our first live meetup, so sorry if you missed it. We will be up in full force in January 2024. There is still time to catch advanced concepts if you want to sign up for that. The last cohort is about to begin, so grab those seats.

02:42 - JEFF MUSGRAVE

So team, man, I'm so excited to get to talk to you about this topic. There are so many older adults on our caseloads in various stages of cognitive impairment. And this oftentimes goes unrecognized until it becomes advanced dementia. when things are a bit harder to turn the tide, but also there's a severe lack of individualization and care for those that have cognitive impairments. A big problem in general practice is this one size fits all. In geriatrics in general, whether we're talking about physical impairments, but unfortunately we see the same problem when it comes to cognitive impairments. We see those with cognitive impairments get treated the same regardless of how advanced those symptoms are. So we see one of two big problems here. We either see those with very mild cognitive impairments grouped with those with very severe impairments, Or we just see them treated the same because no one's screened or picked up on the fact that there's a cognitive impairment on board and they're treated just like the general population which is also not appropriate. So neither of those are a good look. So this study out of Germany was looking at a population of residents in nursing homes and what they did is they clustered them based on their cognitive as well as their physical impairment. So they used a clustering approach to try to get homogeneous groups of people based on not only their physical function but their cognitive function. So all these residents were 65 and up. They had mild to moderate dementia and were living in a skilled nursing facility. The physical measures that they used were the six minute walk test, the timed up and go, 30 seconds sit to stand. But the biggest place where they saw variation that dictated their function was on their mini mental state exam. So their cognitive impairment did a lot to dictate their function. So what they found at the end of this was that those that had more advanced cognitive impairments were not able, even if they had the physical function, to participate in as high level balance training as those that had more severe cognitive impairments. So those with more mild cognitive impairment were not able to participate at the same level, in particular when it came to balance challenges.

04:56 - COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS & TRAINING

The interventions for this study unfortunately the link did not go through that I could see all the details but what they what they were doing was some form of strength training either seated if there was lower physical function versus standing or dynamic movement in standing if they had higher physical function. So lower to higher physical function and then they gave also a cognitive layer to their interventions while they were doing balance or strength training. So that allowed them to scale the intervention to those who, to make it more appropriate. So they had a higher and lower physical function, higher and lower cognitive function group, and they scaled the cognitive load as well as the instructions So one big thing that's missing is the environment and the type of cues that we give typically in clinical practice for those with cognitive impairments also need to be scaled. They can't be as complex of cues with multiple sentences in the same duration of time. We've got to really scale that to the person in front of us and individualize that care based on their cognitive capacity, just like we would their physical capacity. The way I kind of think about this is if you were coaching a peewee football league and practice is going really well, you would not march them over to the local NFL team for practice. Their capacity is not appropriate. But we do the same thing with cognitive impairments where we've got someone who has more advanced cognitive impairments, getting a much higher level of training than what they should be and it's no surprise when the results aren't as good and that's also what was found in this study was the experimental group had the matched physical and cognitive and then there was a more heterogeneous group that was just kind of randomly put together with higher and lower cognitive and physical function, and they all got this lowest common denominator intervention, which we commonly see, especially because this was looking at group training in skilled nursing facilities. What typically happens is we've got this big group of people, and we find the person with the lowest cognitive and physical function, and we give everyone that. So the person that has the lowest physical and cognitive function gets an appropriate challenge. Everyone else has lots more ability that is not tapped into and is not being challenged. So it's no surprise once you hear that's what's happening, which unfortunately is the state of rehab for those that have cognitive impairments in general, is it's not being matched to their cognitive ability. So those that were not matched based on their cognitive and physical function showed decline in their mental function by the time the study was complete. So those with matched physical and cognitive challenge to their actual, their functional level, They did great. They were able to maintain their cognitive level in this skilled setting. And those that were not matched showed cognitive decline in even a short period of time. This is pretty wild.

08:09 - SCREENING FOR COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS

So some big takeaways here. Are we screening? Are we screening cognition in our older adults? The research says that the sooner we can screen people, the better chance we have to change their life and help them maintain their cognitive function and sometimes actually improve their cognitive function. There is a mountain of research that shows exercise is beneficial for cognition, especially if we're pushing into the fitness realm. and we're pushing people at high intensity and we're asking them to lift heavy things, we're asking them to learn new novel tasks. So we want to make sure we're doing that with older adults, not only for their physical function, but for their cognitive function. But we need to get a baseline of where they are to make sure that we're scaling these things appropriately. The tool that was used in this study was a mini mental state exam, which unfortunately is not great at screening for mild cognitive impairment, which is kind of that first phase before there is problems with activities of daily living, like once we get into more advanced forms of dementia. Tools like the MOCA, the Montreal Cognitive assessment may be more appropriate for catching signs of mild cognitive impairment. Also the SLUMS, the St. Louis University Mental State Exam. However, with that one, it's good to be aware that that can trigger automatically a local referral once it is complete. So you want to make sure that your patient, if there's any family members involved with care, that they're all aware that that will happen. And if this is like, man, I am not comfortable with this cognition stuff, this feels like way out of my depth, that's fine. You don't have to be the expert on everything, but you do need to be accountable to having resources in your area. Who is the SLPs, maybe outpatient, Or on your team if you are in a skilled environment that you can send for a cog referral. Or OTs, we have lots of OTs that are great at screening and intervening cognition and giving you an idea how many step commands, what type of environment, what type of cues are appropriate for this patient. but we have got to meet them where they are for cognition, just like we do for our physical interventions. So if you're not screening, start there. We've got to do more than alert and oriented times three. We've got to be getting these screening tools in use, or we've got to start making those referrals to people that are able to help get a baseline and make sure that our interventions are appropriate. So if you are screening, awesome, you are ahead of the curve. So now your job is to make sure that these interventions are appropriate, just like we're outlined in this study.

14:09 - SCALING UP OR DOWN BASED ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING DELAYS

So what we want to make sure that we're doing is we want to know that there are things like cognitive processing delays, where it may take someone with more advanced dementia symptoms two minutes to process our commands. That was just five seconds of silence from me. If you can imagine two minutes of silence after your cues made this mistake so many times with this population. In two minutes, we've said a thousand things. and they're still processing the first thing that we said. So want to be mindful as we pick up on these symptoms. Cognitive processing delays can be up to two minutes. More mild forms, it could be five, 10, 15 seconds. It may feel a little more natural. Likely your skin's going to crawl, but it may be a very appropriate communication. It's going to look way different in this population. We want to make sure that the more advanced the cognitive impairment is, the more familiar the tools and the exercise interventions that we're using. We can't give a 40 point intervention and biomechanical explanation on a beautiful trap bar deadlift with an older adult. who has advanced dementia, we may be better off to use their purse and add some stuff to it, or add just grocery bags with food in it, and just ask them, pick this up. Once they do that, let's walk, walk 20 feet, or walk over to this area of the gym. No more cues, no more instruction, set it down. That may be a very skilled, very appropriate set of cues for an older adult with advanced dementia. So we want to keep in mind the tools. We also want to keep in mind the scenario. Can we control the environment? That is a skilled scaling tool. How loud is it? How busy is the environment? Is there lots of interaction? Are we at prime time in the clinic, out in a busy clinic where there's people throwing balls on a rebounder or the music's blaring? There's lots of laughter and fun. That may be a completely overstimulating environment for someone who has more advanced dementia. So the complexity… of the environment, the amount of noise, background noise, all those things are scaling options. So if we start in that quiet environment, we may eventually scale in to more advanced and complex environments where there are more distractions, where it is more like real life. But that's gotta be an intentional choice. That doesn't need to be an accident. We need to be very skilled with our interventions and that is part of it. How we choose to practice is also very important. Are we going to do random practice where we're jumping between tasks to task? That's going to be way less on the ability for someone with more advanced cognitive impairments. We may need to do block practice where we spend a big chunk of time, maybe 15 minutes, working just on a sit to stand. We may never get to a squat with a bar. That's fine. But if we can make it practical, we can meet people where we are, that may be where we need to stay. 15 minutes here, 15 minutes on the next thing, that may be our whole session. Or maybe it's something like a simple obstacle course. Pick this up, carry this, and follow me. That could be it. So I wanna keep these things in mind. If we are screening, we are getting a sense of what the cognitive ability level is of our clients, then our job is to scale it appropriately, and then you guessed it, then progress it as we're able. So we wanna use all those leveraging tools. So my advice to you, we're gonna switch gears, so that should be relevant to everyone. Now, if you are training in a group setting, kind of like this study outlines, where you're in a skilled facility, and you're doing group training, you can start with this lowest common denominator approach, but what you have to add in are easy scaling options. You've got to think about, we've kept everyone safe, but then for those that have the cognitive ability to do more advanced balance, or they're safe to do more advanced strength training, What can we do to scale it up for those individuals? So we've got everyone moving, everyone's safe. Now, how do we scale it up? Go heavier. Have heavier weight options available. Maybe instead of sitting, those people that have more advanced functional and cognitive impairments, they're going to be standing. Or maybe they're doing a dynamic movement. Maybe we're going to add some type of vestibular component where we're going to ask them to fixate and move their head side to side or up and down with the fixation point or maybe without a fixation point. Maybe we're having them close their eyes and head turn side to side or up and down. We can add that vestibular layer. We can add a cognitive component as well where we can ask preference questions like everyone, someone shout out, you can think to yourself or shout out loud some of your favorite foods. or name as many states as you can, or name things that are green. We can go very simple up to more complex counting tasks where maybe we're subtracting by 7 from 300 for someone that has a very mild cognitive impairment. Those things may still be on the docket. Those still may be very appropriate. But if we're doing group training, we can start with that lowest common denominator and then just offer scale up options. Another easy one that was even outlined in this study that they found to be beneficial was even just having a little piece of compliant foam for those that were already doing standing. Everyone in the group was mostly doing standing. They added the compliant foam in and that was a great option to scale up balance training. Everyone's getting instruction on the same movement, but there's not really a whole lot of extra instruction to change the surface. All right team, I got super fired up about this. Treated lots of people with cognitive impairments. If you're treating this population, I would love to hear any tips and tricks. Drop those in the comments. Thoughts? I will be dropping the article citation for you. The study was a new approach to individualized physical activity interventions for individuals with dementia. Cluster analysis based on physical and cognitive performance. I hope you enjoyed it. I hope you have a wonderful rest of your day and we will catch you next time.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to PTOnIce.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 17, 2023

Dr. Zac Morgan // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Spine Division division leader Zac Morgan discusses the importance of working with patients to dispel negatives beliefs & fear concerning movement aggravating symptoms. Zac describes different strategies to discuss with patients how not moving after surgery or while in pain is probably the riskiest decision. 

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Lumbar Spine Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ZAC MORGAN

Good morning PT on Ice Daily Show crew. I'm Zac Morgan, so I'm lead faculty with the spine division. I teach lumbar and cervical spine management, so you can find me on the road doing those things. Shout out to that crew in Hartford, Connecticut or Waterford, Connecticut this last week. We had a good time learning about cervical spine over there in Waterford. Few more courses on that note coming up this year that if you're trying to jump into either cervical or lumbar, just wanted to point you in the direction of. So November 11th and 12th, we'll be back in that Northeast region up in Bridgewater, Massachusetts for cervical spine. December 2nd and 3rd, Hendersonville, Tennessee for cervical spine. And then if neither one of those work for you, the next chance will be at the turn of the year on February 3rd and 4th over in Wichita, Kansas. If you're looking for lumbar spine management, we've got three different courses this year that are all still have tickets available. Frederick, Maryland, that's next week or this upcoming weekend, October 21st and 22nd. Then we've got November 4th and 5th. That'll be over in Fort Worth, Texas. And then lastly, Charlotte, North Carolina on December 2nd and 3rd. So still several Good offerings if you're looking for cervical or lumbar spine management. We've already got quite a few booked for next year as well, so if this year the calendar doesn't work out or if the Con Ed budget resets at the beginning of the year, Take a look at the 2024 course offerings as well and more to book there.

