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The #PTonICE Daily Show

The faculty of the Institute of Clinical Excellence deliver their specialized content every weekday morning. Topic areas include: Population health, fitness athlete management, evidence based spine and extremity care, older adults, community outreach, self development, and much more! Learn more about our team at www.PTonICE.com
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Now displaying: October, 2023
Oct 31, 2023

Dr. Jordan Berry // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Spine Division lead faculty member Jordan Berry as he discusses the reverse hyperextension exercise as the go-to exercise for the low back. The reverse hyperextension provides a decompressive effect on the spine, often reducing symptoms, while simultaneously allowing for strengthening & mobility through the full range of motion of spinal extension & flexion.

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Lumbar Spine Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

JORDAN BERRY

Good morning, PT on Ice Daily Show. This is Jordan Berry, Lead Faculty for Cervical and Lumbar Spine Management Courses. Coming at you on Clinical Tuesday, we are chatting today about why the reverse hyper is king. We love the reverse hyper when we're either building strength in the back, trying to modify symptoms and pain in the back, but we're gonna talk about today about all the different exercises and machines, equipment that we have in the clinic when we're talking about the lumbar spine, why the reverse hyper is king. Before we get into that, just a couple upcoming courses. We've got a few spine courses left before the end of the year. So if you're trying to catch cervical spine management, you've got two options left this year. You've got November 11 and 12 is going to be in Bridgewater, Massachusetts right outside of Boston. And then we also have December 2nd and 3rd out in Hendersonville, Tennessee. So two options left for cervical spine. If you're trying to catch lumbar before the end of the year, you've got three options. You've got Fort Worth, Texas coming up November 4th and 5th. And then two options, December 2nd and 3rd. We've got Charlotte, North Carolina, and then Helena, Montana. So a few options left before the end of the year. We've got a ton of dates on the books already for 2024. So hoping to see you at one of those live courses either before the end of the year or maybe sometime in 2024. So let's dive into the content today.

THE REVERSE HYPEREXTENSION

So again, chatting about the reverse hyper and why the reverse hyper is king. So let's define king to start with. So when I think about an exercise, ideally it would do three things. So it would do a combination of reducing someone's pain, improving the mobility in the lumbar spine, and then building strength and endurance in their back as well. Like if I had one exercise that could do those three things, that's what I would consider king. So reducing pain, improving mobility and building strength and endurance all at the same time. And so yes, there are multiple techniques and exercises that we have that are incredible for reducing low back pain. but they don't do an awesome job at improving someone's mobility or strength. And then we've got exercises that are awesome for range of motion. However, they don't do a good job at reducing pain. And then of course we have some awesome exercises for building capacity and building strength in the lumbar spine, but maybe they don't do a lot for improving range of motion. What I'm saying is the reverse hyper is the king of all three of those if you package that up into one exercise. And so to start with, If you're not familiar with the Reverse Hyper, I would say YouTube it or look it up or try to find one even better and test it out in person. But if you're not familiar with that machine, there's a, essentially you're laying on a platform. So it's elevated a few feet in the air, almost looks like a GHD machine, but you're laying across it and you're holding it with handles in the front. So your torso's laid out on the area. and then your legs are essentially hanging off the side of it. So the pad that you're laying on hits right around the hip crease, legs are laying off the machine, and then it's plate loaded. So you have this pendulum underneath that you can load with weight, load with plates, and then the strap goes around the lower leg. And the exercise is essentially just contracting the posterior chain. So you're lifting the legs up and down, And then it's taking your lumbar spine through full flexion and full extension. And again, hard to explain verbally, um, on the podcast, but look it up on YouTube, um, get out to a gym that has one and test it out. But I want to talk about the three reasons why I think this exercise is king.

STRENGTHENING THROUGH THE FULL RANGE OF MOTION

So the first one is it's strengthening through full range of motion. Now, if we're just talking about building capacity and strength in the lumbar spine, no argument, the deadlift is king. The deadlift is an incredible exercise for building strength and capacity in the posterior chain. However, the deadlift doesn't utilize a lot of range of motion in the lumbar spine. Like, when we coach the deadlift, what we want to see is essentially straight lines. Straight lines or strong lines. So, we coach it to have a neutral spine position throughout, so the lift is more efficient, right? But, we're not actually utilizing a lot of range of motion for the lumbar spine. And we would never treat another joint like this. So, you know, if you're only utilizing hip hinge type of movements, then you're missing a ton of range of motion. And think about treating an Achilles tendon or rotator cuff. We would never utilize just a very small amount of the range of motion. We always talk about strengthening through the full range of motion. So why is the spine any different? So the reverse hyper, as you kick those legs up and down, right, you're taking the lumbar spine through full flexion and full extension. and you know an exercise similar to the Jefferson Curl in a way where we're utilizing a lot of range of motion of the spine but Jefferson Curl is much easier to cheat on because if you have really good posterior chain mobility then you can essentially do one massive hip hinge on the way down. And it looks like you're really utilizing lumbar flexion, but you're not. The reverse hyper, because you're locked in laying on the pad, it's much harder to cheat. And so we love this exercise for strengthening through the entirety of the range of motion.

DECOMPRESSIVE EFFECT

Now, second, there's what we call a decompressive effect. So on the actual reverse hyper machine, not a variation on the actual machine, you have this pendulum weight underneath that is plate loaded. And as you lift the legs up and down, that plate swings pretty far under. And so as you're flexing the low back, because the weight is underneath and has some momentum to it, you almost get this decompressive traction like effect. Now, why this is so awesome is this exercise can work for someone who has almost any levels of irritability. So, for high levels of irritability, like when someone's back is really jacked up and they have a lot of pain, it can sometimes be challenging to find an exercise that relieves symptoms and feels really nice. And you'll be surprised to find that for those individuals that can't tolerate other forms of exercise, they will really like the Reverse Hyper. And even the heavier you go on it, the better it feels sometimes because it's more weight underneath that is almost tractioning the spine. And in my mind, what I think is happening here is we're essentially creating a pump. So when we have that pressure gradient that we're creating, when you contract and relax and contract and relax, And that pressure gradient is going to essentially pump fluid and water into the lumbar spine. And I think about the couple of research articles that we referenced in lumbar management, they're both from Paul Beatty, 2010 and 2014. And he's looking at diffusion weighted MRI. And in the first study, we're looking at interventions like prone press-ups and lumbar PA mobilization. Second study four years later, lumbar spine thrust manipulation. But what they found in both studies is the individuals that had a significant symptom reduction, so a massive pain reduction, following the intervention, we saw an increase in hydration, the diffusion coefficient, in the discs in the lumbar spine. So essentially the discs brought in fluid, brought in water content, and that matched up to who had a significant reduction in pain. What do I think is a massive, massive pump that we could utilize in the clinic? It is the reverse hyper. So I can't prove that there's no research for that, but I would love to see something like that in the future. But I really believe that's what's happening is one of the ways that we're reducing symptoms is the diffusion coefficients. We're creating that pressure gradient is drawing in fluid to the lumbar spine and helping to reduce pain. I think that's why some individuals they have pretty high levels of pain, pretty high severity, are able to tolerate that type of exercise.

SCALING THE REVERSE HYPEREXTENSION

And then lastly, the third reason why the reverse hyper is king is it's easily scalable. So yes, the actual reverse hyper machine, the official true reverse hyper machine is a bit harder to find in commercial gyms, but there's a scalable option for pretty much anyone. You know, you could regress it anything from a GHD machine where you're on the backside of it. So you're holding with your hands where the feet would go and lifting the legs up and down. You could throw a band around the bottom of it and have some banded resistance. We could utilize just a bench. We could either lie on the bench and so the end of the bench would hit the hip crease and have our legs hanging off. Or we could go on top of a physio ball on the bench to get more of the curve in the lumbar spine that mimics the true machine. Or something as simple as just holding something at home. Like sometimes in the clinic for my clients that don't have a lot of equipment at home, I'll have them just lay across our coffee table or a bed or some sort of table that they have where the edge of the table hits the hip crease and they can just lift their legs up and down in its simplest form. It's an awesome exercise for, again, not only increasing range of motion, reducing pain, but also building strength and endurance in the lumbar spine. So there's pretty much a variation for anyone where you can mimic this type of movement.

CONS OF THE REVERSE HYPEREXTENSION

The pushback with the reverse hyper over the last few years has really been two things. Number one is the cost. The traditional reverse hyper machines were a couple thousand dollars and they took up a significant amount of space. So if real estate is an issue in the clinic, a lot of the old reverse hyper machines took up the space of about a squat rack. And so because of that, not a lot of gyms and not a lot of physical therapy clinics utilize that. But thankfully, a lot of companies are solving that issue. A couple companies like Rogue and Titan and a couple smaller ones are now making reverse hypers that are not only significantly cheaper, but are more compact as well. Some of them even fold up. So they take up pretty much no real estate in the clinic. So because of that, That is why we think the Reverse Hyper is the king of exercises for the lumbar spine. So again, there are exercises that yes, might be best for pain, might be best for building range of motion, might be best for building strength for any N equals one. But I'm arguing if you gave me one exercise that could do all three, I'm taking the Reverse Hyper all day. That's what I've got team. Thanks so much for taking a few minutes to listen. I would love to hear some thoughts on this. So if you're utilizing the reverse hyper, either in your personal training, um, just from a performance standpoint, or if you're utilizing it, um, in the rehab setting, I would love to hear comments, how you're using it, what you think about it. Um, drop those in the comments and, uh, and we'll chat about it. But other than that team have an awesome Tuesday in the clinic. Um, if you're coming to a cervical or lumbar course in the future, I will see you soon. Thanks team.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 30, 2023

Dr. Jessica Gingerich // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member Jessica Gingerich discusses simple, but often overlooked interventions for treating patients with symptoms of pelvic prolapse including the Kegel, unilateral hip strengthening, and proper breathing & bracing.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - JESSICA GINGERICH

Welcome to PT on Ice Daily Show. My name is Dr. Jessica Gingerich and I am on faculty here at Ice with the Pelvic Division, which means that it is Monday again. We are getting super close to Halloween. I'm really excited. I'm definitely a Halloween girly. Today we are going to talk about what may be missing during the plan of care when it comes to prolapse. So this is another hot and relatively scary topic for a lot of mamas, but also for a lot of clinicians in this space. So we're going to talk about a few housekeeping items before we get started. We are currently in our last cohort of the year for the online course. This is something we are gonna put the pedal down come January. We've got a lot of exciting things coming up. So if you have not signed up for this course, head over to ptonice.com, just sign up. We also have a few more courses, live courses, to round out the year. So, if you're looking to dial in your internal assessment with that kind of higher level population, that athletic population, head over to PTOnIce to sign up there as well. My hope after this podcast is that you guys want that. You want to sign up for that live course. You want to dial in your internal assessment, dial in your interventions, and just guns a-blazin' out in this population. For those of you in the ICE Students Facebook group, you will hear more about the revamped certifications from Jeff tonight. Otherwise, stay tuned to Hump Day Hustlin' emails for details. So if you haven't signed up for Hump Day Hustlin' emails, again, that's all on the website. It's free. We just want to get out as much information to you guys as we possibly can. So we have some really fun new certifications coming up that Jeff is gonna dive into later tonight. So as we begin our PT careers, a lot of us prefer a specific population, right? We want to treat the older adult, the pregnant person, et cetera. We want to dial in our skills. And we love to see that, right? Like that, I love that. I want to get really good at that one thing. I want to go to the provider that is that provider. I am the person that you want to see if you are experiencing X, Y, and Z. We hear that a lot as faculty, especially in the pelvic space is, you know, well, I only want to kind of treat this type, this, the urinary incontinence or, you know, low back pain. And as a faculty, we've all kind of experienced those same thoughts and feelings. Again, it's intimidating when you get into this space. Well, we quickly learned that you can't just pick and choose. If you have someone that's experiencing urinary incontinence, they also are likely experiencing something else as well. If you are in the pelvic space, you're going to see all things.