01:36 - CATASTROPHIZING REST

So team, this morning I wanted to talk to you all a little bit about rest and why I think we need to catastrophize rest. I think we need to make a bigger deal out of it when our clients come in and we find out that they've been resting. So let me talk a little bit about this. I've been chewing on this idea for a while and I think it's important for us to sort of understand that when someone's in pain, their risk meter is broken. Like they don't have the ability to conceptualize what's actually risky for them often when they're in pain. And so let me unpack what I mean with maybe a clinical scenario that we're all really familiar with. Let's think about something like a knee replacement. I think most of us in our career will interact with patients who have had a knee replacement. Usually we have interacted with those people on the days right after they have had a knee replacement or maybe you're the one that's getting them out of the bed in the hospital and you're the first person that's getting that person moving. I think we understand the risks to this person pretty well, and as a profession, we respond to them pretty well. We understand what this person's actual risk is when it comes to the knee replacement, and their risk would be being too sedentary or resting too much. And what would come alongside of that risk would be a lot of problems that we'll cover in a bit. You think about what that person's concerned about when you talk to that person in the subjective exam on day one, or maybe you just went into their hospital room and you're talking to them. That person's usually concerned about things that are unwarranted. They're worried that their knee is gonna pop out when you start to flex it. The first time you have that person do active range of motion, that person's like, oh my gosh, is my knee gonna fly out? Is the implement actually gonna pop out? They're worried about things like that, but we as PTs, we know that's not very common. We tend to mobilize knees really early and get them moving really, really rapidly and get as much range of motion as possible as quickly as possible in something like a knee replacement because we know that it's crucial that that happens at short term. So a large part of our job early on in managing this person who has just had a knee replacement is convincing them that their risk meter is off. Again, they're afraid to move. They walked through the door that day with a lot of blood in their amygdala. They were very concerned. They were worried, what if something's going wrong? I didn't know it was going to hurt this bad. I didn't think it was going to be quite like this. And they have typically not been moving as a response to all that pain.

03:22 - CONVINCING PATIENTS TO MOVE

And our job is to help them understand that, hey, if you don't move, that's where the risk lives. The risk lives in being sedentary after a knee replacement. Like what's actually risky is if we don't move, the blood will pool, right? And we will wind up with things like a blood clot. Very risky. If a blood clot ends up dislodging and we end up with a pulmonary embolism, that's life-threatening. So that's real risk. That's something that we have to help those people understand is like, hey, if you're too still, we could wind up with something like a blood clot. And maybe we don't fear-monger that to patients, but we do help them understand that risk. You think about some of the other risks that that person has if they don't get moving. What about long-term mobility? If a knee replacement patient does not get their knee moving, you think about what that person's long-term mobility is gonna look like, and it's gonna be quite poor. That first 12 weeks after knee replacement is the most important time for us to restore full extension and get as close to full flexion as we can. We're really trying hard to push range of motion early because we know that person's long-term risk is having a stiff knee. and then not being able to participate in some of their ADLs because of the immobility in their knee. We get the risk so we help unfold that to the people in front of us. I mean the last big ones that happen if someone rests are things like atrophy or loss of cardiovascular endurance and we know this happens very very rapidly. when someone's on bed rest, when someone's immobilized, when somebody's truly sedentary or even sedated, things like that. We know the body responds and we see wasting of all those systems. The same thing's happening if someone doesn't move when they've had knee replacement. maybe not as rapidly as true rest, but we know that they're losing muscle mass, we know their muscle girth is going down, we know their endurance is getting worse. All of these things are truly risky for that person. And for that reason, I think we as PTs do a really good job of helping that person understand, hey, I know it hurts, but the risk of you moving through pain is much less than the risk of you not moving through pain. So I need you to move. And I think we do a really good job with patients like knee replacement patients or patients with a knee replacement. I think we do a really good job with those folks, getting them moving, even though it hurts, getting them back to their ADLs, getting them progressively loaded back to where they're out of sort of disability. I want to shift gears now. And I want to talk a little bit more about my expertise area, which is cervical spine and lumbar spine. So patients with neck pain and patients with back pain. That's typically who I'm seeing the most of in the clinic these days. And I think our response to these folks is a bit different than it is with the knee replacement patients, which is sort of understandable, because with a knee replacement, you understand exactly what happened to that person, where with back pain and neck pain, we never know what the tissue driving their symptom is.

06:57 - FEAR & OUTCOMES WITH BACK PAIN

But I think we often respond with fear, and I think that influences the person's outcome. So let me unpack what I mean. So when someone acutely strains their back, they do something, they were lifting their kid and something happens and now their back is really strained and they're in high, high levels of pain and usually high levels of disability as well. Like a lot of patients will tell me, Zach, I can't even tie my shoes. I have to have my wife help me tie my shoes. I can't get my pants on. I can't get on and off the toilet. The activities of daily living are really influenced by these high pain levels. And a lot of these people, when you start to talk to them, they're terrified to move. Especially a forward bending, but really just to A lot of people in general with acute back pain, they're so scared to move their back around. And they're afraid that what will happen if they move their back around, is that they'll worsen their scenario. They're concerned that if they move too much, and maybe some of this is valid, but if they move too much, they'll worsen whatever's wrong with their back, and then they'll have long-term problems. But team, as you're hearing that unfold, you and I both know that's not the case, right? Like it's actually the people who choose not to move who usually wind up with worse recurrence of their back pain. It's why, I mean, you look at the Olivera study in 2018, where they compared all the lumbar clinical practice guidelines around the globe that they could get their hands on. And there's really only two things, all CPGs, not profession specific, um, not region specific, just all the CPGs that they looked at in that study, they agreed on two things. One of them, don't image. The second one, get moving, right? Don't rest, some sort of exercise. We know people with back pain need to get moving. It is clear, no one argues about that anymore. There's no studies, no big studies that have looked into, hey, rest is actually the successful recipe for back pain. It's not that. We gotta get them moving. But I think sometimes we let our fear of allowing that person to move hold them back. But we need to conceptualize those risk factors. Like you think about what it was like for your knee replacement patient. Maybe we don't have the same concern of like a blood clot or an infection, but think about this person's other risks.

06:57 - THE IMPORTANCE OF MOVEMENT


Like, what about long-term mobility? If someone doesn't restore their ability to forward bend, they often end up with a loss of long-term lumbar flexion. And how does that usually wind up? Maybe sometimes they're fine and they're asymptomatic throughout the rest of their life, but often when I see recurrent back pain patients, They have had episodes throughout life and they've chosen to avoid a certain range of motion and part of our job is to do some graded exposure back to that to help them conceptualize the risk. To help them realize actually being still is where the risk is. We've got to get moving. You think about atrophy. You think about what happens to that person's muscular system. If they have severe back pain and they're not doing the things that they normally do, perhaps they're laying in bed a little bit more, sometimes they're laying on the couch a bit more, a lot of times their spouse is helping them out, their partner is helping them out with a lot of their ADLs. Team, when people have acute back pain, they often get very still because their fear level is really high, and part of our job is to help them understand that where their head is at, what they're concerned about, is actually much less risky than being still right now. Being still is where the risk lies. If we don't get back to movement, you're going to lose that long-term mobility. You're going to lose a lot of your muscular system. You're going to end up losing quite a bit of your cardiovascular endurance. That's where the risk lies. Because what do we all know about people who tend to lose muscle mass, who tend to lose cardiovascular endurance? Most of those people will struggle to get that back. And I think the longer they live, the more challenging that climb back to fitness is going to be. So our older adult clients are definitely in this boat. We've got to keep these people moving. We've got to get them afraid of resting. That's where the fear should be because what happens when you rest is the long-term stuff. That's what causes recurrent back pain. If a person hurts their back and they're now afraid to move in that range of motion and they don't restore capacity, whether that's cardiovascular capacity or the actual strength of the tissues because of fear, now that area is more fragile. It's more susceptible to injury. They're usually careful with that area and being careful with that area often is not a solution for getting rid of a recurrent back pain. As a matter of fact, we want to move more towards things like graded exposure, graded exercise, building that engine, building the tissues, how robust that underlying tissue is. That comes with movement. It doesn't come with rest. So team, I think just putting this whole thing into perspective, what I want to get across this morning is that when someone comes in to see you in pain, their brain is not in the right decision making area to understand risk. Their amygdala has all the blood in it. They're really concerned. they don't know if they're going to be okay. It is our job to use our prefrontal cortex because we can use that in that state because we're not anxious because we see this all the time. We use our prefrontal cortex to say, you know what, actually we need to develop a plan that gets you back to X, Y, and Z. And that's what we do with rehab. And that's how we try to bring down that recurrence, is we avoid all these catastrophes that happen when people sort of follow their natural instinct, which is to rest. So that's all I've got for you this morning. I want us all catastrophizing rest a lot more on our patients, helping them understand that that is not necessarily the safe choice. A lot of times people's risk meter is broken there and it's actually the unsafe choice. So let's catastrophize rest, get out there this Tuesday team, meet us on the road if you're looking for anything. Please feel free if you want to have a big conversation here, jot it into the thread and I'll be on here all day answering any questions. Thanks team.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 16, 2023

Dr. Rachel Moore // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member Rachel Moore takes a deep dive into the Valsalva Maneuver from 3 different lenses: the scholarly research, the pregnancy & postpartum patient, and the strength & conditioning world.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - RACHEL MOORE

Good morning PT on ice daily show. My name is dr. Rachel Moore. I am here with Representing the ice pelvic division. I'm on faculty with ice pelvic division. Whoo. Sorry. I need to drink my coffee um i just got back in last night super late night flying from a course this weekend our pelvic live course in um wisconsin it was so much fun we got to see some leaves change which is exciting for me because in houston we don't really have that happen um so really awesome super great weekend awesome and engaged group that we had. If you are looking to join us on the road to catch our live course, our live pelvic course, there are still so many opportunities this year. In that course, we are doing so many things. We are talking about pelvic floor considerations. We're talking about the internal assessment and actually going over and practicing it on your back and in standing. We're talking about pelvic girdle pain which is such a huge topic in the pregnancy and postpartum and just pelvic world in general and then day two we're diving into the actual fitness side of things where we're doing squats and we're learning how to brace and we're using weightlifting belts and we're getting up on the rig and doing gymnastics moves it is a blast every time I come home from a course I'm hyped and there are four more chances of in 2023 to catch this course on the road. So October 21st, we've got a course in Corvallis, Oregon. November 4th, we've got one coming up in Bozeman, Montana. November 18th, we've got one coming up in Bear, Delaware. And then December 2nd, we've got one in Nova Scotia, Canada. So tons of opportunities to catch this course live on the road. Our online course will pick up again in January. So if you're interested in joining us in the ice pelvic division, that's what we got coming up.

02:08 - THE HISTORY OF VALSALVA

This morning we are here to talk about Valsalva. So the word Valsalva is kind of a term that nobody really knows what it means or everybody thinks they know what it means and they all have their own separate camps of what it could mean because it's described so many different ways in the literature. So what we're going to do this morning is clarify what the different definitions of this one word are, talk about the history of it a little bit more, where this term really even came from in the first place. So this topic is really near and dear to my heart. Recently, Christina Prevett and I recently just wrote a clinical commentary on Valsalva and on the nuances of Valsalva. and how as clinicians we can take this term and how we need to take this term and understand the lens, especially when we're looking at research, but when we're talking to patients about what this term even means and what we're actually looking for in our strength training fitness world when we say the word Valsalva. So let's kick it off with the history of Valsalva. The term Valsalva is actually named after a physician from the 18th century. So he was an otolaryngologist. Anyway, he worked in ears and throat, ear, nose and throat doctor. And he created this maneuver essentially as a way to push infection out of the ears. So, the maneuver that Dr. Valsalva described actually doesn't even look like the Valsalva that a lot of people talk about today. His maneuver was plugging your nose and blowing out, but not against a closed glottis. And when he created this maneuver, the purpose of it was to flush infection out of the ear by having that tympanic membrane push outwards to, in theory, push pus out of the ear. That is where this term was created. So when we look at Valsalva in the research lens, when we talk about diving into the specifics of research on this topic, if we're looking in the ENT world, autolaryngological world, we're thinking about this maneuver as a plugged nose, closed glottis, now push out in order to push that tympanic membrane out. When we're looking at this word in the urogynecologic world, it has a very different emphasis or purpose. So when we think about pelvic organ prolapse and the diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse, that's where we see the Valsalva, quote unquote, being useful, I would say. So the Valsalva in a urogynecologic world is an intentional bear down and strain with a closed glottis. in order to measure the descent of the pelvic organs, particularly during that POPQ or that assessment for pelvic organ prolapse. So on the ENT side, we have the focus of plugging nose, blowing out, pushing tympanic membranes out. In the urogynecologic world, we've got this strain down through the pelvic floor in order to descend the pelvic organs and measure what that descent is.

06:04 - VALSALVA IN STRENGTH TRAINING

In the strength and conditioning world, the term Valsalva means something completely different. In the strength and conditioning world, the Valsalva is a maneuver that is advantageous, particularly if you're a competing athlete in the strength training world, where we need a little bit extra spinal stiffness in order to hit a lift to PR. so in the strength training world this is an inhale into the belly and then a brace of those core muscles that anterior abdominal wall and all of those muscles within the core in general in order to increase that intra-abdominal pressure and spinal stiffness to be able to lift heavier. So when we do the Valsalva, we have a 10% increase in that spinal stiffness and that carries over or translates into pounds on the barbell. So when we're again thinking about our competitive athletes who are maybe trying to like edge somebody out, the Valsalva is an incredibly useful and productive maneuver. Even if we're not a competing athlete, if we're talking about just getting stronger and we're pushing ourselves to the capacity that we want to push ourselves to in order to make those strength gains, the Valsalva is likely utilized in order to increase that capacity to lift heavier. The confusion here comes from that one word having many different definitions. And when we look at the urogynecologic world versus the strength training world, they really are truly opposite. When we're thinking about straining and bearing down, we're pushing down with our abdominal wall muscles, we're pushing down with our pelvic floor, and we expect to see that descent. I 100% agree that we shouldn't put a heavy barbell on our back and then strain and push down through our pelvic floor. That is not beneficial and it is going to put a lot of strain through the pelvic floor. Absolutely. However, when we talk about Valsalva in a strength training capacity, that's not what the Valsalva is. The Valsalva in a strength and conditioning world is that intentional inhale into the belly and brace of that anterior abdominal wall muscles. When we do that brace of those anterior abdominal wall muscles, we don't want to see a descent of the pelvic floor. That would be an improper brace that would need training to improve that coordination. What we expect to see with a valsalva in the pelvic floor world is a matched degree of contraction for the demand that's placed on that system. So if we're thinking about somebody who's lifting a heavy lift, a one rep max, We expect that pelvic floor to kick on, but we're not necessarily volitionally thinking about lifting pelvic floor and doing that pelvic floor contraction. As that core canister is engaged and we engage that proper brace, the entire core canister should kick on to a relatively equal degree. So in the strength and conditioning world, that Valsalva is advantageous. In the urogynecologic world, if we're taking that concept and applying it to lifting, it is the opposite of advantageous. So when we're looking at recommendations for our strength training athletes and our patients, we need to understand the language that is being used and what the definition of that language is. So from the standpoint of our OBs who are telling our patients, don't ever do a Valsalva, in their mind, they're saying, don't ever strain and push your pelvic floor down when you're lifting. Totally. We agree. 100%. Don't do that. It's not going to be great. But the disconnect is that this one word has so many different definitions. So we really have to dive in and break down what was that recommendation specifically. So when we're with our patients, that looks like breaking down the definition for them.

09:01 - VALSALVA MANUVEUR IN THE LITERATURE

But if we're looking in the research world and we're trying to read literature, read the newest evidence about what recommendations are for our pregnant and postpartum athletes, we need to go into the article itself and look at how they define Valsalva. Because we can easily read the abstract and the conclusion of an article that says Valsalva is not recommended, but if we're, looking at this article and it's actually meaning the bearing down, then we're not getting, we're not able to extrapolate that to the strength and conditioning side. So really with this term, it's one word named after a man who the original maneuver isn't even what we're talking about anymore anyway. Across the board, we have to either figure out different words or different ways to describe this, or it really falls on us as providers to break down what it is we're talking about. So rather than just telling your patients, do a Valsalva, maybe we don't use that language at all, and we just talk about bracing. When we do a brace, we can manipulate breath. If we're gonna take that intentional inhale and then brace, that is a Valsalva, But in order to eliminate the confusion across the board, we can just call it a brace. This makes a lot more sense to patients than being told by one person to never valsalva and then by another person to valsalva. And when we lay it all out and explain what all of these differences are and how it's all one term, but it has different meanings, and none of these meanings necessarily are the same. And in fact, in the urogynecologic world, in the strength and conditioning world, they're literally the opposite. It starts to click with patients, why it's okay that my physician told me not to do this Valsalva, but you're telling me that I can, because I understand that these are two very different physiologic mechanisms. Our clinical commentary over this that dives into all of this and so much more comes out in the spring. So keep an eye out. We'll be sending it out in the ice pelvic newsletter. So if you are not signed up for that newsletter, head to PT on ice.com, go to the resources tab, sign up for that newsletter, not only for our clinical commentary in the spring, but for all kinds of resources. in the pelvic floor world. Stay up to date on the newest evidence and also just check out some cool stuff that we find along the way. I hope you guys have an awesome Monday and I hope we see you on the road soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 13, 2023

Dr. Zach Long // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Fitness Athlete lead faculty Zach Long discusses hip shifting in the squat. Zach emphasizes the need to ensure first and foremost, pain is in the hip or elsewhere in the body is not the cause of the shift. Second, Zach urges listeners to determine if the shift occurs under increasing loads or not. Finally, Zach discusses that if the squat is pain-free and that the movement pattern does not change under load, hip or ankle mobility is the final culprit.

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn from our Clinical Management of the Fitness Athlete division, check out our live physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses. Check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ZACH LONG

Hey everybody, welcome to the PT on Ice daily show. It is the best day of the week here on the podcast, and that is Fitness Athlete Friday. I am your host today, Dr. Zach Long. I'm lead faculty inside of the clinical management of the fitness athlete curriculum, teaching in our live weekend seminar, as well as our advanced concepts course. And today we're going to be chatting about assessing the individual that has a hip shift when they squat. what are the questions you should be asking, and what are the things that you should be looking at and programming for them to help address that hip shift in the squat before we dive into that topic. Upcoming courses that we have in the Fitness Athlete Live arena here. November 4th and 5th, I'll be in Hoover, Alabama, and Mitch will be in San Antonio, Texas. November 18th and 19th, we'll be in Holmes Beach, Florida, and in December, Colorado Springs, Colorado. If you can't make it to any of those courses, we are already filling up the 2024 calendar as well. And we have Portland, Charlotte, North Carolina, Boise, Idaho, Renton, Washington, Raleigh, North Carolina, and Fenton, Michigan on the map. So check out all of those courses, as always, at PTOnIce.com. If you want to get registered, learn how to better assess, treat, and help fitness athletes do the movements that they love, as well as how do we get those people that are not already getting their daily dose of physical activity, how do we start to get them involved in that sort of stuff as part of their plan of care when they come to see us for pain? So PTONICE.com there.

02:32 - ASSESSING THE HIP SHIFT

All right, today's topic, the hip shift in the squat. What I mean by that is you watch somebody squat, and instead of their weight staying even side to side, you see them shift some of their weight more towards one side than the other. Why does that happen? What are the questions you need to be asking? And then what are the things that you need to be doing as part of their treatment? So I think there are two big questions to ask subjectively when somebody comes to see you for a hip shift or you notice that when you're watching videos or watching somebody actually lift in the clinic. Question number one is, does that individual currently have pain in regions of the body that are impacted by the squat? Question number two is, does that change under load? When you ask and answer those two questions, you'll have a much better idea of what interventions you need to do to help improve that squat pattern. 3 Different Pieces to That 1. If someone is having pain, That's kind of the end of the discussion on the hip shift in the squat. So if somebody comes in and they're dealing with really nasty patellar tendinopathy or they're dealing with an ankle that was just sprained and is very, very sensitive as we dorsiflex the ankle. or someone has really irritable hip impingement. As they squat down and those tissues start to get loaded more as we go through range of motion, if those tissues are really sensitive, the body is understandably going to want to unload those tissues and try to avoid further aggravating them. So, when pain is on board and I notice a hip shift, I don't really worry too much about the hip shift right now in terms of trying to correct that. Instead, my main focus is on doing everything I can to calm down that irritability, because until we calm down that pain, we're probably not gonna make a whole lot of progress on the hip shift. So if pain's on board, take care of the pain. Now, there are definitely things that you can do that might assist this a little bit, but to me, those are secondary to the pain portion of this. So you could have somebody do box squats where they limit their depth to where they don't hip shift. or some other variations of lifts that maybe load that tissue a little bit less so that they demonstrate less of that hip shift. I think that's a fine intervention to do so that maybe that hip shift doesn't become, you know, as much of an ingrained movement pattern to them. But overall, when pain's on board, just take care of the pain and don't worry quite as much about the hip shift.

04:29 - HIP SHIFTING UNDER LOAD

The second component to that, the second question was, does this change under load? And this is the big one that I see missed quite a bit. So I've had a couple of these show up in the last few months in the clinic, which is why I decided to do this podcast. And of those that I've seen lately, most of them, I was a second opinion. So they'd already seen another physical therapist or a chiropractor. And they had already had a lot of mobility drills that they were working on to try to improve the hip shift but they weren't noticing a change with the mobility drills. And what was missed by that previous practitioner was the fact that the hip shift worsened with load. And if we think about like the mobility demands of a squat, those demands don't change drastically when they go from an air squat to a 45-pound barbell squat up to a 400-pound squat. What does change is the demands that we're putting on the muscles. And actually, it's a little different than that. It's a little opposite. When you put load on a bar, if you're a little stiff, that load will often help you move a little bit better. It'll help push you through a little bit of that stiffness. So the key thing here is that if you notice the hip shift gets worse under fatigue or under load, then it is probably not a mobility issue. It is much more likely to be a tissue capacity issue, a strength issue. That's the big turning point here. So two examples of this that I've seen lately. Number one, super high level power lifter. He started noticing when he looked at videos of his squat that his bar would get uneven, but that wouldn't happen until he got to weight over 400 pounds. Prior to that, it didn't happen. And if you watch a set of him squatting over 400 pounds for say a set of five, what you notice is rep one was a little bad, rep two a little worse, rep three worse, rep five was really, really bad in terms of that bar being uneven. And what I noticed when I started analyzing that was that as he came out of the bottom of the hole, you would see his one side of his leg, if you're watching that Instagram, I have no idea why fireworks just popped up on my background, but You saw one of his legs really extend rapidly and the other one slowly extend. And what that's called is a good morning squat fault. If you've taken the Fitness Athlete Live course, you've heard us discuss that squat fault, but he was doing it only on one leg. And that leg had previously had an ACL reconstruction. And when we went and measured his limb circumference on that leg, he had a significant quad muscle mass difference on that side compared to the other side. So it was a strength deficit. And what we ended up doing with him was we loaded up his quads, doing a lot of unilateral work. We'll talk about a few drills for that in just a second. And what we noticed is the more we built up that unilateral quad strength, the less that hip shift was present. Another example I saw was recently in a… very high level CrossFit athlete, like top 200 in the world. When he deadlifted, he lost a major competition because his deadlift was relatively weak compared to his level of fitness. And when we watched his deadlift, he kind of did the same thing. So he starts pressing off the ground and the side that he had previously had an ACL reconstruction on about a year and a half prior to this, he hyper extended that knee as soon as he started pressing off the ground because he was still had a little bit of top end quad weakness relative to the other side. So he locked that knee out and he tried to, on that surgical side, make it almost a straight leg deadlift and rely on his posterior chain rather than his quads. So if it changes under load, it is a strength issue, not a mobility issue.