PELVIC PROLAPSE

The ones that are at the top of the list, at least that we hear about as faculty, are the ones that are scary are pelvic pain and prolapse. So today we're going to focus on treating prolapse and specifically what we may be missing in our plan of care. It is going to be outside of the scope of this podcast to talk about the assessment of, um, like the subjective or objective assessment of prolapse. So if you are unfamiliar or you feel like you're just kind of shaky on this, again, that live course is waiting for you. Once we know the pelvic floor is strong or weak, or that it's a timing issue, or that they may or may not be tender to palpation internally or externally. And when I say externally, I mean hips as well. And that they may or may not have objective signs of prolapse. we then get to develop our plan of care. Now notice that I said may or may not because these clinical patterns are not identical. You will see so many different clinical patterns when it comes to symptoms of prolapse. So let's just say your patient comes in with feelings of heaviness, pressure, or dragging, and it feels like they may be sitting on something. That's something how they're describing it. When they're in the shower, they feel, as they're bathing, they may feel something physically. The heaviness gets worse after they have a bowel movement, void, go to the gym, or have been on their feet all day. So what's your next plan of action? Well, first and foremost, we wanna encourage you guys to stop focusing on the biomechanical components of a prolapse. Of course, there is that person or that type of prolapse. We're maybe talking about surgery. That does happen, but it doesn't happen without needing that pre-physical therapy, the stuff that they're doing beforehand, getting stronger, learning how to poop and pee. learning how to brace. So all of this stuff is still happening, even if surgery is part of the discussion. So first and foremost, let's stop focusing on the biomechanical components. Let's start focusing on the symptoms. So understanding what makes the pressure heaviness better, what makes it worse. Can we, part of their plan of care, ramp up the things that make it feel better and ramp down the things that make it feel worse? That has to be followed with this is not gonna be your forever. This is not gonna be you never doing that thing because it ramps up your symptoms and always having to like sit and be immobile because it ramps down your symptoms. We have to think about this on an irritability scale just like we do with pain. We have to be able to bring down their irritability, so then we can make them better by loading them. So now that we know that, I'm gonna give you four points to go home with today that are great points to start with. When you have that person come in with a script that says pelvic organ prolapse, or doesn't say that, it says pelvic pain, but then you start asking them questions and you're like, hmm, they may have symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse.

REMEMBER THE KEGEL

We have to remember the Kegel. This is number one, the Kegel. It has gotten so much hate over the past few years, especially on social media. I don't think that was anyone's intent to just say never do Kegels, but it matters. Teach your client how to do a Kegel. Lift and squeeze, shut off the holes, come to the attic. But we have to remember the relaxation component to the Kegel. Teach them how. to relax. Have them focus on this. A lot of times people feel like they can multitask a cubicle. If they are new to this and they don't know and they didn't even know they had a pelvic floor, they need to go in a room where it's quiet with no kiddos running around and focus on the up and the down component of a cubicle. Something that I love to say in the clinic is the relaxation component of a Kegel is sometimes more important than the contraction. Everyone always thinks we need to go up, up, up, up, up. And when I say everyone, I mean typically our clients. And they forget that this actually has to happen as well. Or, not that they didn't forget, but they think that they may be in that relaxed position and they're not. and that's where that internal palpation can be golden. Again, people tend to focus on the contraction, so being constantly contracted can also lead to symptoms of heaviness. So maybe their symptoms of heaviness are coming from this versus actually symptoms of prolapse.

UNILATERAL HIP STRENGTHENING

Number two, single-sided hip strengthening. get their hips stronger, always, but even here, get their hips stronger. And I don't mean with a TheraBand. Throw it out. If you want to warm them up with it, great. But we've got so many options. Step downs, step ups, we've got single leg RDLs, we've got variations of that. We have Core stuff that we can do, like the options are endless. We can do side planks, we can do hip thrusters. Don't forget about strengthening their hips.

INSTRUCTING THE BRACE

Number three, teach them how to brace. Symptoms of heaviness can happen due to faulty bracing strategies. Bracing is not only for lifting heavy either. We need to prepare mom for the demand of life. And mom is holding Johnny who has a runny nose and she's trying to wipe his nose and he's flinging his head back. She's going to be bracing her core and she's not even gonna think about it. So let's prepare her for that. Number four is find and encourage frequent rest positions that ease or make their symptoms go away. This could be lying on their back. This could be seated, this could be laying on their stomach, it could be leaning over the counter, anything that makes their symptoms ease. Again, follow this up with this is not forever, this is a for now, we wanna get those symptoms, the symptom irritability down. And once we get those symptoms down, what can we do? Everything that we just talked about in one through three. So to recap, find the symptom aggravators, find the things that make their symptoms go away or ease. There may be multiple clinical patterns to prolapse-related symptoms. Prolapse can be scary to a lot of women. It is, if they've Googled it, they are gonna come in wide-eyed, or if the doctors told them that, there might be tears. But it can also be really scary to clinicians if we don't know how to treat this. You have four places to start. The Kegel. Gets a lot of hate, but we need to start using it. Don't forget about the hip. The hip muscles are gonna be supporting structures to the pelvic floor. Bracing is not only used for heavy lifting, and using positions that ease symptoms to lower irritability, which will increase our loading capacity. That is it. Start there. So team, I hope this helps. I hope you have a great week and enjoy your Halloween and we'll see you next time.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 27, 2023

Dr. Mitch Babcock // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Fitness Athlete lead faculty Mitch Babcock discusses how to approach setting up at a competitive event, including looking the part, preparing to capture leads, and knowing what is possible in the context of a short session with a potential patient.

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn from our Clinical Management of the Fitness Athlete division, check out our live physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses. Check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - MITCH BABCOCK

All right, here we are. Good morning, everyone. Welcome to the PT on ICE Daily Show. I'm your host on Fitness Athlete Friday. I'm Mitch Babcock, lead faculty in the online Essential Foundations Level 1, Level 2 courses and our live Fitness Athlete course on the road where we do all things barbell in your hands all weekend long. I'm pleased to be joining you guys this beautiful Friday before Halloween here, October 27th. And my apologies for nine minutes behind the clock as our CrossFit hour this morning was jamming and ran a little bit long. Today's topic is something that we derived off the ICE Students page. So shout out to all of you that are active on the ICE Students Facebook page. We always appreciate the engagement, the questions, the comments, the thought. It spurs topics like these. You don't even know what kind of good info may come from a question that you pose on the ICE Students Facebook page. So thanks for being a part of that to everyone.

01:18 - THE ART OF THE 10 MINUTE EXPOSURE

The topic today is the art of the 10 minute exposure. We're talking about, hey, someone posted a question of, I have an opportunity to set up at a local CrossFit gym or a CrossFit competition that's going on. And I want to know what should I do? Should I treat for free? What should I be doing? How long should I be doing it? And so we want to talk around that concept today of like, let's say you have 10 minutes with a free prospective client and you're trying to win them over in that fitness athlete space. What are some things that you need to be doing and doing well? And so that's going to be our topic of discussion today. And just before I dive into that, I do want to let you know that next weekend November 4th and 5th. Both Zach and myself are gonna be out on the road. Zach's gonna be in Hoover, Alabama, and I'm gonna be in San Antonio, Texas. Team, we are running out of dates to catch the live course at the end of 2023, so if you were hoping to wrap up that cert, or you wanted to hit that course and get dialed in on all your barbell dosage, treatment, refinement, everything, there's like a total of three weekends left at the end of the year. Anna Marie Island just sold out, so that one's off the map now in Florida. Shout out to everyone that's gonna be in Florida. We got Colorado Springs, we got Hoover, Alabama, and we got San Antonio, Texas. So if you want to catch us next weekend, we've got two dates. Check the PT Online's website and we will see you there at those courses. Okay, let's paint the picture. You are a newly minted business owner of your own. You've started your own practice, maybe in a CrossFit gym or near one. And you're looking to do this fitness athlete thing on the out of network side of things. And you want to anchor your ship tight to a CrossFit community in your town, which is smart. And you have an opportunity now to go to a CrossFit competition, market yourself, get your name out there, your business exposure, all of that. What should you focus on? I wanna start with looking the part.

05:07 - PHYSICALLY LOOKING THE PART

Aesthetically, physically, from a business perspective, from a clothing perspective, all of the above. That if you're gonna go into this environment, that you need to pull up on the right horse. I don't want you showing up to a biker rally on a scooter and thinking like, I don't know why I didn't blend in with this culture, this community, right? Humans still operate on that first impression basis. That is still a key component. Those first three seconds that someone looks at you, sees you, makes all these internal assessments on what your business is like, what kind of information they can gather from you, what kind of expert you are. We have to respect that first impression and we have to bring our best foot forward. So let's start with your setup. your nice pop-up table, right? Whatever that is, they're cheap on Amazon, you can get a nice brand new table for 100 bucks, it's black top, looks good. Go on Vistaprint or Banner Buzz or one of these websites that will print out a nice custom fit tablecloth that will stretch over an eight foot pop-up table that has your business logo branded across the front of it. So you've got your treatment table and you've got a nice table up front that's going to hold all your brochures or anything else that you have on it. Marketing materials wise, that's a very nice printed stretch fit cover. You're going to invest a couple hundred dollars into having those things ready at any event you go to and market. 5k races, CrossFit events, whatever, right? Tent or not, really doesn't matter. Indoor comp, outdoor comp, you may wanna invest in a little pop-up tent, but let's just assume you're set up inside and you don't need to worry about that. You've got your treatment table, you've got a table up front. You need to personally look the part as well. And I don't just mean the clothes you wear, and yes, I do mean the clothes you wear, but I also mean physically. You need to physically look the part. If you're going in here and working with fitness-forward athletes, you should look the part like you train from a fitness-forward approach yourself. If you're not there yet, and you're trying to inject yourself into that community, anticipate a hard ramp up, right? You need to look like you work out, you train, you've exercised, you do CrossFit, you have some calluses on your hands, that you can speak to the expertise that these athletes are expecting you to have. That is just a cold truth that no one really wants to admit and talk about. If you can't tell the person in front of you how many burpees you do in seven minutes, you're probably not ready to set up at a CrossFit comp yet. Your personal expertise probably has some developmental work to be done on the back end prior to you setting up and going out there and being like, yeah, I can solve all your problems for you. I know exactly what you're going through. So get yourself dialed in from a physical perspective. Two, get your wardrobe updated, right? Do not roll into a CrossFit comp rocking that same polo that worked in the in-network setting and the khaki pants that you wore Monday through Friday. We're not in that setting anymore, right? So invest a few hundred bucks into a nice clinic wardrobe that looks good. Some nice athletic pants, joggers, whatever. Black always goes well. And get yourself a nice top and take it to your local screen printing place and have your business logo screened on the top of it. everyone's wearing the cotton freaking t-shirts with their low company logo on it but not everybody's wearing that that next level nice t-shirt whether that's lulu or whatever you go and you buy your stuff from you get that nice t-shirt you get your company logo on it it just stands out it just looks a little bit better a little bit more professional and a leg up on the competition you're going to business suspense that stuff anyways you might as well get a shirt you like you feel good you look good in and go get your company branded on the front of it So step one, looking the part. Both your setup, your table, your banner, your clothing, right? And physically looking like you train and you exercise and you know what you're talking about when it comes to this stuff. Two, Treat for free. Everyone's talking about should I charge people at these comps. I say that you're there to gain exposure. You're there to convert people back to your clinic. You want them to come to your operation. So you need to funnel everything through that filter. Everything needs to be geared around how do I get in front of people, show them I know what I'm talking about, and then get them to schedule an eval and come see me at my clinic. It's not about a transactional thing here. It's about giving things to the consumer in that environment where you're in front of hundreds of them, over delivering for free, and then converting on that at the end of the sale.

09:49 - CONVERTING LEADS

And that's a key part. You need some way to capture leads and convert leads. The best way to do this is having some sort of QR code available. Everybody's scanning QR codes these days. Having a flyer printed out on a little plastic flyer holder that when they walk up and it says right there, free 10 minute session with Dr. So-and-so. Scan here. Boom, that's easy. Boom, pull out my phone, scan it. It takes them to something, a lead generation on your website. That could be sign up for my newsletter, name, email, phone number, city, whatever. That could be put in your contact information. We're going to reach out after today and kind of be in touch with you. Whatever that is, whatever lead funnel that you want people to go to, that's where that QR code directs them to on your website. So they scan the QR code. Boom. That holds their place in line. And then you're calling the next person up 10 minutes at a time. Hey, I got 10 minutes. What's going on here? In that 10 minutes, your goal is to address the areas that most need addressing, to over deliver the best you can, and then to convert that individual after the sale. Give, give, give, and then ask. Give, give, give in that 10 minutes. Here's what I think is going on. This is common. These get blown up. This gets overworked. This is out of position. This is stiff. We need to mobilize this. Here's some things that I like to do. Let's get some needles in that area. Let's do some cupping. And at the end of it, say, hey, I would love to earn your business. If you would, please take my card. I'd love to have you call and set up an appointment. I can actually get you scheduled right now. This looks like something that needs some work. Would you like to schedule right now while I got a few minutes? Don't be afraid of the ask. You're giving free content, you're giving free knowledge, you're giving free experience, and you're giving your time and service to that individual. Do not be afraid for the ask at the end of it, right? Can I earn your business? I'd love the opportunity to work with you, get you in the clinic. My e-mail rate is this. Can I get you scheduled for next week? Convert those leads. We stink at this as a profession and something we definitely have a lot of work to do on getting better when that conversion, that sales conversion process kicks in, right?

10:43 - TRIAGE & TREAT

And then the last thing I have, if we're looking the part, if we are converting our leads is to know what works and deliver on that. Team, if they're at a CrossFit comp, they don't need pain science information right now. Okay? I'm not saying there's not a time and a place for that. What they need is something to help them recover. Their back is likely blown up. It feels like there's a hundred gallons of blood shoved right in their erectors right now. They want their back to loosen up and feel better. Their legs are probably imploded. They want their legs to feel better. Their shoulders are probably imploded. They want them to feel better. Right? Understand what these comps and these things are going to ask people to do. Lots of pull-ups, lots of squats, lots of deadlifts. Know what works for those things so that you're efficient in your clinical approach in those 10 minutes you have with someone. We're not trying to solve all their pain and all their problems in 10 minutes. We want to show them that we have tools that can help them. And if you give me more time, if you give me an eval, if you give me a couple sessions, I can get to the root of your problem. So you're having things at the disposal, ready to go for shoulder, like high-volume pull-ups, what am I gonna do to address the lats and the biceps? High-volume squats, what am I gonna do to address the legs and the quads? High-volume deadlifts, what am I gonna do to address the low back? Are you gonna bring needles and stim and hook people up and get them stimming? Cool, maybe get two treatment tables so you can get one person started on that and you get the other person on the table right after that. Are you gonna do some cupping on there, try to increase some blood flow? Great, get it set up, get it rocking, take a bunch of pictures. Another good thing to ask someone for is to have them take a picture and post about your company on social media. Remember, they're getting this for free. They're willing to do something in exchange. Scan your QR code? Sure. Post a picture? Sure, I can do that. Tag my business? I would really appreciate the exposure. We're just getting started. I love working in this community. I love working out in CrossFit. I'd love to be able to help athletes like you down the road. If you could post about my business, that would help me a ton. Thank you so much. They're thankful for your time, your service, and your free delivery of something to them, and they're willing to exchange that in terms of something else for your business. So there's some things for you guys to think about. The art of the 10-minute exposure. You've got 10 minutes in front of somebody. Treat them for free. Have some way of funneling and converting those leads. And don't forget to ask for the sale. Can I get your schedule? Can I get your book? Can I get your e-mail? Look the part. clothing, wardrobe, physically, and then your environment that you're set up, your tables, and your banners, and your marketing materials. And don't forget to ask for something on the tail end. Let's take a picture. Let's post about it on social media. Convert those leads, team. Get those people that you're there, you're giving your time for, for free. Convert those people into prospective clients that are on your books for the next week's following. I hope this was helpful. I hope you took something from it. that you know what works and that you're going to deliver on what works in that 10 minutes for that patient. Team, thank you so much. Shout out to anyone that's going to be at our courses to the end of the year. We're looking forward to wrapping up 2023 with a bang. Next weekend, we're in Hoover, Alabama and San Antonio, Texas. And still some spots for you to join us if you want to. And have a happy Halloween. I know we're rolling into it this weekend. Our gym has a Halloween WOD planned for tomorrow. So a costume WOD for tomorrow and then Halloween on Tuesday. So let me be the first to wish you a happy Halloween weekend, team. Thanks so much. Go kill it in clinic today. Have a great one, everybody.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 26, 2023

Alan Fredendall // #TechniqueThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, ICE COO Alan Fredendall discusses different ways to use band tension to make bench pressing easier for those dealing with pain, weakness, or stiffness, as well as techniques to add accommodating band resistance to improve bench press performance.

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ALAN FREDENDALL

Good morning, everybody. Welcome to the PT on ICE Daily Show here on Instagram, here on YouTube. My name is Alan, happy to be your host today. Welcome to Technique Thursday. You may have seen this the last couple weeks. We had Paul on here and Ellie on here last week talking about some dry needling techniques. We're happy to bring techniques back. They used to be on Tuesdays, but now they're on Thursdays. So the goal of Technique Thursday is to show you some sort of manual therapy technique maybe a variation you've never seen before and likewise to maybe show you some tips and tricks with a certain exercise. The goal being something hands-on that maybe you could use in the clinic later today in front of your patients. So if you're joining us on the podcast and you're just listening to my voice, you're not going to get a lot out of this episode. So go on over to the Ice YouTube channel and find this episode so that you can watch the video. Before we get started today, it's Technique Thursday, which means it is Gut Check Thursday. This week's Gut Check Thursday, five rounds for time, a 400 meter run, 50 double unders, and 15 burpees. Much more cardio focused, body weight focused than last week. So last week we had an EMOM of calories on the bike and some bench press. So if strength and power is not really your thing, then maybe some lighter, long-duration cardio this week is your thing. You're thinking maybe 3-5 minutes around there, a relatively fast 400, ideally an unbroken set of double-unders or single-unders, and then a relatively fast pace on those burpees, trying to get that workout done, maybe somewhere between 15 and 25 minutes. Courses coming your way today, I wanna highlight our Extremity Management Division. The last three courses coming your way this year are coming up in November and December. So the weekend of November 11th and 12th, we're gonna have Mark Gallant, aka Mark Gallant, aka Mark Lanz. He'll be down in Woodstock, Georgia, the weekend of November 11th and 12th. And then the weekend of December 2nd and 3rd, you can catch Extremity's newest Lee faculty member, Cody Gingrich. He'll be out in Newark, California. That's gonna be in the San Francisco Bay Area. And then Lindsey Huey, the very next weekend, the weekend of December 9th and 10th, she will be out in Fort Collins, Colorado for the very last extremity management course of the year. So if you're looking to catch that course, check one of those three courses coming your way in November and December.

02:29 - BANDED BENCH PRESS TECHNIQUES

Today's topic, we're going to talk about some banded bench press tips. So you might be thinking, Alan, this seems like a topic for Fitness Athlete Friday, and you could be correct. But I hope by the end of today's episode that I get you some buy in that bench press is really appropriate for almost all of our patients. And today we hope to explain why and show you how you can introduce this movement to everybody. So when we think about bench press, we mainly think people who are already active, who are in the gym, either bench pressing, recreationally because they like it, they like to have a big puffed up chest, maybe they're doing it competitively, maybe they're a powerlifter or a strongman type athlete, and bench press is one of their events. And bench press does show up occasionally in CrossFit, so we do, not as often as powerlifters or strongmen, we do bench press in CrossFit as well. What's really cool about bench press is it's one of the four primary movement patterns of our upper body. If we think about our shoulder and chest complex, our upper body in general, what movement patterns can it fundamentally do? It can move things vertically. We can vertically pull, right? That's our pull-ups, our muscle-ups, our toes-to-bar, that's getting out of the pool functionally, jumping over a fence or something like that, some sort of vertical pulling pattern. We can press things overhead as well. the turnover of a snatch, things like that, moving weight overhead in a vertical pressing pattern. But then probably the more neglected patterns across fitness, recreational or competitive, is horizontal movements. We have our horizontal pulling, things like bent over rows. And finally, we have our horizontal pressing, things like bench press, but also more functional movements like pushups and burpees, right? Getting off the ground. So we like to use bench press here a lot with our older adults. It's a great way to load the shoulder complex, especially somebody with a painful or stiff shoulder that maybe can't even begin to initiate vertical pressing, maybe not even prone with body weight on the table, maybe not even in a landmine press, they have a really hard time due to stiffness, due to pain, whatever, even lifting any sort of weight vertically overhead. We know there's some carryover from horizontal pressing to vertical pressing. We're working primarily the pecs with the bench press, but we are getting some delt as well, and we're able to lift in a horizontal press pattern to maybe 115 degrees. So this is a great way to reintroduce load to the shoulder complex, even if we can't vertically press. Now today, I want to show you some ways to make the bench press easier for folks, whether strength is limiting them, range of motion is limiting them, or pain is limiting them.

04:57 - MAKING THE BENCH PRESS EASIER

So we're going to show you two techniques to make the bench press easier, and then we're going to show you a technique to make the bench press harder. So the easiest way to offload a bench press is a banded bench press like I have set up here in the rig. So I have two bands, half-hitched over the pull-up bar, the upright of the squat rack. onto the bench press in the center of the barbell so that I can still grab whatever grip width I want and now the bands are offloading that barbell for me. if I have pain maybe above a certain percentage I'm already bench pressing in the gym this can make bench press feel a little bit lighter so that it's more comfortable and tolerable and I can still get into the gym and maybe I can't bench at 75 or 80 or 90 percent of my max like my training has me doing but I can go in the gym at 60 percent with some bands on the bar and maybe I can move some weight at 60 percent so at the very least I'm maintaining or maybe a little bit incrementally increasing my strength as we calm pain down and build tissue resiliency back up. So pretty simple, half hitch the bands, put them over the barbell, lay back down in your normal bench press pattern, and then what you're going to feel is with no plates on the bar, you're going to feel almost like you have to pull the bench press down, and then the bands, if you have no weight on the bar, are really going to pull the bench back up for you. So you're able to really move through the movement pattern efficiently. So this can be great to train the bench press as well. And now we can put plates on there. What's great about this is we can get plates on the bar for maybe somebody who just the empty bar is challenging. By being able to put maybe even 10 pound plates on the bar, it helps them feel really successful, like they moved some weight around the gym. even if all they can normally lift without the bands is the empty barbell. So they get to go home and tell their spouse or their kids that they lifted a bench press today with the greens on or the yellows on, right? So it can help build success with that novice athlete. Folks who have pain or stiffness, we're now able to load at least in a partial range of motion of the shoulder, begin to strengthen within that range of motion that will hopefully now also allow us to transition to a vertical pressing pattern. If you don't have a way to set this up, another great tool is the slingshot. So this is from Mark Bell and colleagues. Anytime you've used a hip halo, maybe to do some monster walks, if you've used one of the official hip halos, that's also a Mark Bell product. If you have one of those, you probably recognize this looks very similar. So there's really no difference here and what I'm about to show you from what you get with the banded unloaded bench press, except now I don't need a squat rack with uprights to hang bands, but this is going to come up on my upper arm. I'm going to put both sides in. and now this is the slingshot. So now, as I sit down on this bench, there's going to be a tension that's created at the bottom of my bench press that's going to push me back out of the bench. So I'll lay back and show that to you all. If I were to pull a barbell back down, that band would stretch and help me out of the bottom. Now, what's great about the slingshot that you can't do with the barbell and the rig is I can translate this now and I can do push-ups or burpees with this on as well. What's really, really, really cool in the literature is how correlated maximal bench press strength is to push-up and burpee capacity. That is to say that the stronger your bench, it tends to track that you can do more push-ups. The reverse is also true. The more push-ups you can do, the likelihood is that you have a stronger bench press, and you can train one or the other to improve the other one. you can just do push-ups for a year and as long as you're progressing, how many push-ups you do, you're progressively overloading your push-ups, you will see an increase on your bench press and vice versa. So same thing, maybe somebody's not bench pressing at all but they come in and they have pain with push-ups or burpees, we can use the slingshot to offload that bottom position and make them feel more comfortable so they can continue to doing push-ups or burpees in their training program that we know that will translate down the road to bench press strength and vice versa. So two different ways to make the bench press a little bit easier, whether somebody's new, whether somebody needs to learn the range of motion, whether they have stiffness that prevents vertical pressing, or they just have a painful bench press and they currently can't lift as heavy as they would like.