09:26 - ANKLE & HIP MOBILITY

If it doesn't change under load, then you're gonna shift your thinking towards it possibly being more likely to be a mobility issue. And so from a mobility perspective, a few things that we like to look at, Number one, I'd say the most common are ankle and foot limitations. So lack of ankle dorsiflexion, lateral tibial glide, or the ability of the midfoot to move as somebody drops down into a squat. In our Fitness Athlete Live course, we talk you through a couple different tests that we think really help you screen out the foot and ankle, and if that's the impacting factor on somebody's squat technique. The second one to that is going to be somebody's hip mobility. And then the third to that is sometimes you'll see knee flexion limitations, but typically you don't see knee flexion limitations unless somebody's had some really significant trauma to that knee or a recent surgery. Outside of that, it's typically the ankle or the hip from a mobility perspective that will be impacting somebody's squat, causing them to have a hip shift in the squat. So once you answer that, you kind of know what to do. If it's pain, take care of the pain. If it's mobility, work on mobility. If it's strength, then let's do some unilateral strength loading of whatever tissue it is that you identified was a little weaker on one side versus the other. Take care of that. But I also think that it's worthwhile to spend a little bit of time working on some drills that might help reinforce a better movement pattern. So that as you build up maybe that unilateral strength or as you open up that ankle mobility, now you start teaching them a little bit more of where they want to go. And there are two drills that I really frequently use for that. My favorite to use is what's called a sit squat. So what I do there is I get an individual sitting on a box, a bench, a chair, a medicine ball, whatever the lowest surface they can perform this drill on, and they're sitting on it. We pull their feet back underneath them. We lean over. I get them positioned exactly how I think they should look in the bottom of the squat. And then they're sitting there, and I've got everything lined up so that it's symmetrical or as close to symmetrical as I feel like we're gonna get or we need to get. And then what I do is I tell them, imagine that there's a scale underneath your butt. Right now it says 100% of your weight. I want you to make it say 50% of your weight. So they just unload that medicine ball a little bit. Now I say, I want you to lift up one inch and only one inch. So they barely lift off the medicine ball or chair. They go back down to 50% weight and they just cycle up and down. And if you do a set of five to 10 reps of that, it is gonna actually burn really, really good because most people don't spend a whole lot of time under tension down the bottom of the squat. because there's no load on it. It's not going to be very fatiguing or really eating to their recovery a lot. So I use this a ton as a warmup drill, but that is deceptively hard and is really good for getting people to evenly drive and press into the ground and get an even lift off. And then when they sit back down, what they should feel if they're on something like a medicine ball is that they have the same amount of butt cheek touching the ball. Like if they sit down and it's only left butt on the medicine ball and right butt is floating off the side, then they're not squatting evenly. They're demonstrating that hip shift so they also get some tactile feedback in terms of their positioning. The other thing that I really like to do at times with individuals is get them to do some tempo box squats. So we squat down to a medicine ball, a bench, a low box, whatever it is, and we're basically doing the same thing there. We're going down nice and slow and we're making sure when we touch that surface that we're squatting to that we feel an even amount of weight on both butts. so that we, again, know if we're hip shifting or not. Those can be two good drills to drill in moving a little bit away from that hip shift. So, again, your two questions to ask when you see a hip shift. Are they having pain? Does it change under load? When you answer those two questions, you'll have a much better idea of what to go to to get rid of the squat hip shift a little bit faster. So, hope that helps. Look forward to being back on here again in a few weeks with you all. Hope you all have a great Friday and a great weekend, and we'll see you on the road.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.



Oct 12, 2023

Alan Fredendall // #LeadershipThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today’s episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, ICE COO Alan Fredendall discusses the three pillars of evidence-based medicine: clinical expertise, current best peer-reviewed evidence, and patient input. He gives suggestions on how clinicians can better incorporate all 3 pillars to improve practice.

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you’re looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don’t forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 – ALAN FREDENDALL

Team, good morning. Welcome to the PT  on ICE Daily Show. Happy Thursday morning. I hope your morning is off to a great start. My name is Alan, happy to be your host today. Currently have the pleasure of serving as the Chief Operating Officer here at ICE and a faculty member in our Fitness Athlete Division. We’re here on YouTube, Instagram, the podcast on Thursday. It’s Leadership Thursday, that also means it is Gut Check Thursday. Gut Check Thursday this week, four rounds for time, some interval work. Four rounds, 10 handstand pushups. Those can be strict or kipping. Read the caption on Instagram for some help with modifications if you’re still working on those. 10 handstand pushups right into a 50 foot double kettlebell front rack walking lunge. Kettlebells in front of the body, working the thoracic spine, working the legs, 50 feet of a front rack lunge, and then out the door for a 200 meter run on the treadmill, whatever. The goal there is one to one work to rest. That means we’re looking to finish that round in about two minutes. Work two minutes, rest two minutes, complete for four rounds. you’ll be done in ideally about 16 minutes. So read the caption, check for modifications, scaling is needed to try to get your round time as close to two minutes as possible, modify the handstand pushups as needed, reduce the load on the lunge as needed, and then sub out the run for a row or bike as needed. So hope you have fun with that one. That’s a great one that really facilitates intensity. You’ve got some upper body with the handstand pushups, some lower body with the running and some monostructural, with the lunging, sorry, and then some monostructural with the running. So a great workout to really drop the hammer, rest, repeat a couple times, really working on that anaerobic glycolysis system. Before we get started, just some quick courses coming your way. Today I want to highlight our cervical and lumbar spine courses. A couple chances left towards the end of the year as we get near the holidays to catch cervical spine management. This weekend you can join Zach Morgan up in Waterford, Connecticut. The weekend of November 11th and 12th, you can join Jordan Berry up in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. That’s kind of the greater Boston area. And then December 2nd and 3rd, you can join Zach Morgan at his home base at Onward Tennessee in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Lumbar management, also a couple chances left before the end of the year. Next weekend, October 21st and 22nd, Jordan will be in Frederick, Maryland. That’s kind of west of the Baltimore area. He will also be in Fort Worth, Texas the weekend of November 4th and 5th. And then you have two chances the weekend of December 2nd and 3rd. You can catch our newest spine faculty member, Brian Melrose. He’ll be up in Helena, Montana. And then you can catch Jordan Berry at his home base in Onward, Charlotte, also the weekend of December 2nd and 3rd.

02:55 – EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE

Today’s topic, evidence-based medicine. A couple different ways to frame this. Are you doing it right? Are you doing it wrong? Or it takes a village of really drilling down and better understanding what comprises evidence-based practice. For many folks, they think it’s the research. For others, they think it’s many, many, many years of clinical expertise, pattern recognition, and others believe none of that matters. What matters the most is actually what the patient believes is happening, what they believe will help them, and matching our treatments, our interventions, our education as best as possible to essentially the patient input side of the equation. And if you’re on the podcast, I’m gonna show a Venn diagram. You’re not missing much, if I’m being honest. I’ve got it right here on the whiteboard. What we know with evidence-based medicine is that it’s actually all of that stuff, right? It is three different spheres, three stools, whatever analogy or metaphor you’ve heard to refer to these before is correct. When we look at evidence-based medicine, is it an overlapping of, yes, scholarly evidence, peer-reviewed research, Yes, clinician experience, practice and pattern recognition. And yes, also patient expectations and beliefs, and that the point at which these three areas overlap is the middle where we have evidence-based medicine, evidence-based practice. But what you’ll find is because of this overlap, none of these areas can be evidence-based on their own. So our goal today is not to show you this Venn diagram, but to show you when evidence-based medicine goes wrong, how it goes wrong, and how we can all get a little bit sharper at evidence-based practice in our clinic with our patients. So, let’s tackle these points one by one. The first, the one we’re all most comfortable with as clinicians is our own clinical expertise. Probably more important than anything else with expertise and experience is the pattern recognition, the dose response relationship that begins to form in our brain The more patience we see, the longer we’ve been seeing patience. This is, you could call this the 10,000 hour rule, whatever you want to call it, but the belief that the more work, the more time you put in, the more you will maybe, theoretically, begin to master your craft. And there’s some truth to that and there’s some non-truth to that as well.

05:06 – AVOIDING DOGMA IN PRACTICE

The biggest issue, as I have it written out here on the whiteboard, is that just focusing on this area in your practice, the bias here is that you become really prone to dogmas, becoming a dogmatic person, becoming almost a guru. We see this, of course, and we’re going to mention it a lot on social media, of the approach on one side of the continuum or other. It doesn’t really matter if manual therapy sucks. physical therapy doesn’t do anything to the far end of that same continuum of, I believe that I’m putting people’s bones back into place with things like spinal mobilization manipulation. So it doesn’t really matter where people fall in the continuum, they fall somewhere on some sort of dogmatic continuum line, which is not great because it tends to the further they get into their own dogma and guru like behavior, the less they tend to incorporate research evidence from peer-reviewed sources and also the patient input. These people over time you may have heard phrases of I use what works with most people and the key there is that it works with most people not all people of the true person practicing evidence-based medicine the true clinical expert is the person that gets all almost every single person better. It’s not enough to get 50% of your patients better, or 60, or 70. You should, or we hope you would be pursuing excellence in such a manner that you’re thinking, how can I help 99.99% of people? And again, just focusing so much on one of the three aspects of evidence-based medicine with your clinical expertise is not gonna cut it. I often think of how much pattern recognition informs practice, but that doesn’t mean that that’s what we do with every person. I often think of when people come into the clinic, they present with anterior shoulder pain, what we might call instability, the feeling of looseness in the joint or otherwise just pain or maybe even stiffness on the front of the shoulder. I look at it as something wrong with the relationship between the deltoid and the lat. I understand the need to treat the rotator cuff, load the rotator cuff, but I also understand that the rotator cuff is ultimately paying the price for what the deltoid and the lat are not doing for the shoulder complex itself. That when these folks present with limited range of motion overhead, that getting in and treating, particularly the internal rotators, subscapularis can have a lot of value in restoring that range of motion and increasing tolerance to load long-term. However, that pattern recognition in my head is yes, where I’m going to go to first, but again, I can’t get caught up too much in thinking this is what works with most people, this is what I’m gonna do no matter what. I have to be aware, I have to be humble that if it’s not working for that patient in front of me, I need to go back and say what does the evidence say, what other treatments could I pursue, and also what input does the patient have into the equation of Are we maybe, yes, identifying the right cause, using the right treatment, but the patient expectation is that they can continue to do three to five hours a day of elite level CrossFit training on top of trying to move through the rehab of their shoulder. Those two things are always going to be at odds, and until I can start to incorporate more of the other arms of evidence-based medicine, I’m going to have a limited effect of how many people I can potentially help rather than most, I’m thinking again, how can I help that 99% of people?