07:53 - USING BANDS TO IMPROVE BENCH PRESS PERFORMANCE

Now we can also transition, we can use bands to make lifts a little bit harder. So now, instead of these bands over the barbell offloading, We're going to put these down on the floor to this pair of dumbbells you see down on the ground. Key here, really heavy dumbbells. I've got 50s here. If you try to do a banded bench press with like 25s, the resistance of the bands is going to pull the dumbbells off the ground. So keep that in mind that you need some heavy dumbbells to anchor for you. Setting these up, don't overthink it. Loop it halfway through, underneath the handle of the dumbbell, and then loop it up and over the barbell, right? You can see this is even challenging the 50-pound dumbbell. If I had even 45s or 40s, it would be lifting this dumbbell off the ground. Same thing on this side. Half loop on each side. up and over the inside. There we go. So now, the resistance is going to be coming out of the bottom. Because it's an elastic band, it's going to give us the least tension in the bottom, and it's going to give us increasing tension as we drive out of that bench press. Now, there's some criticism of this, of the weakest point of the bench press is the bottom, so why am I doing a training method that makes the weakest part, the easiest part to train with a banded bench press. The answer is that when I have accommodating resistance out of that bench press, I need to activate more and more and more and more and more muscle fibers to drive out of that bottom. So yes, It will never improve the dead stop where the bar is touching my chest at the bottom. The only way to train that is to go through full range motion bench press more often. But the benefit I'm going to get is I'm going to activate more muscle fibers, which in the future is going to translate to being able to recruit those more easily when I bench press in the future. And also I have to continually increase my velocity out of the bottom of the bench press to overcome the steadily increasing resistance from the band. That band is going to get tighter, tighter, tighter, tighter as I get out of the bottom. I'm going to have to continually increase my velocity out of the bottom or I'm not going to be able to go anywhere. That's really helpful for anybody that's maybe stuck at a certain weight at their bench press. They can go to the bottom and they can drive out, but it's really slow and grindy and maybe they're stuck at a weight like 315 and they said, hey, I haven't added weight to my bench press in a year. This can be a great way to break some plateaus. It can also just be a way to overload the bench press. If my max bench press is 315, I can put 275 on here. Yes, the bottom is going to feel easier, but as I drive out, it's going to feel as hard as 315 maybe coming up. And now I can get more volume in, in a way that my speed is maintained, that's going to translate into having an overall stronger bench press down the road. So pretty simple, bands on the barbell, on racket. A lot of tension at the top, right? This is super tough even with no weight. As I come down, easier, easier, easier, and now I really have to focus on increasing speed continually to get out of the bottom of the bench press. With an empty barbell, that would be pretty difficult for maybe even a set of five. So don't knock it till you try it. There's a lot of criticism about bands and chains. Obviously the most important thing is the weight on the barbell over time, but this can be a great way to just change up variance in your bench press, to break through a plateau, and even to overload your bench press, to be able to lift a weight Maybe you use a bench block, you come down to maybe 80% of the range of motion and drive out, and now you're working at a weight that's maybe heavier than your one rep max bench press. Again, the goal, recruit more muscle fibers and kind of overload that bench press pattern. So banded bench press, why? Folks who maybe have a lack of range of motion or lack of strength overall in the chest and shoulder complex, who maybe not right now are able to show you any sort of vertical pressing pattern. It is a great way to offload a bench press for somebody that maybe is already training the bench press that has pain, and then we can flip the resistance. Now we can give resistance as we drive out of the bench press. Why? Accommodating resistance, help improve our barbell velocity, help break through plateaus, recruit more muscle fibers. So play around with banded bench presses. I hope this was helpful. Have a fantastic Thursday. If you're going to be on a live course this weekend, I hope you have a wonderful weekend. Thanks for listening. Bye, everybody.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 25, 2023

Dr. Christina Prevett // #GeriOnICE // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Modern Management of the Older Adult division leader Christina Prevett discusses that the fountain of function is muscle mass and estrogen in the aging female. Christina breaks down these two areas for function, and what we have physical therapist can do to help encourage both muscle mass and estrogen preservation.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about live courses designed to better serve older adults in physical therapy or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION


00:00 - CHRISTINA PREVETT

Hello, everybody, and welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. My name is Christina Prevett. I am one of the team within our Modern Management of the Older Adult Division. In our division, we have three courses in our geriatric curriculum. We have our eight-week online Essential Foundations course. We have our eight-week online Advanced Concepts course. And we have our two-day live course. We have a couple of courses that are left in the remainder of the year. We have a course coming up in November in Chandler, North Carolina. We have another course coming up in South Carolina. And we have a course coming up in Texas in December. So if you are near those courses or you are looking to get in some content before the end of the year, I encourage you to check those courses out. and you'll be able to get in with some of our faculty before, you know, we ring in 2024.

01:18 - THE FOUNTAIN OF FUNCTION

Today I'm going to talk about the fountain of function. And so this is a reframe that I think is really important. And we're going to talk about what those fountains of function are. You'll notice that I did not say fountain of youth. We have this idea in our society that youth is the goal, to not feel like we're getting older in any way, to not show signs of age on our faces. And don't get me wrong, I see my aging face, I was like, oh, my face doesn't look like I am 21 anymore, and I look at the wrinkles on my face, and I have those emotions. But the idea for my life is not to try and get younger. It's to try and optimize my reserve and try and live the way that I want to live with the most amount of function possible into my 30s and 40s and 50s and 60s and hopefully all the way up to 100. Because at MMA and within ice in general, Aging is a privilege. It is something that I am very thankful for because the alternative is not that great. We're not gonna be able to reverse back time, but we can have a really successful aging process, especially when we put in the steps to live the way that we want to live, whatever that filter means for us. So I'm not looking for the fountain of youth. I am looking for the fountain of function. And so the two types, the two areas that are the fountain of function in aging women, so I'm going to talk about female anatomy, is muscle mass and estrogen. And these two things, especially when taken together and optimized to the best of our capacity, is going to allow us to have more function towards the end of our life. So let's talk about muscle mass. You have not been following the Institute of Clinical Excellence in any ways if you don't know that LODE is our love language across all of our division, across all of our faculty, and that is absolutely true in the geriatric curriculum as well. And I love it so much that I did an entire PhD on the influence of resistance training in an aging body. When we look at resistance training, we are accumulating a growth and a continuation, a plethora of education and research that looks at the impact of resistance training on health outcomes. And I just posted a paper that was a narrative review from Stu Phillips, who is one of my committee members on my PhD.

04:18 - THE COMING OF AGE OF RESISTANCE TRAINING

And he talked about the coming of age of resistance training and how we are starting to see some accumulation of evidence that is mirroring and is just as strong as literature that we're seeing in aerobic training to prevent stave off different chronic diseases, including some cardiovascular diseases. And so there means that there, as of course, we're going to target the aerobic system. This is not to say to not do cardio in stead, just do resistance training, but it's showing that there is a continual and persistent growth of literature talking about the impact of resistance training on health outcomes. So what we see is that those who have more muscle mass tend to have lower all-cause mortality. They are less likely to develop cardiovascular conditions. They are better able to manage diabetes. They're less likely to get diabetes. We know that muscle mass is protective around things like osteoporosis, right? Tensile strength of the bone is important and we need impact, body weight movements, resistance training across the lifespan in order to optimize that. We see that individuals who are stronger or less likely to have sarcopenia, right? Sarcopenia is clinically relevant amounts of muscular weakness that are preventing a person from completing their day-to-day tasks. It's a totally important output of frailty. Fried's physical phenotype of frailty talks about physical reserve and physical capacity as an output of individuals seeing these constellations and signs and symptoms that lead to vulnerability to external stress. That external stress includes things like hospitalizations and being able to withstand different stressors with respect to immune system insults, including things like COVID-19, pneumonia, and the flu that allows individuals, while they are sick, to have that reserve and resiliency to lean back on in order for individuals to be able to get back to baseline or improve past baseline, post-hospitalization, or acute insult. All this to say, we know that individuals need to be trying optimize their muscle mass in their earlier life and then hold on to it for as long as possible. If you are in a setting where you are not working with individuals who have optimized their muscular mass, we also know that muscular mass can be developed and we can see improvements in physical function with resistance training at any age when we start including in our 90s. The mechanism at which strength develops is a little bit different. We're looking a lot more at neuromuscular efficiency. However, we can absolutely see that it can improve function. And so whether you are 30 or you are 85, muscle mass is a fountain of function and it allows us to withstand stress.

12:24 - ESTROGEN FUNCTION & MENOPAUSE 

Now let's kind of talk about this second piece, which is estrogen. I've done several podcasts on menopause, but I want to talk about the influence of estrogen around female physiology, because I think this is really important. So when we are going through the menopausal transition, on average, individuals will start menopause between 50 and 51. Definition of menopause is when you've gone a full calendar year, 12 months without a menstrual period. That is your menopausal transition. But individuals can be experiencing perimenopausal symptoms that are indicators of dwindling or are coming down of estrogen status for up to 10 years prior to the transition into menopause. And so individuals who are in their early 40s can start to see the influences of loss of estrogen on their body. And then that influence is persistent as individuals get older. When we're talking about menopause, we often are putting this into two camps. So we have vasomotor symptoms, which are these symptoms that occur because of an acute withdrawal of estrogen. These are things like night sweats and hot flashes. As individuals transition through menopause and we get into our later life, into our 60s, 70s, 80s, and beyond, those symptoms tend to decline. So those vasomotor symptoms that occur as our body transitions to reductions in estrogen status they tend to go down as our body gets used to this new state of equilibrium that occurs without estrogen. In the opposite direction, the second kind of camp that we speak about when individuals are going through menopause is genitourinary syndrome of menopause or GSM. And that is signs and symptoms across the female physiology that are responding to losses in estrogen. and anywhere where there is an estrogen receptor within our body, they are going to experience changes when individuals transition through menopause. And we oftentimes will, in the pelvic health space, talk about changes to our reproductive anatomy, which are unbelievably relevant, but we have to also extrapolate that out and talk about different areas where estrogen is influencing female physiology and how, if you are working with an aging female, they are experiencing changes because of that change in estrogen status. And so within the reproductive track, we see that there is changes in ligamentous stability around the pelvis. And I hate that word stability, but it's a change in the turnover of the way that our ligaments are restructuring. So we have a little bit more ligamentous breakdown than buildup, right? That turnover rate is different. And so we have this shift between static support in the pelvis to the requirements or dynamic support around the pelvic floor. We see that individuals start to have vaginal atrophy. We see that the vaginal microbiome starts to change. We don't have the same cervical mucus secretion. And so things like chafing and redness can be more prevalent in a person who is postmenopausal. We can see fusing of the labia minora and majora. and this can lead to increased risks for pelvic floor dysfunction. So when we are in estrogen low states, rates for pelvic floor dysfunction go up. This includes anal incontinence, urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, dyspnea, or painful punitive intercourse, and other aspects of the reproductive tract. We also see, because of this change in the vulvar anatomy, that we have an increased risk for things like urinary tract infections, that increased risk for urinary tract infection also influences individual's physical function. We know that recurrent UTIs can be a cause of changes in cognitive status for our aging females. And so something that is extremely relevant for our aging women. Other things that we see is that as individuals go into an estrogen depleted state, increased risk of cardiovascular disease goes up. Individuals as they transition through menopause, we see that in general, men tend to be more impacted by cardiovascular disease. That is shifting for a lot of different reasons, but that risk profile increases when individuals are in an estrogen depleted state. We see a change in central adiposity where weight starts to increase. Adiposity accumulation can increase, especially visceral fat accumulation, which has a risk profile in and of itself for different chronic diseases. And then we see, for example, in our bone microarchitecture that the influence of estrogen allows for continual bone regeneration and that profile again starts to switch and there's an increased risk for things like osteoporosis in an estrogen deficient state. So there's a lot of things that get impacted, right? Our skin gets impacted, our breast tissue gets impacted, our urinary tract, all of our mucosal membranes, not just in our vulva, but across our entire body, and this has impacts. And so when we are thinking about working with these individuals, one of the things that is starting to become really recommended is topical estrogens. And there's a lot of debate about this because of a study that had been done a little while ago that looked at increased risk for sex-related cancers, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, et cetera, with systemic estrogen. However, what we are starting to see now and many of our menopausal experts like Dr. Mary Claire and Dr. Rachel Rubin are really trying to have this public health approach to medicine saying that we are not doing our females a service when we are saying that there is a risk profile when subsequent studies have not been able to substantiate or replicate those findings. And so there's been a big shift in the last five years to the need for or the desire for many women who are really suffering with genital urinary syndrome of menopause to be able to take things like topical estrogens in order to really significantly reduce their symptom burden. And I'm not just talking about their pelvic floor, which is an extremely important part of their sexual health, also a vital sign of aging, but also, you know, all of these other physiological signs of estrogen deficiency that are impacting our outcomes, right? We see that individuals with that combination of muscular mass, we are seeing individuals with negative consequences of osteoporotic fracture. if we were able to be preventative in this approach where we are talking about estrogen supplementation when these symptoms start to arise, especially when they hit a threshold of bother, where there's going to be this spectrum, some individuals are very bothered and very impacted by the signs of vasomotor symptoms and genital urinary syndrome of menopause, and then some individuals are not, but for those individuals with bother, is this something that should be taken? Is this something that they can talk to their physician about? Is there this literature to support these topical estrogens? And we are starting to see this mounting of evidence that is starting to come up to help individuals in the aging process. So many of our aging adults are being told that this is just what they should be living with. This is because they're going through menopause. Deal. We saw this in the peripartum space where there's a lot of advocacy still happening with respect to not having this thought process that as soon as you have a baby that pelvic floor dysfunction is just something that you should live with. We're starting to see this rise up in our perimenopausal and postmenopausal population, where they are not accepting that this is what they should be doing. They're not being dismissed anymore for these symptoms, and it's super important. When we take this lifespan approach, this education becomes extremely relevant. Talking about the peripartum space, I truly believe that that is where we start to tell females that they are not resilient, that they are somehow fragile, that they need to be concerned for their organs falling out and all these different pelvic floor dysfunctions. And then they are not encouraged to be as resilient as they could be by taking part in heavy resistance training or impact activities or things at higher intensities. We start bringing that intensity down and the idea of, ooh, be careful or, oh, monitor this or, oh, if you have these symptoms, it's time for you to stop participating in those activities. We are seeing this shift and what this shift is going to do earlier in life is it's going to set up are aging individuals with this mindset that pelvic floor dysfunction one is not inevitable two that reserve is protective when it comes to muscular reserve and three they're going to be advocates for their own health and that includes their hormonal health and that includes not accepting that some of these symptoms of menopause are things that they just need to live with, but things that can be medically managed. Genital urinary syndrome of menopause is a syndrome condition. It is a medical diagnosis, and therefore it is something that we can be treating. As physical therapists, us being educators and conduits of that knowledge translation is extremely important. And then we are going to optimize function for these individuals. Last point that I'm going to make, because I ended up being a lot more long-winded than I thought I was going to be, is that we are now seeing this interaction between menopause, genital urinary syndromes, and long-term health outcomes. We are seeing that individuals with higher physical activity, combination, aerobic resistance, or both, are having a much lower GSM burden than those who are not. And so again, it comes back full circle, whether this health promotion is extremely important, that not only are we gonna optimize a person's muscular reserve, we're gonna make that fountain of function be extremely relevant, but we're also going to make the quality of that function a lot better because their quality of life is better because we are not allowing them to just live with these symptoms and be dismissed by our medical system, us included, that just expects this to be the way that it is. And so this advocacy piece is extremely important and it's something that we are going to be screaming from the rooftops. All right, everyone, I hope you have a wonderful week. I'm going to be diving a lot more onto my page and I'm going to be collaborating it with ICE and MMOA around hormone therapies for individuals with GSM. I am not a medical physician, so I encourage you to reach out to your urogynecologist and urologist in your area. Get that relationship with them so that you can start having these conversations and we can start talking about risk profiles. All right, have a wonderful week. If you are not on our MMOA digest, I encourage you to sign up for those newsletters. Otherwise, have a wonderful week and I will talk to you all again soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 24, 2023

Dr. Mark Gallant // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Extremity Division Leader Mark Gallant emphasizes the importance of having a well-coached and appropriately dosed set of exercises for patients. He stresses that these exercises should be ones that the therapist is extremely familiar with and knows exactly how to prescribe. By having a clear understanding of these exercises, the therapist can confidently explain to the patient the objective criteria and expectations for progression.

Mark acknowledges that sometimes our egos can hinder us, leading us to believe that we can come up with a better plan for each individual patient based on the information we have at that moment. However, he argues that research has shown that the human brain is a sensitive instrument that responds quickly to changes. Therefore, having a preset plan of exercises allows for consistency and efficiency in treatment.

Additionally, Marj suggests that having a set of exercises that can be progressed by increasing work volume, range of motion, load, or speed, while keeping the exercises relatively similar, can be beneficial. This approach allows the patient to become more efficient with the exercises and increases their buy-in. It also reduces stress for the physical therapist and ensures that enough time is given for each intervention to make a meaningful impact.

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Extremity Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - MARK GALLANT

What's up PT on ice crew we got Instagram here YouTube over here. I'm Dr. Mark Lantz coming at you here on Clinical Tuesday, lead faculty in the ice extremity management division, alongside Lindsey Hughey, Eric Chaconas, and Cody Gingerich. Happy to be here this Tuesday. Before we get rolling, a couple of housekeeping things. We've got a few more courses for the extremity division coming up here for 2023. I'll be in Woodstock, Georgia, second weekend of November. and then Cody and Lindsey each have opportunities early December, so check that out on the ICE website. More importantly, if you've been looking to get a certification through ICE and the overall ICE cert seemed like a bit much to chew off right now at this stage of your career, we are happy to announce that we've launched the Ortho cert. If you take the two spine management courses, cervical management, lumbar management, the extremity management course and total spine thrust manipulation, take a short test at the end of whichever the last of those four that you take, you can become ortho certified. So that is officially launched and on the website. So definitely head over there and check that out and we hope to see you on the road soon.

01:39 - INDIVIDUALIZED CARE

So today what I want to talk about is individualized care. your ego is killing our profession. And what I mean by that, or what we mean by that, is that when we go around the country and we mentor folks, or we help out and talk through cases with individuals, watch people treat, one thing that we're starting to see as a trend is that folks are jumping around quite a bit in their plan of care. So that patient comes in for one visit, they're given a certain set of manual therapy techniques, a certain grouping of exercises at a specific dosage, and then each subsequent visit that person comes in, the plan dramatically changes. They're given a new set of exercises, there's different manual therapy techniques done. They are getting a completely unique plan of care each visit. And what we're recommending is that there needs to be a plan, that for any given pathology, you have a plan of what this is typically gonna go like. With that individualized care of jumping around from place to place, visit to visit, what we believe is that it is a reaction to old school physical therapy, what we like to call physical therapy 1.0, where a person would walk into a clinic, they would be put on a new step or a bike for five to 10 minutes, the physical therapist would wave the ultrasound wand on wherever their area of pain is, and then they would be given an exercise sheet. And it would be very specific to, here is the foot and ankle exercise sheet. Doesn't matter what you have going on, here is your foot and ankle exercise sheet. Here's our shoulder sheet. And if you were lucky, you would have a tech that would take you through that. If you were not one of the lucky few, you would either be given that to go run through in the clinic on your own, or even worse, just sent home with this exercise sheet.

04:17 - INDIVIDUALIZED PLANS OF CARE

So we swung the pendulum hard to everyone gets an individualized plan depending on what they show up with the clinic that day. So if their pain has changed, if what the exercise is looking has changed, then we ditch the entire plan and then we're going to go to this very individualized thing each visit. The problem with this is it's hard for the patient to buy in if everything changes each visit. They're not sure what the plan is. Humans love to have a target in a bullseye. So if that person knows like, ooh, here's the plan that we laid out during the first couple visits. And here's where I am along that plan. It allows them to be more bought in. They're going to comply with the plan more. They're going to be more adherent to the plan because they can see the target they're shooting for. And they can very clearly see where they currently sit on that plan. In addition to that, if we're jumping from thing to thing all the time, we're actually likely not giving any one intervention enough time to do its thing. So we know with exercise, the research is fairly clear now that exercise for musculoskeletal pain is the most bang for your buck intervention from a cost perspective and from a getting the job done perspective. It takes time. If we're jumping from thing to thing every visit, then we're likely not giving those interventions enough time to actually make changes. And in addition, it takes people time to get used to doing an exercise. So if we switch to exercise each visit, we're not allowing that person to become efficient with that exercise. And then finally for us, if we're seeing anywhere, depending on what type of setting you're in, between six and 20 individuals a day, creating six to 20 unique plans of care. Every single visit for every single person becomes wildly exhausting. I've lived it. Everything that I'm saying here, I have personally done for many years. That type of physical therapy becomes exhausting. And it's likely part of the reason why we have such a high burnout rate in our profession. If the expectation is a unique individualized plan of care for every individual, every day. That becomes a lot for any one given physical therapist. Whereas if you know, for X pathology, for my rotator cuff related shoulder pain folks, I know that I can modulate their pain, decrease their symptoms with these three to four manual therapy techniques. I know that my bread and butter early on exercises are gonna be these four to five exercises that I can coach extremely well, that I know exactly how I want to dose, and that I have an expectation of when the person can do these, what the next group of exercises that I'm gonna move on to, and I can clearly explain the objective criteria to the patient of what that's gonna be. Now, our egos often get in the way of this, because many of us, myself included, I'm speaking to myself more than anyone, believe that for any given person that comes in, that we're going to be able to give them a better plan based on the information that's coming that day than the preset plan before that may seem more cookie cutter that we're afraid of. What we know about the human brain, now having a lot of research over the years, it is a very sensitive instrument and it's going to respond quickly and rapidly to what's changing in the moment. So therefore your plan or what that person is coming in can be highly deviated by anything that's happened to you that morning or that day. If you had a stressful interaction with your boss, if the kids were having a hard time getting ready for school, if someone called you right before the patient came in and gave you some bad news, that is all going to very dramatically sway what happens in that session and how you go about what you're going to do in that session. Even more dramatically, our patients are in pain. which means that their nervous systems are gonna be all over the place. And so their drama and their brains are gonna be very sensitive and that is also gonna shape those interactions. So we're leaving a lot of interpretation to that interaction. Whereas if we have a plan that we know if this is looking like this, I'm gonna go this way, if this is looking like this, this is how I go based on the plan for this pathology, we are far less likely to succumb to the sways of any given day. When we look at other professions, professions that have higher stakes than physical therapy typically, we see that they use systems and plans to deviate from those in the moment sways. Pilots are the easiest example to talk about. When you have a pilot, it doesn't matter if that pilot is on his second day of the job or if they have 36 years of experience. That pilot has a checklist for almost everything that could possibly happen on a plane. If the weather looks like this, this is our checklist of what we're going to do. If the wind changes this way before we land, this is what we're going to do. And that pilot follows the checklist, not what they're feeling in the moment based on their experience. So much so to the point where there's a second person there, the co-pilot. whose primary job is literally to say, hey, why aren't you following the checklist? We got to go back to the checklist. We know this works. 99.9% of the time go to the checklist.