10:40 – CURRENT BEST EVIDENCE

That moves really nice into making sure that we understand that yes, evidence-based medicine does include evidence. It includes what we would call and what’s labeled as current best evidence. That’s the second aspect of evidence-based medicine. I think we can be really hard on ourselves and social media here can make you feel like you’re not doing a good job at keeping up with the research. Because the truth here, if we’re being really intellectually honest, is no one can keep up with the research. There are 1.8 million scientific journal articles published every year. There are 35,000 articles being published every single week. It is impossible for any individual practitioner to read all of those. Ever. It doesn’t matter if that was your full-time job. You would not be able to keep up with it. So what we tend to see is that we tend to focus on specialty areas in practice. And I think that’s okay. I think that helps narrow our lens. And as long as we are finding a source bias here is I think we do a good job with hump day hustling. There are other great sources as well that do a good job of taking a bunch of research and condensing it in a way that can be absorbed, especially that is then kind of classified by specialty area. But understanding, it’s really impossible here to always be up to date on the current best evidence. And just being up to date and reading new articles doesn’t mean that that evidence necessarily has any value. We need to be mindful of that fact as well, that just because something new has been published doesn’t mean it has value. This is a great example. This is an article. You may have seen this make the rounds on social media. The title is, One and Done, The Effectiveness of a Single Session of Physiotherapy Compared to Multiple Sessions to Reduce Pain and Improve Function in Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders, a Systematic Review and Med Analysis. This paper was published just a couple days ago, so brand new off the press, right? We tend to associate newer with better in research, which is not always the case. And we tend to try to immediately incorporate articles like this into practice and make giant conclusions that often the paper does not support. Already there are people on social media posting this article and saying, look, physical therapy doesn’t work. You should not go to physical therapy. There are folks posting this and saying, see, I told you manual therapy does suck. In some of these studies, in a systematic review, they did manual therapy. I told you it was worthless. Dry dealing does nothing. Spinal manipulation does nothing. Cupping does nothing. People who practice that are committing malpractice. They should be fined or lose their license or be in prison for doing dry needling. And all of those giant conclusions are being made from just this one article. They’re being made in such a manner too that tells a lot of us who read a lot of research that they probably haven’t actually read the full paper, right? They probably have just read the abstract. Because if we read the full paper, what this paper is really saying is that more physical therapy doesn’t seem to help as long as all we care about measuring is pain. No information was given about any other outcome measure, strength, changes in vital signs, did people’s blood pressure get better, did stuff like depression, anxiety get better, kinesiophobia, all these other different things that we can measure about a patient that we would expect to change with physical therapy intervention were not measured in any of these studies. And probably the most important thing that’s missing from this study all the studies that it analyzes and pretty much every piece of physical therapy research is there’s absolutely no information on what was actually done to these people in a way not only that the study could be replicated in the future and possibly validated, or that we have any idea of what was done. It’s entirely possible that folks in some of these studies only got manual therapy, that some folks maybe, yes, got exercise, but how was it dosed? Did they test the sub-max lift? Did they train at or above 60% of that sub-max number to ensure that strength was actually happening? And the answer to all those questions usually is no. So it’s really important we don’t get deep down the evidence-based hole, knowing that for the most part, a lot of the research that comes out, even though there’s a high volume of it, it’s all quite weak and doesn’t necessarily get incorporated into practice because it doesn’t really help change and inform practice pretty significantly. Also from this study, Most of these patients had a spinal fracture, they had diagnosed osteoarthritis of the knee, or they had some sort of whiplash disorder of the neck. So kind of specialty populations that can’t just really be extrapolated to the general population to say that physical therapy doesn’t work. Nonetheless, people grab this article and they cite it. That kind of shows us an overlap between the sphere of clinical expertise and pattern recognition and evidence. I’ve written it right here on the whiteboard. That person, we would call that person a cherry picker. That person has a very shallow knowledge of the research and they’re basically using the research to better inform their own dogma, right? That is not evidence-based medicine. That is just cherry picking research that supports your bias and ignoring the rest and not really taking a deep dive in the research. We have to remember as well that it is evidence based not evidence only that we have to act in the absence of evidence we actually have to do something with people and that we don’t always have the best research to inform what we’re currently doing in the practice that if we are treating a patient we’re doing certain interventions they are making progress both according to their own input, their own goals, their subjective input, and also what we’re measuring objectively, then by every way we can measure it to both us and to the patient, the patient is making satisfactory progress. And sometimes we don’t always have research to support that. And that’s okay. We need to also be intellectually honest, that some of the research we would like to see happen can’t happen. A lot of research is either done on folks who are already healthy or it’s done in a manner that whatever intervention is given can’t potentially make that person either less healthy or more injured. We often see people in low back pain get some sort of treatment and then another group gets some sort of what we call usual care. Either way, somebody is getting some sort of intervention that is designed to improve their symptoms, not maybe theoretically worsen their symptoms. I would love to see research of folks lifting near or at their maximal one rep max potential with a deadlift, and I would love to see the outcomes of what happens with a group of people who lift with a focus on a brace neutral spine, what happens to people who intentionally flex their spine throughout the deadlift, what happens to people who intentionally extend their spine without a deadlift. Is that research ever likely to happen? No. Why? Because it would be really unethical to take a group of people who have nothing wrong with them and potentially cause them maybe a lifetime of debilitating injury just to try to prove a point from the research, and that is not the point of research. We have to be mindful that we’re conducting research on human beings who have lives, who have families, who have jobs, and as much as we would like to see some specific lines of research come to fruition, we’ll probably never see some of that because of the interventions the risk is simply too high, it probably won’t pass review from something like an institutional review board at a university. So we need to be mindful as well of, yes, we’re always trying to keep up with the current best evidence, but that doesn’t mean it’s actually the best, even if it is current, and it doesn’t actually mean that it’s research we would actually like to see happen, because it can be limited, again, by the ethical nature of actually conducting that research on living human beings. The bias here is being prone to being so far in this camp, and I’ve written here on the Venn diagram of being up in the ivory tower, of only doing things that has a lot of evidence to support it. Again, in the absence of evidence, we still need to do something with that patient. We still need to understand their condition. We still need to at least try some other evidence-based interventions to help that patient out. What many of you can’t do is have a patient come in for evaluation and say, I don’t have the current best evidence way to treat you, you’ll need to leave now. That usually doesn’t go very well. And we need to recognize as well, that patient is probably just gonna go see another provider anyways. Even if you were being very, very intellectually honest with them, that there was no evidence on treatment for their current condition, they’re probably just gonna go somewhere else and get less evidence informed care there anyways. So for the best, it’s probably that they stick with you for the long term.

19:14 – MATCHING PATIENT EXPECTATIONS & BELIEFS

Our final aspect is including patient expectations, values, input. I think this is the weakest area for all of us, of the thing we probably consider last, when maybe it should be what we consider first. This is forgotten far too often that the patient, again, is a living human being with thoughts, feelings, beliefs in front of us, and doing our best to match our interventions to their expectations, beliefs, values, is really, really important, and kind of tying in to the current best evidence, we have really good evidence to show that as well. If that patient comes in and says, hey, you know what, you may not remember, but you saw my husband about six months ago for some really bad low back pain. he was in so much pain, he was off work, and you did something with some needles and electricity or something, and anyways, he felt so much better, he was able to go back to work, he’s back, he has no issues anymore, that’s fantastic, and I was hoping, with my back pain, that we could try something like that. Now, of course, what that patient did not get from their husband is all the other stuff you probably, hopefully, did with that patient. But what they took away from it was that dry needling appeared to cure that person. And so, it’s really helpful, I think, if you can match that expectation as much as possible. Yes, you could give that patient a 45 minute lecture on how dry needling for low back pain doesn’t have as much evidence to support it as strengthening the spine and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness and reducing inflammatory diet and getting more sleep and managing your stress and you can go all the way down that pain neuroscience rabbit hole to the point at which maybe that patient doesn’t come back to see you anymore Or if your long-term goal is to help that person and you know what is the most evidence-based way to help that person is to have their back get stronger, to help them with their current lifestyle habits, then probably the shortest point there, the shortest line between two points is a straight line between points A and B. It means that if you can just offer the dry needling, that’s probably going to be the most beneficial thing, right? You’re matching that patient expectation, belief, and value. Does it take time? Yes. It doesn’t take a lot of time. Does it take a lot of resources? No, it doesn’t. It costs a couple cents for the needles, right? And it lets us get to what we ultimately want to get to that person which is addressing their lifestyle, getting them loading, getting them moving if they’re not currently moving, and overall changing their life for the better from both a physical fitness but also overall health and lifestyle perspective. And I think far too often We have an agenda, we have a bias with certain treatments where it doesn’t matter who comes in the door. We can be on either side of the dogmatic perspective of everybody gets spinal manipulation, everybody gets dry needling without actually consulting the patient, do they want this or not? Are they open to another treatment? And what will ultimately get us to what we know works the best for most people, which is to get them moving more, get them stronger, get their heart rate up, address their lifestyle. So you can have many sessions of education only. You would think you’re practicing in the most current evidence-based way, but we know we can’t talk patients better. We actually need to do some stuff. And at the end of the day, I would challenge you that it’s probably better if they do that stuff with you versus leaving your care and going to see another healthcare provider. That’s another thing that articles like this do not address, of how much follow-up care did patients receive after they leave the study. Overwhelmingly, that is something that is not addressed. of if you do not provide the treatments that the patient wants, whether they want manual therapy, whether they want strengthening and you don’t have the time or equipment to provide that, whatever they want, if you do not match those expectations and values, they’re probably gonna go somewhere else. They’re gonna spend healthcare dollars somewhere else. And that might be with a healthcare provider that’s not as evidence-based as you are. So challenge yourself. Are you actually practicing within all of these three different spheres? Are you trying your best to keep up on the scholarly research, at least as it relates to the areas of practice that you’re passionate about? Are you honest with yourself that you do have clinical pattern recognition that has value, but knowing that it does have its limitations and you’re willing to adjust your treatment when things don’t work? And are you combining your practice expertise and the current best evidence with patient expectations and values to ensure that the treatment you’re offering is actually the treatment that the patient wants. So check yourself. Evidence-based medicine, are you actually doing it? I hope this was helpful. I hope you all have a fantastic weekend. Have fun with Gut Check Thursday. If you’re gonna be at a live course, I hope you have a fantastic time. We’ll see you next week. Bye, everybody.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you’re interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you’re there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 10, 2023

Dr. Mark Gallant // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Extremity Division Leader Mark Gallant delves into the various phases of rehabilitation for shoulder instability, providing valuable insights and recommendations. One key phase highlighted is centered around core stability, with Mark emphasizing the significance of incorporating core-related exercises into the rehabilitation program. Specifically, exercises like plank and plank rotations are mentioned as effective ways to engage the core muscles.

Furthermore, Mark discusses the importance of tailoring functional exercises to the individual's capabilities. He explains that if certain exercises, such as overhead press or full bench press, are too challenging, alternative exercises can be introduced. Examples provided include the landmine press, bottoms-up press, and push-up variations. The goal is to find a level of functional activity that the person can comfortably perform and then scale it accordingly. This approach not only helps to keep the individual motivated, but also allows them to track their progress towards their goals.

In addition to core stability, Mark discusses the significance of incorporating speed work into the rehabilitation program. As the patient progresses through the program, Mark suggests gradually introducing speed training. This involves training the tissues to tolerate different velocities of force through a full range of motion. Specific speed work exercises, such as concentric-eccentrics at different beats per minute (30, 50, 70, 90, 120), are mentioned. Additionally, activities like Turkish Get-Ups are highlighted for their ability to improve core resilience while working on shoulder stability.

Overall, Mark underscores the importance of integrating core stability exercises and speed work into the rehabilitation program for shoulder instability. These phases of rehabilitation play a crucial role in enhancing overall function and resilience of the shoulder joint.

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Extremity Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - MARK GALLANT

Alright, what is up PT on ICE crew? Dr. Mark Gallant here, lead faculty for the Ice Extremity Management Division. alongside Eric Chaconas and Lindsey Hughey. Coming at you, sorry, Lindsey, messing up that last name. Happened to me for years, now it's happening to you. Lindsey Huey, the other extremity management lead faculty. Coming at you here on Clinical Tuesday, wanna talk about atraumatic shoulder instability and traumatic shoulder instability, and what a good plan is if we're gonna treat these folks non-operatively. Before we get into that, I want to update on a few courses coming up. So I'll be in Woodstock, Georgia, November 11th. Cody Gingrich will be in Newark, California, December 2nd. And Lindsey Huey will be in Windsor, Colorado on December 9th. So a lot of opportunities, different regions of the country to check out ice extremity management. over the next couple months if you need to get in those CEUs for the year. So again, that's November 11th, Woodstock, Georgia. December 2nd will be in Newark, California, and December 9th will be in Windsor, Colorado. So definitely come meet us out on the road.

02:58 - CONSERVATIVE CARE FOR SHOULDER INSTABILITY

So when we're looking at shoulder instability, it used to be that if someone had a traumatic shoulder instability, it was an automatic do not pass go, you're required to have surgery. And then the folks that had atraumatic shoulder instability, the people who were either born loose or worn loose, those folks, it was a maybe depending on how many dislocations, what was going on. But oftentimes a lot of these folks were getting filtered into surgical procedures. What we've now seen over the last couple of years, now that we're getting better with our rehab programs, is that conservative care and physical therapy can do quite well with both the traumatic shoulder instability and the atraumatic shoulder instability. So Anju Jaggi, who's been researching shoulder instability for years, came out with a trial this past year that recently released that showed in folks who had atraumatic shoulder instability, if they had conservative care versus if they had an inferior capsular shift, if they had an inferior capsular shift or an inferior capsular shift placebo procedure where they actually did nothing, that the folks who had the placebo treatment did just as well with physical therapy. So placebo surgery versus actual surgery, the placebo surgery with physical therapy did wonderful. We also have Ellen Shanley in 2019 who looked at what happens if people do have a traumatic shoulder instability event and they go through a full course of physical therapy and found that a majority of those folks were able to return to their sport the next year. So 85% of the individuals who had an instability event had good physical therapy and they were able to return to their sport. We do want to have some humility as physical therapists and allied health professionals that These folks were all individuals who did not have bony damage, so no bony bank hearts and no Hill Sachs lesions in these studies. If those things are not present, we can do quite well. So what is this actually going to look like? Margie Olds, who's another researcher who does a lot with shoulder instability, recently came out with a clinical commentary of how do we best do how do we best work with these folks? And we've been using it in clinic and seeing some really nice results. What the overall theme is, is we really want to get some of the local rotator cuff muscles really functioning well so that the lats, the pecs, the big movers don't have to take over.

04:13 - MUSCLE FIRING PATTERNS & PRIME MOVERS

What we used to see is everyone would try to disinhibit the prime movers, the pecs, the lats. We saw this a lot in FAI treatment where we would try to disinhibit the TFL. What we realize now is this is very challenging, and what we actually wanna do is get the muscles that aren't firing as well to be more robust, more resilient, and fire well, and that will calm down the prime movers. So what we see is if we get the posterior cuff functioning well, if we get the subscapularis functioning well, that we will see the tone of the pecs and the lats calm down. The issue traditionally in physical therapy has been once we get to that stage, we don't move them on to more functional fitness, to more global resilience, to more general preparedness of the system. So what is this gonna look like in clinic? It's actually gonna look quite a bit like our tendinopathy progressions for rehabbing folks. So we're gonna start folks out with more isometric contractions, really getting the cortex and those muscles firing, progressing them more into a rehab dose with concentric eccentrics, then we're gonna focus on speed training, getting those tissues to tolerate speed and different velocities of force through a full range of motion, and then getting them back to their overall functional fitness. So what we specifically like to do in clinic is early on, first phase, they're first coming in to see you, they may or may not have been in a sling for a few weeks, Recommendation for slings and these folks now, if it's first time instability event, or if they've had that atraumatic shoulder instability and they had an instability event, is you can put them in a sling short term. There's no research that says it benefits them. There's no research that says it harms them. Put them in the sling. We don't want them in a sling for more than three weeks. If they feel like they need that to calm down, it is okay for a short period of time. We're going to get them in clinic and we're going to start with our isometrics. Two things that we specifically want to hit with our isometrics, if they can get into a 90-90 external rotation position, we want to hold that three sets, 30 seconds. If that person's willing to perform more, five sets of 45 seconds is even better. Whatever range of that external rotation they can get in, without pain going over a mild and whatever range they have access to, that's where we're going to perform that exercise. The other exercise we're going to perform to go after that subscapularis is a prone liftoff. So they're going to be on their stomach, they're going to put their hand behind their back as far as they can, and they're going to rotate into internal rotation to lift the wrist and hand off the back. If they can only get to the glute day one or just barely to their side, that's totally fine. When you're looking at this one, we want to be really careful that that person is actually internally rotating the shoulder. So this is not the time to turn around and type your notes. We want to be focused that they're getting true shoulder internal rotation. what a lot of people are going to do is they're going to wind up trying to extend their shoulder more or really dump through that scapula. So making sure that when they're doing that isometric, they're getting a pure shoulder internal rotation. We also want to start working on co-contraction of the shoulder. So where the delts, all the muscles are going. Oftentimes these people, although weight-bearing, closed-chain exercise is beneficial, early on it may be too much for the system. We're gonna start them out with a side-lying arm bar. So our big three exercises that we've found to be very beneficial are 90-90 ER, three sets to 30 seconds, if they can tolerate five for 45, that's even better, that prone lift-off isometric, and then a side-lying arm bar for that same period of time. Once they're able to demonstrate that they can do these exercises well, then we're going to, that they can do them well with pain less than a, than a three out of 10 or keeping it in that mild symptoms, they can tolerate the entire timeline. Then we're going to move them into a more of our rehab dose program where we're going to start getting some, some resistance through the system and getting, getting into some actual concentric eccentric repetitions. we really like to do the same motions. So we're going to stand them up, have a, have either a meter band, or if you have a cable pulley system, their hand is going to be behind their back. The cable will be to the opposite side, and they're going to have to do that lift off with resistance. We want them to hit somewhere in the 15 to 20 rep, keeping those symptoms mild for three sets. that will get their subscap, their internal rotation, again, making sure they're not solely substituting extension in that motion. Then we're gonna get them back, either on the table or in quadruped, hitting their 90-90 ER. This time we're gonna hit a light weight, two and a half to five pounds, and then we're gonna do, again, 15 to 20 reps. Can they tolerate that high volume, 15 to 20 reps? keeping their symptoms mild, that would be good for that motion. Then we're going to progress them now instead of doing their open chain arm bar, we're going to see how they can tolerate planks. So getting them into that plank position and having them do plank taps. We can modify this depending on the person by either widening their feet to get a better base of support or putting them onto a box. So for phase two, again, we want to hit that lift off, this time with either a band or a cable resistance, 15 to 20 reps, three sets. We're going to hit our 90-90 ER, two and a half to five pounds, if they can tolerate that, keeping symptoms mild. Again, higher on those repetitions. And then we're going to start working towards our plank taps. As they progress through this phase, then we're gonna start working on speed.

10:30 - SPEED & METRONOME TRAINING

What we wanna look at with the speed is how much can that person tolerate velocity? The metronome is one of the best tools we can use to get this going. We've seen this a lot in the tendinopathy research. Margie Old is the first person that we're aware of that really laid out in a peer-edited journal article, clinical commentary, how exactly they're doing this with shoulder instability patients in clinic and what they're doing is they're starting them out 30 beats per minute on the metronome and they're going to do neutral internal rotation with a band or a cable column at that 30 beats per minute then as they can tolerate that well they're going to progress to 50 beats per minute then to 70 beats per minute, 90 into 120, which is moving pretty fast. If they're doing internal rotation at 120 beats per minute, it's pretty rapid. As they can tolerate that better, they're going to go out, put a towel under their arm, 45 degree angle of abduction, hitting those same 30, 50, 70, 90, 120 beats per minute, and then progressing to a 90-90 position, hitting that 30, 50, 70, 90, 120 beats per minute. Same with external rotation for that posterior cuff, 30 beats per minute in the neutral, progressing to 50, to 70, to 90, to 120. Then looking at can they do it at 90 degrees of external rotation or 90 degrees of front plane external rotation, 30, 50, 70, 90, 120. and then progressing up to 135 similar to that face pull type of motion. Again, 30, 50, 70, 90, 120. So really systematically progressing the speed training the same way you would with your loaded resistance exercise. Now, the other thing that we're gonna do during that phase three, we're gonna start progressing the plank taps. Can they now do a plank with a rotation going on to their side. So they've got to get a little bit movement through that closed chain exercise. And we love to add Turkish get up variations. So one thing that we see with a lot of, especially atraumatic shoulder instability folks, is that they're going to have a, their core is not going to be as resilient as it could be. So we often see a lot of that anterior and posterior trunk dysfunction leading to maybe the lats and the pecs having more myofascial tone and if we can work on that while we're getting the shoulder more resilient that can be a nice beneficial step. So what we'd like to do is do the first part of the Turkish get up or doing a whole Turkish get up so that we're getting some shoulder stability and we're getting a big massive core engagement. And then the final phase, phase four, where historically A lot of PTs have stopped. Oftentimes these folks are out of pain now, so compliance becomes more challenging. Really encouraging these folks that we want to get them fully back to everything that we're doing and build as much resilience to their shoulder. This is where you're going to really work on your vertical pulls, your horizontal pulls, so your pull-ups, your rows, your vertical presses, your overhead press, your horizontal press, your bench press, and then really getting into dynamic speed work or sports training. So snatches, push jerks, push press, burpees, things that are going to be more functional and have some velocity to them are really good here. Your kipping pull-ups. What we want to encourage is we're not going to only start the functional phase after they've gone through phase one, phase two, phase three. So phase one, again, being more of your isometrics, phase two being your slow concentric eccentrics, oftentimes starting at a higher volume, those 15 to 20 reps and progressing to more load. Phase three, working on your speed work, 30 beats per minute, 50 beats per minute, 70, 90, 120 beats per minute. Working on your core related exercises, with shoulder stability. We're not going to only do functional exercise after that's all done. We're going to find what is the level of that functional exercise that they can do. So if they can't overhead press, can they landmine press? If they can't do a full bench press with the barbell, can they do a bottoms-up press? Can they do a push-up variation? What is the level of functional activity that they can do? We're gonna scale it down to that level so that the person is, they've got that goal in mind. They are always aware of what they're getting back to. They're doing something that's getting all of the tissues moving. Oftentimes it's a little more fun for them. So we're keeping that as part of the program. as early as irritability allows us. So again, overall for shoulder instability, what we now know is for both traumatic and atraumatic, as long as there's not a Hill Sachs or a bony bank heart or severe trauma related changes that we do quite well in conservative care and physical therapy, we want to have a systematic program starting out with your isometric exercises that give both the posterior cuff and the anterior cuff really going.