09:30 - RECIPE REPETITION 

For those of you who have been following ICE for a long time, our CEO, Jeff Moore, spent a lot of time working in restaurants and kitchens. And if you were lucky enough to take a class with Jeff or got to spend some time with Jeff, we used to always get all these stories about his time in the kitchen. And a lot of those things I still think about to this day, the stories he told as far as patient care. And one of the main ones that stuck with me was a chef that he worked with, who now has a Michelin star, by the way, told Jeff that for any given recipe, you need to cook this 1,000 times before you start to deviate from the plan. Doesn't matter if you're the greatest chef in the world, you don't add salt, you don't add fat, you don't add any flavor profiles until you have cooked that recipe 1,000 times. Because that 1,000 times is going to allow you to see how this thing really responds, what could possibly go wrong, what could happen, how you really get the full breath by committing that much. That's the same with our plan of care. There is no way that we can confidently say to the human in front of us, for most people what we see, if you follow this plan, this is where we get to. If we're changing the plan all the time, we never get to experience that to show the patient and to say confidently. So we want to have the plan for any given pathology that we're going to give most people. Another example, is the 12-step plan in recovery. I am not in recovery myself, so if I'm butchering this, I apologize to anyone who is in recovery. But with the 12-step program, it's 12 steps. You run the steps, and people who have addictions all over the country have been using this 12-step program to help deal with their said addiction. And when you look at that plan, it's a simple, not easy plan, and you follow those steps to a T. Again, same as the co-pilot, they have a mentor or a sponsor who helps them work those steps. If that person is struggling or deviating, what that mentor's job is to do is say, hey, make sure you go back and are following these steps and are not deviating. So lots of examples of really solid professions and organizations that use a plan to get the job done.

12:07 - STICK WITH THE PLAN: MODULATE PAIN, INTRODUCE MOVEMENT, PROGRESS MOVEMENT

So what should the plan look like for us, for any given patient? When you have a pathology, rotator cuff related shoulder pain, plantar fasciitis, things that you need to know. Early on, what are the manual therapy techniques or exercises that you know can modulate pain and decrease symptoms for most people? Have a few of these that you know you can do effectively and work for most folks as part of your plan. Then have your bread and butter exercises. What are the exercises that are gonna be the main, let me back up for a second. Before you have your bread and butter exercises, what are the few exercises that you're gonna have that are for that irritable patient that you know before they can tolerate a lot of load that we're gonna give them? So your pain modulation techniques, your lower level exercises that are not gonna overstress the tissue while we're trying to calm this down. Part two, what are your bread and butter exercises? What are the handful of exercises that you know tend to work best for any given pathology that you can coach really well, that you can dose really well, that you can manage workload really well? And then finally, what is the criteria that that person needs to demonstrate to move on to their more advanced exercises? And then a final piece to have in your mind is what does this look like If the person does have a flare up or relapse, how do we coach them? What point in the program do they go back to if they are indeed not ready to progress? So again, what are the things that can modulate pain and that can calm symptoms down or exercises that are not going to require a lot of stress to the tissue while things are calming down? What are your bread and butter exercises for any given pathology? What are the most common things that you're going to give in most people's plans? And then finally, what are you going to have as your criteria to progress these people on and having a game plan if they do flare up or regress? What this is going to allow, it's going to allow the person to go, ooh, I know exactly where I am on Mark's plan of care at this time and where I need to go to take the steps to move forward. It's also going to allow you to not have to switch exercises so much. You're not going to have to get overly creative with your exercise prescription. And by doing this, what you're typically going to be changing is same exercises, but you're going to be increasing the work volume. You're going to be increasing the range of motion. You're going to increase the load on the exercise and you're going to increase the speed on the exercise while keeping the exercises relatively similar or the same so that the person can become more efficient with that exercise. It's going to allow the patient to buy in way more. It's going to take our stress way down as a physical therapist. And if there is that small percentage of folks who do indeed need a more nuanced program because they are actually not responding over time, or they're having a lot of trouble adhering to the plan, it's only a small percentage of the folks, which takes a lot off of the mental stress for us as physical therapists. Love to hear what you all think about this in the chat. Definitely hit us up. Love to see you on the road in Woodstock, Georgia next month. Cody and Lindsey have courses early December. Check out the ortho cert on the website. Have a great day in clinic today. Hope you all crush it. See you soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 23, 2023

Dr. Alexis Morgan // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic lead faculty Alexis Morgan discusses the research & practical approach to helping runners return to running beginning at 4 weeks postpartum. She references research that about 50% of postpartum patients begin reintroducing running at approximately 4 weeks postpartum, with varying degrees of symptoms. Alexis emphasizes utilizing the symptom behavior model to monitor symptoms, educating & encouraging patients that about 85% of all individuals have some sort of symptom(s) with running, and that volume is an important variable to have a successful return to running.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ALEXIS MORGAN

Good morning, Instagram. Good morning, fellow ice people. Welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. Welcome to Monday. It is the start of another week. And we are so excited to be here. Really as we're wrapping up the end of this year, we still have a lot going on at the end of the year that I want to tell you all about this morning. And then we are really getting already very excited about 2024. And just want to talk to you all about some of the things that are going on. If you are in the ICE Students Facebook group, you've been to an ICE course or you were just recently added in because you just finished a course this weekend, welcome. You've seen some announcements in there as well a while back. And I just want to highlight a couple of things. So let's get started on that before we discuss four weeks returning to running, four weeks postpartum. So number one, we've still got three more chances for a live course, or you've got three more chances to hit us in the pelvic division at a live course. So this, not this weekend, but next weekend, if you're listening live, November 4th and 5th, we will be in Bozeman, Montana, and then a few weeks after that in Bexar, Delaware. And a few weeks after that in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. That is the first weekend in December, December 2nd and 3rd. So those are your three chances to get into seeing this Pelvic Live course, experiencing it, having fun with us, learning so much about pelvic floor health. not just for pregnancy and postpartum, but in general, across the lifespan, men and women, pregnancy, yes, but also all things pelvic health. So those are your three chances, Bozeman, Bexar, Delaware, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. So if you're on the fence, go ahead and pop onto those. Second, thing that we i want to share with you all is about the pelvic level one course so our name is changing as you all have heard us talking about and we're actually going to be taking a little break through the next few months and our new level one cohort is going to start in january so Be sure, we've already got people signed up for that, gearing up, ready to experience the new content. Very regularly, we are always reading the research on a weekly basis. And once enough of it stacks up, we've got to reframe the way that we're teaching, particularly in the space, because it changes so incredibly rapidly. And so with that, we are updating that material. So that is coming up on, that will be on the website soon. Actually, that is actually already on the website. So that is on there. So a lot of things coming up at the end of this year, the beginning of next year. We've got even more announcements, so stay tuned. And we're gonna be announcing a couple more exciting things in our ice pelvic newsletter. So if you're not already signed up for the pelvic newsletter, go ahead and sign up for that because we've got even more things to discuss and share with you all.

04:31 - RETURNING TO RUNNING 4 WEEKS POSTPARTUM 

So all of that aside, let's go ahead and discuss this four week return to running. This is a topic that a handful of years ago really was not discussed. No way are we going to be facilitating someone running one month after giving birth. That's what we thought a handful of years ago. But fast forward, we've got several examples of elite level athletes which then trickles down to our recreational level athletes, we've got several examples of people returning to running. And it's actually even showing up in our literature. And when we are starting to see this, it's kind of interesting in the pelvic world, like we have all of these thoughts and beliefs and oftentimes you're you're gonna run into some strong opinions surrounding those, and a deep connection here. We've gotta have that connection with our beliefs, but also be willing to let that go once the evidence and once the, even the anecdotal evidence that your clients show up to you with, once that narrative begins, and it's maybe opposite of yours, we need to be able to let that go and to explore and ask questions and be curious about, well, what are some other possibilities? And that's exactly what we're seeing in this four-week return to running. So what we've seen is people aren't running. Runners will run, as we always say, in pregnancy and then early postpartum. And what we know is that the longer someone runs in their pregnancy, the sooner they're going to run in that postpartum phase. And in Shefali Christopher's study looking at returning to running and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, she actually saw that it was close to half of those individuals, 46%, reported returning to running at four weeks. And so we've got some information to kind of digest, right, as therapists. And what we know, and again, in her research, what we know is that when runners return to running, we're seeing that musculoskeletal injuries or musculoskeletal pain does occur. And so that's the number one thing that we want to be educating our runners on and we want to be looking out for. But rather than waiting until they've hit certain guidelines, what we are proposing and what we are doing, what I am doing clinically, what a lot of our faculty is doing clinically is we're educating our patients. And we urge you to educate your patients as well. Based on this evidence, this is what we're seeing. We're seeing that when we're returning to running, we're actually, many people are experiencing musculoskeletal pain, about 85% of people. Not just those that are returning at four weeks. The median time returning at 12 weeks. So that's significantly before and significantly afterwards. We educate them. So we can, Educate them. They know that okay. There's a risk of injury. There's a risk of musculoskeletal pain Of course, just like with everything and what we tell them is when you feel something You need to let me know That visit is so much easier to discuss that if it's already been planned. So you schedule your person a couple weeks out. Go ahead and return to running and see how that feels. We're gonna control for the volume. We're not gonna go out and run five miles for the first time in eight weeks. We're gonna control that volume. Build up slowly and see how they feel. If you're experiencing some mild knee pain or some hip pain, we are gonna address that. All the while, absolutely, we're doing our basic hip strengthening, right? I say basic, not just talking about a basic squat, but also your accessory movements like clamshells to work on that rotation. Or better yet, some single leg standing you know, the standing variation of the clamshell or the hip abduction with your foot on the wall. That way you're working both sides. We love that accessory work to decrease the risk of pain. But even while they're working on that strength, they're still, everyone is still at a risk. And so the best thing they can do is talk to you about it as soon as they experience that. And tell them, okay, let's back down on that volume right when they're when they experience that let's say they bumped it up to a two mile total volume of running maybe they were doing one minute of running 30 seconds of walking and they had just bumped all of that volume and those intervals up experience that bit of lateral knee pain let's bump that back down. What were they doing last week? Let's repeat last week's volume. Let's repeat last week's running workouts and let's calm that system down. That's how we'll address it from that pain aspect. And then of course, we're going to be continuing to build that accessory strength training and coaching their running, looking at their running form. We're not afraid of them experiencing that pain. In fact, we know more than likely they're going to experience that. Again, 85% of runners are experiencing some level of pain, typically in the lower extremities, not necessarily their pelvis or pelvic floor. So we know we're gonna bump into that. So we educate them on the factors, and then we schedule a visit to where we're gonna follow back up on that. That's already in their calendar, they already know. That way we can discuss those itty bitty issues that they have, and we can address them before they get bigger. That's exactly the same thing that we want to do with pelvic heaviness, symptoms of heaviness, really fatigue, we've talked a lot about that on the podcast here and of course in our courses, but pelvic floor heaviness or fatigue is another symptom that we're going to address in the exact same way. We're gonna decrease their volume. We're gonna educate them about it first and talk with them when they experience it, but they are going to decrease their volume when that occurs. We're gonna continue to be building that hip accessory work. All the while we're working pelvic floor strength, but pelvic floor and hip accessory movement, that's what builds up strength and endurance for the run. Just like how we expect them to experience pain, what we're realizing is that we expect them to bump into some symptoms of heaviness as well. We, as the rehab providers, are not scared of that. Just like we're not scared of them experiencing pain. We know they bump into that and we get them to back off immediately. We know they're not gonna have an issue there. We know they're gonna meet all of their goals and continue to run. We know this with the symptoms of pelvic floor heaviness as well. Heaviness, in most cases, many cases can come on with a lot of emotional concern. And honestly, in some cases, pain can do that as well. You've all experienced that with your patients. Very similar with pelvic floor heaviness. I see it very, we all see it very heightened in that emotional response. But if we can educate them on this first, if we can tell them, Hey, You're gonna bump into this. This is a symptom of fatigue. What you're gonna do when you bump into it is you're gonna back down. You're gonna back down in that volume. You're gonna wait to return to your next running workout until those symptoms have died down, because your body is telling you that that's too much. But you're gonna return, and we're gonna talk about it on our next visit, and you are absolutely gonna run that 5K at Thanksgiving. or you're absolutely gonna run that New Year's Day 5K, whatever that may be for them. So, educating them about symptoms, whether it's pain, whether it's heaviness, of course, leaking. I feel like we as pelvic floor PTs have educated people so, so much on leaking, but similar conversation here. you're probably going to have leaking with some point of return to running. Again, it's muscle fatigue that often precedes that return or that leaking. So we're going to probably experience it. If that athlete is running to a fatigue level, that's okay. We've gotta understand where their capacity is and where that lies and where that threshold is for leaking or for heaviness or for pain. We figure out where that threshold is, we go down from that. We build capacity and we bump that threshold up. That's the name of the game in all things that we do. That is the name of the game in pelvic floor health, in returning to running, even when they're returning early, like at four weeks. Realize runners are gonna run. Many of them are already going to run at four weeks. So go ahead and have that conversation at your two-week follow-up. Better yet, go ahead and have that conversation in their late pregnancy. Prepare them for what they're going to experience in that return to run. Prepare them for it to decrease fear and to improve education and awareness. Education goes such a long way in this area, but we've also gotta have that follow-up. We've gotta have that action item, okay? When they experience the pain or the heaviness, what you're going to do is X, Y, Z. Decrease that volume, right? Maybe return to some, diaphragmatic breathing and regulate your nervous system if it's someone who's has a heightened level of concern, right? We're going to repeat last week's workouts after symptoms have resolved. Give them several action items that way they feel empowered to make those decisions for themselves. All of that and then have that follow-up appointment with them already scheduled a couple weeks out. And that way, you can address all of these issues that are small, and we ensure that it does not continue to grow. So that's a very different way of guiding someone in this return to running, where someone is starting to run early, we don't have the time to go through all these strength and all of these assessments, but we just say, hey, let's use our symptoms as our guide. Let's start small, 15 seconds of running, 30 seconds of walking. Let's start small and add that in and let's see how you do. That is an example of us coming alongside someone who's already going to be running. This is how we stay in their corner as opposed to, Hey, you're not ready to run. Person's like, I know I'm ready to run. I mentally am so ready to run. I'm not gonna go back to that person. I'm gonna go run. We lose people when we have this black and white yes and no and I am the boss. We gain people, we gain people's trust and confidence and their willingness to work with us if we come alongside them. So that's what we're advocating for this return to run. Absolutely, you're gonna work on strength, overall building capacity, calf. We're gonna work on coaching them and how do they look with running and running form and their cadence. And we're going to be addressing all of these factors. Let's do it by letting them run and coming alongside them. That's a bit different than what you might be doing. That's different than what we used to do several years ago. What do you think? Do you want to try it? Have you recently tried it? Or are you concerned? Think we might be missing something? I'd love to hear your thoughts on this. Have a wonderful Monday. Hope to see you on the road at one of our three courses at the end of this year. And we will talk soon. Thanks for being here, y'all.