16:01 - PROGRESSING TO CONCENTRIC-ECCENTRICS

Progressing those to our concentric eccentrics, typically starting out with a higher volume. When they can do that, then we're going to progress to our speed work with our concentric eccentrics, 30 beats per minute, 50 beats per minute, 70, 90, 120, making sure we've got some activities that also engage the core, like our Turkish get ups, our closed chain exercises with those plank and plank rotations, and then getting into our more functional fitness or whatever their sport related activity is. Hope this helped overall. Love to hear anything in the comments. We would love to chat and engage about this. Hope you all have a great Tuesday in clinic and hope to see you on the road soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 9, 2023

Dr. April Dominick // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member April Dominick  continues with part 2 of her series on postpartum depression. In this episode, she discusses how rehab providers can screen for postpartum depression. She also offers tips for communicating with clients who we suspect have postpartum depression with scripted suggestions and responses to support a client in the moment.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - APRIL DOMINICK

What's up PT on Ice Daily Show fam? My name is Dr. April Dominick, and today I'll discuss how to screen for postpartum depression and share tips and scripted phrases that you can practice saying to get comfortable supporting someone you suspect has postpartum depression. In the ice pelvic division, updates and course offerings are going to be that we are on the road October 13th and 14th in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. And your next opportunity after that will be with myself and Dr. Christina Previtt. We will be tackling all things pelvic health in the Pacific Northwest in Corvallis, Oregon, and that's gonna be October 21st and 22nd. So head over to PTOnIce.com and grab your seat. Our final courses for the fall are still listed, and you still have a few chances to catch us live. So in episode 1553, that was the last episode I did of this postpartum series, depression series, we talked about prevalence rates, we defined postpartum depression, and we talked about risk factors for postpartum depression. Since then, I ran across another systematic review from 2017 that cited worldwide greater than 10% of pregnant and immediate postpartum women are having depressive episodes, greater than 10%. That number is still astounding to me. While screening for PPD or postpartum depression is one thing, if someone is sharing that they're struggling and you sense they have some signs and symptoms of postpartum depression, we as providers may feel empathy for the person in front of us, but we may be at a loss of words for how to communicate that with another individual. So in the second half of today's episode, I'll go through a few key phrases that you can build off of in response to someone you suspect having postpartum depression, with the ultimate goal, of course, being referring them to the appropriate mental health provider and or medical provider.

00:00 - SCREENING FOR POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

But first, let's chat about how we can screen for postpartum depression. Just a quick definition of postpartum depression, it is going to be someone with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. That can arise around post childbirth whenever that occurs, all the way up to four weeks post childbirth. And then that can also last for up to a year or more postpartum. Postpartum depression, it affects daily functions. So someone has some struggles with chores or daily childcare tasks compared to the baby blues, which is a more mild form of depression. Postpartum depression does require medical intervention as well. So pregnancy and postpartum, as we all know, is a time of psychological vulnerability, especially in those first few weeks when there's so much transition happening after delivery, which is why early identification and screening for treatment is key. So we want to ask the questions, whether that's verbally or in a paper or outcome measure form. So ACOG recommends that patients be screened for postpartum depression at a few certain timeframes. At the first OB visit, at 24 to 28 weeks gestation, and there was a study in 2013 by Wisner et al that suggested for a majority, depression begins prior to delivery. So this is why we have those checkpoints during pregnancy. And then the other times that they suggest that we screen for postpartum depression is at the comprehensive postpartum visit, whether that's at six weeks, four weeks, eight weeks. And then also I loved this at pediatric visits well into the first postpartum year, because pretty much after that six week visit, um, most women are not seen by their OB until the next year for their annual. So those are some timeframes that we as PTs are likely seeing these individuals maybe during pregnancy, postpartum, so we can also help with this screening process. In terms of outcome measures, there are a number of outcome measures out there that are used to screen for postpartum depression. We are going to go over two of the most common evidence-based tools. The first is the Edinburgh Postpartum or Postnatal Depression Scale, and then the Patient Health Questionnaire. They're both two scales that are recommended by ACOG and by the Postpartum Support International Group, which is a really cool resource, and we'll talk about it more in my next episode, but it's going to be a resource available for those in that perinatal mental health space period kind of combines those two things. So the two outcome measures, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire, we love them because they are available in many languages and they are quick to administer and they're free. Who doesn't love free stuff? They are validated also for the perinatal population. which I think is something important that while we can give someone a major outcome measure that's for general depression, it's even really more helpful to have someone go through an outcome measure that is specific to the time and space that they're in. And then scoring, the lower the score for both of the outcome measures is going to indicate lower or more mild depressive symptoms. The cutoff value of 11 or higher out of 30 for the Edinburgh scale is going to maximize the combined sensitivity and specificity.

07:21 - THE EDINBURGH POSTNATAL DEPRESSION SCALE (EPDS)

Let's go through a couple of differences, though, between what we'll call the EPDS for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. So for the EPDS, it's got 10 questions. And not only does it address the depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts, but it also has an anxiety component of perinatal mood disorders. And that anxiety piece is likely what contributes to it being the most widely used screening tool. The other interesting thing I came across is that the EPDS is actually reliable and a valid measure of mood in the supporting partner, whether it is a male or a female, which I think is great. Example of items from the EPDS. are as follows. The person is going to be answering whether or not they have been so unhappy that they have been crying, the thought of harming myself has occurred to me, or I have felt scared or panicky for no good reason. Moving to the patient health questionnaire, that's going to be nine questions that assess for the depression component. It does include an item about suicidal ideation, but it doesn't have an anxiety component that the EPDS does. Instead, it includes some of the somatic symptoms of major depressive disorders, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, changes in weight, and these reflect what is also on the DSM categories. Here's an aside for all these outcome measures. So in my research, I ran across a study from 2017 by Ukatu et al, reviewing about 36 articles that used PPD screening tools, and they investigated the outcome measures and their ability to detect maternal depression. So two of the conclusions from this review that looked at a bunch of articles that use PPD were, one, is that they found no recommendation could be made about the most effective tool for detecting PPD, which is, I guess the good side of that is you can use, there are a lot of tools out there and they will likely be capturing the depression component.

10:28 - WHEN IS THE ONSET OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION?

The other thing that they mentioned was there's no recommended time duration in which to screen patients, again, from all of those reviews that they studied. So one of the reasons they suggest that the timing can be difficult to recommend is that For certain outcome measures that are administered at the two-week mark, the outcome measure may not be able to differentiate symptoms of baby blues, which commonly ends after about two weeks post-birth, versus postpartum depression that can have a much later onset. And that can be anywhere from post-birth up to three to four weeks for onset. So I just thought that was an interesting find from the screening side of things. But the two that we talked about are the EPDS and the patient health questionnaire. So outside of administering those two outcome measures, when it comes to screening, you'll want to also use the power of your ears and your voice to catch anything that may have been missed in those outcome measures. Remember, some people won't necessarily be honest on the outcome measures. They may be less likely to share that they're struggling due to the feelings of shame, abandonment, maybe they have a lot of guilt about not being enough for their baby, or they may not even realize their current emotional state, even when asked right on the outcome measure. So be an active listener. Ask the person How are you doing? But don't stop there. If you get a general response that's like, I'm good or I'm okay, I think you should ask it again. Say, I'm going to ask you again, how are you doing? Then you should also be on the lookout for words or phrases that the person may use in their conversation, like dark, heavy, blue. And then we certainly also want to have screening out postpartum psychosis in the back of our minds. So hearing voices that tell me to drop my baby, if you hear that, that is very serious. It is a medical emergency. This postpartum psychosis is going to affect about one to 3% of moms. So that's how to screen postpartum depression. How do we have the difficult conversation? How do we navigate the intricacies? when we suspect the person in front of us may be suffering from some postpartum depression. A few general tips. You'll want to listen with compassion and empathy, particularly to the non-physical symptoms. As neuroscientist, Dr. Andrew Huberman said, says, use your body to shift the mind. An individual that's not functioning at their usual physical capacity, or is in pain, or I don't know, recovering from a human body coming out of their body, or they're lacking sleep, right? This does not only affect the physical body, but it's also going to affect the brain and the soul. So it is within our scope to chat about this as their mental status is linked to their physical healing and recovery and management of their condition. As a provider, ignoring their mental status is not an option. You'll also want to avoid being dismissive. So someone may have been very vulnerable with you and they shared that, you know, they're just struggling. They're struggling to find the energy. They're struggling to feed themselves. And then you as a provider, like, okay, moving on to range of motion of your leg, like absolutely not. That is not acceptable. So avoid being dismissive, hear them out. Then remind them that addressing their mental health now will be so much more beneficial than months or a year down the line. And then mentioning that you'd like to take an integrative approach and refer them to a medication provider or their OB or a PCP or a psychiatrist, right? We'll talk in the upcoming podcast, but medications like antidepressants are also a good treatment option for them. So what are some specific responses that you can practice or just have in the back of your head when you suspect someone may be experiencing postpartum depression? I don't know about you, but especially in the public health space, I tend to get, you know, we talk about intimate subjects and there are some times that someone will share something with me. And I mean, I am feeling so much for them, but I have a hard time putting into words the quote right thing to say. And I'm not saying that these things, these scripting phrases that I'm going to give you are the right thing, but it's something to go off of if you're just struggling in that way.

16:43 - HIGHLIGHT & CELEBRATE

So the first phrase, and I think it's probably one of the most impactful, your feelings are validated. I'm in a group text with a few moms and one of them, they've all been recently pregnant and recently postpartum. Some of them have been going through some tough times when it comes to emotions. And one of them said, my OB put her hand on my arm and told me how brave I am for asking for help and really realizing that I need to be my best self for my family. And she told me I could call her office anytime to talk to her. And that meant so much. So just letting the person in front of you know your feelings are validated. Number two, early identification. So if you've got someone who is pregnant and you suspect that they're going through some tough times from an emotional standpoint, you can say, you don't have to feel this way for the next eight months of your pregnancy. There are resources available. Number three, highlight and celebrate the person's abilities. Say, look at what you're doing. All of this is very impressive given the circumstances and all the stress that you've been under. Bring it back to a potential or current bond with the baby. And you know, if the baby's in the room with you, even better, have a little side conversation before the appointment starts with the baby. When I point to you, look at your mother with loving eyes. I'm just kidding. But definitely show the person or show the mother, look at how you're learning what your baby needs, right? For comfort, for snuggles, for food, for diaper changes. So remind her of the role she's playing. And then number four, remind her your health is a priority just as much as the baby's is. So often, as soon as labor and delivery is over, maybe we have that six week, postpartum visit, the rest of the visits are not for the mother, they're for the child. So just reminding her that her health is definitely linked and just as important to her baby's health. And then number five, say this happens. There's a fine line though between normalizing that this happens a lot, but also it's not so normal that you don't need to address, that we can't have you not address it. So there was a resource that is, was in the deep dive realms of the ACOG website and the title, the title just gives me chills. It says, how do you talk about mental health conditions in a strength-based way? Love that. Here were their suggestions. Say mental health conditions are common. Mental health conditions are like medical conditions or like diabetes. They need to be treated. Medical conditions are, or mental health conditions are treatable. And that reminding the client that the aim is that every woman who is pregnant or postpartum or every person who's pregnant and postpartum is screened for mood disorders. They also recommended that their clinical support office staff needs to be skilled in talking to patients in a strength-based way, as they may be the first to encounter a postpartum person. And I wholeheartedly believe that because the face of the first person you encounter can really and truly change the trajectory of your care. So let's sum things up. If you're a healthcare provider, interacting with someone In the pregnant and postpartum period, you are in a unique position to be screening for postpartum depression. We covered using two outcome measures such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale or the Patient Health Questionnaire. If we suspect PPD, we as rehab providers can be confident in having these early conversations early on and during the client's pregnancy and then again in the early postpartum period. Using tips and verbal responses, the scripting phrases that I mentioned, can help support and validate the client's concerns in a strength-based way. Reminding them that their health is equally as important as their baby's. Reminding them of what they've accomplished under these incredible circumstances. And telling them, hey, this condition is treatable, just like we would treat a shoulder injury. This awareness can decrease stigma, it can normalize screening and detection, and encourage women to discuss any mental health concerns with you. Join us next time for specific treatments, resources, and ways to support a person with postpartum depression. Cheers, y'all.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 5, 2023

Dr. Paul Killoren // #LeadershipThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Dry Needling division leader Paul Killoren emphasizes the importance of using e-stim in conjunction with dry needling. This combination provides validation and helps the practitioner determine if the needle is in the muscle. Furthermore, using e-stim with needles can reduce post-treatment soreness, making it more approachable for patients. Paul also highlights research supporting the use of e-stim in various treatment goals, such as pain modulation, neuromuscular changes, tissue nourishment, nervous system accommodation, and somatosensory reorganization. Paul always recommends using e-stim after inserting the needle, as it offers multiple benefits for both the practitioner and the patient.