OUTRO

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Oct 20, 2023

Alan Fredendall // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/fulltext/2019/12000/validity_and_reliability_of_the_rear_foot_elevated.9.aspx

https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=9900&issue=00000&article=00300&type=Fulltext 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Fitness Athlete lead faculty Alan Fredendall discusses the research, physics, clinical context, and patient input that goes into deciding if mechanics with lifting are "good" or "bad".

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn from our Clinical Management of the Fitness Athlete division, check out our live physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses. Check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ALAN FREDENDALL

Good morning, everybody. Welcome to the PT on ICE Daily Show. Happy Friday morning. I hope your morning is off to a great start. My name is Alan. I'm happy to be your host today here on Fitness Athlete Friday, the best darn day of the week. I currently have the pleasure of serving as our Chief Operating Officer at Ice and a lead faculty member here in our Fitness Athlete Division. Fitness Athlete Friday, we talk all things CrossFit, power limping, Olympic weight lifting. recreational bodybuilding, running, rowing, biking, swimming, triathletes, marathoners, anybody who's out there getting after it on a regular basis, we address all things relevant to that population. Some courses coming your way really quick from the Fitness Athlete Division. Your last chance to catch us online for our eight-week online entry-level course, Clinical Management Fitness Athlete Level 1 Online will begin November 6th. So that's just two weeks away. That'll be our last cohort of the year. That class will take us right through the holidays. and then we'll take a little break. The next cohort after that will be available sometime in the spring. So if you've been hoping to join us for that class, November 6th is your last chance for the next couple months. Live courses coming your way between now and the end of the year as we get into the back half here of quarter four. You can catch Zach Long down in Birmingham, Alabama. That'll be the weekend of November 4th and 5th. That same weekend, Mitch Babcock will be in San Antonio, Texas. The weekend of November 18th and 19th, Mitch will be in Holmes Beach, Florida. Beautiful place, just actually took a vacation there a couple weeks ago. Wonderful place to get to, especially in mid-November if you're from the Northeast or the Midwest, Florida's a great spot that time of year. That class just has one seat left, so if you've been looking to get baby both to Florida and to fitness athlete, that is your chance. And then our very last live course of the year from the fitness athlete division will be December 9th and 10th. That will be out in Colorado Springs, Colorado. That course will also be with Mitch Babcock. So check us out online, check us out live. We'd love to have you here at the end of the year before we get into the holidays.

02:16 - DOES FORM MATTER?

Today's topic, we're going to take a deep dive into form and mechanics. Does form matter? How much does it matter? We hear this question a lot in our courses as we're introducing movements, instructing the basics of how to perform some of the most basic movements, your squats, your deadlifts, your presses. This may be a question that you get from athletes or patients in the clinic and for a long time and even right now this is kind of a very dogmatic campy approach to this topic of yes form is the most important thing or no form has no application at all we've even heard things like Sheer force is an artificial construct created by physical therapists to scare people away from moving. Physics doesn't matter as much as we thought it did. That movement, however it happens, is normal, natural, and that's how the human chooses to move, and there is no right or wrong way to move. So, where's the magic lie? Where's the evidence lie? What actually works in practice in the gym with real human beings? And what are some pearls to take away from the discussion on form? So often we get questions of does it really matter if the low back rounds during a squat or a deadlift? Does it really matter if the back hyper extends with overhead lifting? Who cares if someone catches a snatch with a bent elbow or they never reach full extension of the elbow at the bottom of maybe a pull-up? If someone presses their jerks or snatches out, is it really that big of a deal? So today I want to approach this topic from a couple different directions. I want you to go back and watch last Thursday's episode or listen to it on evidence-based medicine about making sure we're addressing all of the facets of evidence-based medicine when we approach a really hot topic like this that also has a room for a lot of interpretation one way or the other. We need to look at what does the evidence say, we need to look at what does our friend physics say, what does our clinical experience say as far as What is our anecdotal experience with clinical pattern recognition with actual patients and athletes? And then what does the patient say? What matters to the patient? Patient expectation and input matters. So let's start from the top.

04:42 - WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE SAY?

What does the evidence say? As much as we don't want to hear this, we don't have a lot of strong evidence either way in this discussion about form. When we talk about what does the evidence say, we have nothing concrete or strong for or against poor mechanics and lifting. We have a ton of research out of the functional movement screen space that looks at movement quality and its association to injury. And time and time again, I have to declare my bias. I hate that test. I think that test is total garbage. I think the research supports that that test is total garbage. And when we look at does particularly unweighted movement transfer to predicting injury, we have stacks and stacks and stacks of research across a wide variety of populations, recreational athletes, tactical athletes, first responders, professional athletes, that shows the association between quality and injury prediction or injury risk reduction is simply not there. We do have some research that looks at the effects of lifting, and I'll put lifting in air quotes here for those of you listening on the podcast, that lifting with a rounded back does not seem to cause low back pain or make current low back pain worse with the caveat of when we look at that systematic review and meta-analysis from O'Sullivan and colleagues a couple years ago, that the papers they included did not have any patient lifting more than 25 reps across the span of a day at a weight heavier than 25 pounds. It's really hard to take research like that and extrapolate it to our population who might be deadlifting two or three times their body weight, cleaning or snatching their body weight, doing dozens or hundreds of things like pull-ups and handstand push-ups and double-unders, really getting a lot of load through their body, running, crossfit, lifting, whatever. That research really has no application. It's really hard to even call that lifting, right? Those are just kind of activities of daily living. We can't take research like that and extrapolate it to somebody dead lifting with a low back and say these are the same. They are just simply not. We also need to be mindful of the research that we do have. When you look at papers on deadlifts with low back pain, on the effects of lumbar reversal with lifting, what you'll find in those studies is that one of the variables that the research authors always control for is the lifting mechanics themselves. You'll often see, if you actually read the full paper, not to harp on that, but when you read the full paper, when you read the methodology, what you will find is that very often those folks are instructed how we would instruct a movement in the gym, which is to try to maintain a brace-neutral spine, modifying the load or modifying the range of motion to maintain that, to therefore reduce that as a variable in the research study. That if we cannot control mechanics, that's one more variable that maybe takes a little bit away from our conclusion when we look at the data. Of trying to standardize the mechanics as much as possible is how we can narrow down the focus of that research study on whatever the intervention is and whatever the outcome and feel really confident that the association there is direct and that other variables aren't at play. If we can't say deadlifts are safe, deadlifts increase low back strength, deadlifts improve low back pain, if we look at a study and there was no control on how the deadlift was performed or how the mechanics were performed through those deadlifts. One study does sumo deadlifts, another does conventional, one does trap bar, one allows back rounding, one does not. You'll see when you read those studies that controlling for those variables, controlling for those mechanics, is one of the ways that variables are reduced. And so it's hard to look at those studies as well and extrapolate to altered mechanics, what we might call a movement fault, and translate that to the population that we're working with. It's hard to take research and say, you know what? I'm gonna do everything this study did except change everything about it, right? That doesn't mean you're implementing that research and practice. You're taking the general idea and you're kind of going your own way with it. You no longer have that evidence base to stand on. From the research, we do know that symmetry can be objectively quantified, we can assess it, and we can intervene on it. Very often, physical therapists are very comfortable at calling out and identifying qualitative faults without really understanding what might be going on, how to assess it, how to measure it, how to track it, or how to change it. But if we look at some really nice research papers, a great one came out this year, I'm gonna butcher this name, I'm so sorry, Yuja Kovic and Sarah Bond came out this year, looking specifically at asymmetries and change of direction in basketball athletes and finding that there are ways that we can objectively quantify things like asymmetries, strength, speed, motion, quality, asymmetries, that we can also intervene on them. This study in particular sought to reduce the change of direction asymmetry by overloading the slower slash weaker limb with three times as much training volume compared to the stronger or faster side. That looking at an 11% or so difference in change of direction speed, able to reduce that down to just 4% simply by overloading the volume on the weaker, slower, basically problem area. In this case, it was the lower extremity. A very simple study, just using some lower extremity strengthening, three times as much volume as the contralateral limb. We know we don't need a biodex or some other form of fancy isokinetic testing or force plates in our clinic to have ways to objectively identify and assess maybe quality that is associated with asymmetry that is maybe the cause of pain, aggravating current pain, aggravating past pain and or limiting performance. Great study by Helm and colleagues 2019. wanted to validate the five rep max rear foot elevated split squat. Maybe you have heard of this as the Bulgarian split squat, but essentially kicking up that back leg, doing a five rep max on each leg. In this study, they used a barbell. In the clinic, you can use dumbbells as well, trying to find a five rep max per side, and then quantifying and objectifying the asymmetry side to side. Finding it's a very reliable, very valid way as compared to things like Biodex, and force plates to develop an idea of asymmetry from side to side. I would argue a paper like that we can extrapolate to the upper extremity, we can do something like a landmine press, we can do something with our lats or back with something like a bent over row and really start to think if we're seeing movement faults that we think are the cause of symptoms or some sort of performance issue to start getting more objective in how we assess, reassess, and intervene on these things. So that's what the evidence says. It doesn't say a lot. Besides that, we need to help people get stronger and we need to quantify where their strength is at as they're starting their rehab program and then reassess it as they're finishing in order to be sure that person actually got stronger and actually closed the gap on any sort of perceived or actual asymmetries that we found.