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 PAUL KILLOREN

Good morning. PT on Ice daily show streaming worldwide on Instagram and YouTube. I'm your host for the day, Paul Killoren, of the dry needling division for ice, and I'm hijacking the mic. Normally on Thursday for the PT on ICE Daily Show, we have practice management, we have leadership stuff, really inspiring messages from Jeff Moore, from Alan himself. I'm hijacking the mic and calling this Technique Thursday. We're talking needles on a Thursday. dry needling division. Before I dive in, some pretty exciting updates. Our very first advanced dry needling course is going down January 12th to 14th. And we actually have a registration page up and live that has a little work to do. But the course is going to be ready and the very first advanced dry needling course for ice will be in Washington in Bellingham in January. And then having the upper, lower, and advanced course that will form the ICE dry needling certification. So again, our division's not even a year old. We have had our upper and lower dry needling courses running across the country for almost 12 months. And this will be that final piece. So really exciting stuff coming out of the dry needling division. But I'm going to dive in, dive right in today.

01:58 - THE NEEDLE IS IN, NOW WHAT?

And the title of today's episode is my needle is in, now what? And honestly, when I framed this topic, when I started to prep and form this discussion, in my mind, I pictured that novice clinician, I mean, you're on your first dry needling course, you're doing vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, glute medius multifidus, you learn the technique, the palpation, the anatomy, you're looking for a bony contact, you get super excited, just like, oh, sweet. There's the bone. That's what I was looking for. Now what? So really, this is a question I've answered consistently on level one or kind of first dry needling courses for the last decade. But again, when I started to prep for this episode, there's layers to this. And really, whether you're a novice, an intermediate, or even an experienced dry needler, Sometimes it's worth having this discussion of, our needle is in. Like first we learn how to do it safely, how to do it specifically, but our needle is in, now what? And to fully acknowledge, depending on who you listen to, how you were trained, the answer of, now what, will be very different. Because first of all, there's that technical spectrum of, well, now we piston the needle, or now we twist the needle. Now we use e-stim. But even there, let's say there's a dosage spectrum of, okay, if I piston how many times? If I twist it for how long? If I just leave it there, what duration? If I use e-stim, what parameters? So again, I thought this would be a pretty easy, a pretty short, quick-hitting topic, but there's layers to it. And first of all, let's say that there is significant value to my needle is in a very specific target. Again, safety always comes first when you learn dry needling, but I think we also can acknowledge one of the benefits, one of the advantages of the needle as a clinical tool is we can be sniper precise. We can put a needle in semi-membranosis, in multifidus. You know, this is not necessarily a technique of broad stroking manual therapy of like, we're doing the lateral hip, we're doing the low back, we're doing the SI region. To some degree, even a manipulation, we're saying, you know, we're not joint specific necessarily. We're kind of giving input neurophysiologically to joint receptors and there's more of a regional and global response to that. With a needle, I think we can just say, first of all, I have a needle in semimembranosus.

04:46 - THE BLESSING & THE CURSE OF NEEDLING

I mean, The blessing and the curse of needling is it keeps us honest, especially if we use e-stim. When you get that motor response, the needle's telling you, it's like, you know what, Paul? You're not in semi-membranosis. You missed. You're either like, you drifted subcutaneously or you missed superficially in tendinosis, you missed deep in adductor magnus. So first of all, I don't wanna just like completely glaze over the fact that your needle is in a very specific target is a big part of the equation. I mean, for ice, for our dry needling, we teach safety for sure, but you as like highly educated, skilled clinicians, teaching you all how to be safe with a needle happens pretty quick. So our, our goals, our mantra with dry needling are be safe, be specific. Again, that's, that's a big part of using this needle as a tool and then be strategic. And that's what I want to go to today, because again, the topic here is, my needle is in, now what? And again, let's acknowledge that it depends, not just on how you're trained, it depends on that patient on the table, on what is your goal for that session, what is the acuteness or the chronicity of the condition. So by no means do I want to make this sound easy, but I am going to give a very specific answer to this question. And again, I have previous training, I know the narratives out there of the needle is in, now we twist it for two minutes. Or the needle is in, now we just let it sit there. Or we pissed in it. And again, there are narratives, there is research, and there is benefit to each of those approaches. But I'm telling you that those aren't the answers. Again, I have a pretty specific answer that I'm going to get to But I think I'll torture you just a little bit longer by setting the stage. And really, I'm going to flashback, not even talking needling, I'm going to flashback to my DPT education. I went to Regis University, graduated in 2010. So what attracted me to Regist was Dr. Tim Flynn, Julie Whitman, Jim Elliott. I mean, big manual therapy specialists, but researchers of our day. So we finally, you know, you're year one, year two, you finally get to that musculoskeletal management, you finally get to learn some manipulations from Tim Flynn and Julie Whitman. And you know, if you don't remember how you started with manipulations, it wasn't good. The hands were not skilled, like it wasn't crispy right out of the gate. So you spend a half day, you practice on your classmates at home, and finally you're like, man, I'm starting to feel like my hands have some skill. So imagine you are there, you're learning manipulations, your hands are feeling more skilled. Imagine how disheartening it was for me, and I remember this day, when Dr. Tim Flynn stands up and says, you know what, you can teach a monkey how to manip. And I mean, He's overgeneralizing, but the point is still true. He's like, you can teach a monkey how to manipulate. It's really how, like when to manipulate. Um, I guess how to apply it. There is skill there. We'll acknowledge that. But then it's what you do afterwards. So, I mean, that, that hit for me. And first of all, it's like, Oh man, there are manipulating chimps out there that are doing this better than I am. And again, that wasn't his point, but. But the point remains knowing when to use it, how to use it to some degree, but then the dosage and the follow through, the aftermath is really the true magic. That applies for dry needling as well. Again, can we teach a monkey how to put a needle randomly into tissue? For sure. Like there is not much needle skill to getting a needle interstitially, into muscle tissue. There is a skill to being more specific, and there is a skill to answering the dosage question, now what? And I'll tell you now, without further ado, we have our needle or needles in. The answer to now what is e-stim. And you know, I don't, you know, I kind of do the, you know, I was trained previously, I know the research, the narrative and the benefit to all the other approaches, but the answer today is eSTEM. And honestly, what makes me so confident in that is first of all, I have my own empirical anecdotal, like I was not using eSTEM, now I am. I have that sample size to make me confident. But what makes me more confident And it's not even just the research, I'll touch on that in a minute. But what makes me more confident is knowing or hearing that some of the other dry needling educators or other dry needling institutions in the US and worldwide that previously were saying there's no additional value to e-stim with dry needling, or we're essentially just doing tens through a needle, they're now starting to use e-stim. And whether they use it the same way we do with ice, whether they explain it the same way, what they're saying is there's value to e-stim. And here's what the research says, is our needles are in, now what? E-stim is the answer for almost any treatment intent. First of all, I mean, if you haven't taken one of our upper or lower courses, we teach e-stim right out of the gate. I mean, day one, we learn how to use the unit, we get muscles to pump, Again, there's high value when you first learn dry needling to using e-stim because it keeps you honest. Are you in that muscle? Are you not? But that immediately gives you some, I guess some validation, like I'm saying, but some grace. Because first of all, what we know is that if we use e-stim with our needles versus not, any sort of post-treatment, post-needle soreness will be much less. So there's a very, um, a very real like patient approachability aspect to using e-stim. And there's research to support that.

12:33 - E-STIM DOES IT BETTER

But beyond that, what if our treatment goal is not pain modulation? What if it's neuromuscular changes? E-stim does it better. What if our goal is, tissue nourishment, blood flow, maybe venous return, lymphatic activation, edema evacuation. What if our goal is that? ESTIM does it better. What if our goal is nervous system accommodation? Or what if it's getting the biggest, baddest neuropeptide or enkephalin, endorphin, but our pain modulating up top cortical response. What if that's our goal? eSTIM does it better. What if we're talking pain science and there's some somatosensory reorganization, there's some homuncular smudging that we would like to remap. We'd like to give a very profound and precise input to that homunculus, to that somatosensory cortex. eSTIM does it better. So again, these are, these are research based answers. Very real research that says group A just got needles, whether that was pistoning or placing or what have you, and then group B got e-stim. What was the difference? At this point, e-stim does it better. And really, that is the long and short of this episode. And again, I think to not minimize the impact of you have to learn how to put a needle in safely, There is significant value, especially with the needle, to say, my needle is in, very precisely, fill in the blank. My needle is in peroneus brevis. My needle is in extensor hallucis longus. My needle's in glute minimus. There is significant value to the precision of that tool. But that's only half the battle. My needle is in, excellent. That took some training, that took some some skill honestly that took some three years of doctorate level like anatomical training and education and awareness that took a lot to say my needle just contacted I guess the external ileum like we are at the depth and the location of glute minimus that's awesome that you checked the box that is step one but if we don't fill in the then what you're leaving a lot on the table clinically And if you just logged on, the answer is eSTEM. So again, I know I see some of the names jumping on. Thanks for joining. I'm preaching to the choir, to some of you, because you've taken our upper or lower courses. We immediately talk about how to use eSTEM, the research behind eSTEM, and then we use it all weekend on the course. And it's a different experience. I think eSTEM makes dry needling a little bit classier. We can be a little bit more classy with our needles when we use E-Stim. We can also be a little bit more dialed, a little more tactical with our treatment intent. Again, is your goal pain modulation? Is it neuromuscular changes? Is it blood flow? Is it just fluid dynamics of moving fluid? Excuse me. So that's the answer for today. Again, jumping on on a Thursday for a Technique Thursday. We're talking dry needling. And the question was, needle is in, now what? And the answer was Easton. Excuse me. So if that prompts any questions, again, this is a big piece of our curriculum. Drop some comments in the thread. Hit us up on Instagram. This is on YouTube as well, so you can throw some comments there. Again, my name is Paul Killoren of the dry kneeling division for ice. If you hopped on late, We are launching our advanced dry needling course in January. That'll be the final piece of our upper dry needling, lower dry needling, and then advanced for the certification. If you're in Washington State, that'll be the third course of the series to allow us to dry needle as far as getting 75 hours. But if there's anyone out there who is trained in needling, who is uncertain about using eStim or the benefit of eStim, first of all, I'll just encourage you to try it. Like, there's value there to hearing your patients explain the difference of using eStim or not. Otherwise, we have an online course if you already have the needle skills, you know how to put your needle in, but then what? If you don't know how to use the eStim, there is an online course through ICE as well, eStim plus needles. That's all I've got for today. Thanks for logging on. I'm incredibly proud of myself. This is my most concise, my most brief podcast topic, but it's an easy one for me. So if you're out there saying, what do we do after we put the needle in? I'm not saying there's not value in twisting or pistoning or just static needling. There's blood flow changes. There's neuromuscular changes. There's tissue disruptive like inflammatory cascade responses to all of that but the answer is e-stim and With that I'm logging off folks. Thanks for joining PT on ice daily show. See you next time

OUTRO

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