11:38 - WHAT DOES PHYSICS SAY?

What does physics say? This is something that we tend to ignore a lot, that we exist as human beings on a planet with things like gravity, and that we are subject to certain physical characteristics that we can't avoid. Physics would say that the shortest route between two points is a straight line, and anything else, any other extraneous movement is a force leak. Any amount of force leak doesn't matter what your sport is. If you're an Olympic weightlifter, a powerlifter, a crossfitter, a gymnast, a swimmer, a runner, The more inefficient your mechanics, the more extraneous movement, the more your leg kicks out into circumduction in your run, the more your lower back rounds and extends back and forth as you go through deadlift reps, the more you bend your knees or bend your elbow in your pull-ups, it doesn't matter. The more extraneous movement you have, the more you're leaking force out of your system, the more you're limiting your top end performance. I have yet to this day see anybody break the deadlift world record by doing a Jefferson Curl. Yes, under extreme loads we might see a little bit of low back rounding, but we don't see people intentionally initiating a 1500-pound deadlift with a Jefferson curl mechanic. They tend to approach the barbell over and over again in a similar fashion, either setting up in a conventional or sumo deadlift and really doing everything they can, again, to minimize extraneous movement, put the maximum amount of weight through the ground to lift the highest load up in the air. That is performance, that is physics. We have to remember, unless we can invent some sort of technology or better understand physics, we can't get around that. So that's the evidence, that's the math. What does our personal experience say? Our clinical experience, maybe some of you would say this is anecdotal, but remember, part of evidence-based medicine is our clinical experience.

13:59 - WHAT DOES CLINICAL EXPERIENCE SAY?

Our clinical experience would say that those folks in the gym that we see performing pull-ups, overhead movements with things like a constantly bent elbow, tend to be the people that we most often see over in the PT clinic for stuff like elbow pain. That the folks who rock up on their toes, catching their cleans, their snatches, because they lack ankle dorsiflexion, are the folks that we tend to see coming into the clinic with things like knee pain. That those folks who always quarter squats, no matter how much we try to help them get to a deeper range of motion, a greater range of motion, whether it's working on their mobility, elevating their heels, giving them a squat to target, whatever our coaching cues corrections are, those tend to be the folks in the clinic with things like knee pain and hip pain. And those folks who show up with lumbar rounding in the bottom of their deadlifts, as they're pulling the deadlift off the floor, the bottom of their squat, catching a clean, catching a snatch, those tend to be the people who come to see us for low back pain and hip pain in the clinic.

18:01 - WHAT DOES THE PATIENT SAY?

And that connects really well to the third part of evidence based medicine of what matters to the patient. We have to understand these folks are often aware of their faults, especially the more they've been training, the less faults they tend to have, and they're more acutely aware of the ones they have left, and they also know the association between the faults they have and maybe aggravation of symptoms, re-aggravation of symptoms with maybe a previous injury. Understanding as well that we don't just always work with the lead athletes, that our goal is to introduce movement to everybody who comes into our clinic. How hard is it to introduce movements, even basic movements like the squat or deadlift, to patients who maybe never done this in their life before? Not even with a barbell. Maybe we just hand Doris a kettlebell for a goblet squat, or we have Frank just deadlifting a kettlebell off the ground. How tough is it for that person who is a complete novice to this If our instruction is, hey, Frank, you know what? Mechanics don't matter. Points of performance are arbitrary constructs created by rehab providers and fitness professionals to scare people like you into purchasing more care than you need. How helpful is that to teach movement to somebody new? What are they going to say? Uh, okay. So like, is there a way I should do this? Is there a best way? Well, Frank, it doesn't matter. All human movement is good and natural movement. Just do whatever feels good. That's not very helpful, right? And you would never do that in the clinic with a patient. You would never do that in the gym with an athlete. If you do actually do that, I challenge you to film that and send it to me because my gut tells me that nobody actually does that because you know how stupid you would sound and how likely it is for the patient to be successful if that's your approach to instructing movement. Likewise, if we do have that more experienced athlete, what good does it do to tell that person who has extreme low back pain, when their spine rounds in the bottom of the squat, there may be somebody who's filming their lifts to try to figure out why do my squats bother me? And our answer is, hey, there's no evidence to support that your spine flexing is a source of your pain. Same issue, right? Same outcome, entirely different patient population, but same outcome. Okay, that's not very helpful. I can see my tail tucking here, and I notice that when that happens, that's when I feel my extreme low back pain. That person has already associated that in their mind. What good does it do to tell them that there's no evidence to support that that's what's happening? They're experiencing it firsthand, right? We need to be mindful of the way that we instruct this, both with new and experienced athletes, patients in the gym and the clinic, that mechanics do seem to matter. People seem to have a natural awareness that at least some sort of standardization of performing a movement seems natural and that some sort of association exists between maybe symptoms and faults. We always acknowledge the resiliency of the human body, that yes, it can develop tolerance in different positions, such as lifting with a rounded back, but we can also still do stuff at the same time to limit pain with lifting. We can modify the range of motion. We can modify the load, the volume, whatever, to a more tolerable level. We need to get a lot more comfortable living in the gray area. Yes, we can recognize injuries multifactorial. Yes, the body's capacity can be temporarily reduced by things like sleep, stress, illness, nutrition, but we can also still manipulate movement to be more comfortable and enjoyable and also help that person work on strengthening in a manner that we know is very evidence supported that's going to reduce the likelihood of future injury. I have an athlete on my caseload right now, very, very impressive athlete, been doing CrossFit a long time. every time she's under an extreme amount of cardiovascular fatigue, or she's doing something like a 10 rep max with a back squat or a three rep max clean or something like that. Usually under a high amount of fatigue, she demonstrates some lumbar reversal associated with that lumbar reversal is always extreme low back pain. She is aware of that. She's somebody that films her lifts. She knows every time she rounds her low back in the bottom of her squat, that is what usually will kick up an episode of low back pain that could last short term, a couple of days, or could really set her back weeks or maybe months. So she's very aware of her spine rounding, the association of form with the development of symptoms, and aware of how bad those symptoms can get. So what are solutions with that in regards to does form matter or not? Well, the first thing we can always do is help reduce that pain acutely, right? Of that person is an extraordinary pain in our clinic, regardless of what we're going to do with them in the gym, regardless of how we're going to address their form, we have ways to reduce their acute pain. We can modify those squats, we can do things like belt squats, we can do lightweight, high tempo squats, tempo squats at maybe 30 or 40% of her max where she's maybe taking three, five, seven seconds to sit down to that squat to maintain or continue to build strength in a way that doesn't aggravate her symptoms. We can do alternate movements if a squat pattern is not tolerable at all, hip thrusts, deadlifts, et cetera, to train lower extremity general strengthening. Yes, we can build up general strength and endurance of the low back, the legs, the posterior chain as we're getting more comfortable, but we can also spend some time working with that athlete on their mechanics of what's going to probably help you the most is that under extreme fatigue, you know how to breathe embrace, you know when to call it for the day when you know you're extremely fatigued, so you don't find yourself in this position again and again. And yes, the final step there is probably to layer in some intentional lifting in that what we would say poor mechanical position, right? Let's also add in some rounded back lifting so that we expose ourselves to the movement so the only time we encounter it is not under a 10 rep max on the 10th rep where we tend to encounter our symptoms. So let's do things like sandbag cleans and sandbag squats and yes, Jefferson curls and other things like reverse hyper extensions. Let's do all the things. We don't have to focus just on form but also form matters. We need to train in that position so that when we get into that compromised form position, it is going to have a less likelihood to be symptomatic and set that athlete back.

21:09 - MECHANICS & PERFORMANCE

And finally, we need to go beyond pain into performance. What does the evidence say? What does physics say? What do we say? What does the patient say? What does performance say? What can you possibly help an athlete with who comes into your clinic, who wants to pay you $150 an hour to improve their snatch, and you say there are no optimal mechanics to complete the snatch. We know that's not true, right? People who win gold medals in clean and jerks and snatches tend to lift a certain way. They tend to all show relatively the same mechanics. That tells us that mechanics seems to matter a lot in regards to high level performance. There's a reason those Olympic weightlifters tend to initiate their pull off the floor in the same fashion, going through their first pull, their second pull, their receiving position, the jerk overhead or the catching of the snatch. There's a reason that it looks pretty much textbook no matter who the athlete is, how tall or short or big or small they are or what their race or gender is. They all tend to show the same mechanics time and time again. It seems like it's physics at the end of the day. We don't see anybody breaking the snatch world record with a rounded back deadlift to a muscle snatch, do we? And I think that tells us a lot of now beginning to shift towards using mechanics to push performance. And again, as long as we can be objective about it, I think that is the way to go.

24:41 - SUMMARY

So what does the evidence say? We have nothing strongly for or against poor mechanics and lifting. is it relates to people actually performing resistance training not just picking up pins off the floor with a rounded back. We need to be mindful that research studies tend to standardize points performance for lifts such that everyone is performing the same thing the same way every time. What does physics tell us? It will always tell us unless something miracle happens with a change in physics that the shortest route between two points is a straight line Mechanics matter in performance. Straight lines are strong lines. What does our clinical experience tell us? That people who tend to move like crap, especially under increasing amounts of load and or volume, whether it's due to poor mobility, going too heavy, going too fast, those tend to also be the people who need a lot of healthcare treatment, right? Those folks who tend to move quite well tend to have maybe one particular fault, that they're usually aware of, and that they're usually also aware of being associated with their symptoms, and we need to be mindful of that. And what do those patients say? People who are already active are usually aware of that fault, they're usually aware of when and how they demonstrate it, and they are usually aware of that it's associated with some sort of symptom, development of a new symptom, re-aggravation of a previous injury, that sort of thing. We know the group of people we probably need to help the most are inactive patients. The other 90% of the population, right? The majority of the people in our caseload. Inactive patients, people who are complete novices to movement, can't learn things in a structured manner that they're going to be able to repeat them on their own in the gym or at home in the garage or whatever. if our approach is that physics, points of performance, faults, are just artificial constructs that we create to scare them and somehow fleece the general public out of their money. And then also finally, something to remember is that you'll be stuck on a hamster wheel in your clinic forever just treating people in pain if you're not able to transition people to the lifelong fitness and performance side of what we can offer them. At a certain point, mechanics do matter as it relates to top end performance, as it relates to goal setting. And you're crazy if you think, quote unquote, normal people don't want to increase the amount of weight they can snatch, or how fast they can run their mile. We need to be mindful that with top end performance, when people want to see their 5K time come down, or their one rep max back squat go up, that mechanics really, really, really do matter. So mechanics, do they matter? It depends, but there's probably more to be said for mechanics mattering for a performance aspect, for instruction aspect, and for overall higher quality and the ability to perform more movement more often, which is the goal. If we are aware of mechanics, but also being mindful that sometimes they don't matter, especially if we're not being objective about assessing them, reassessing them, and what we're doing to intervene on maybe trying to improve mechanics. Tough discussion, but I think it's worth one having. I hope you all have a fantastic Friday. If you're gonna be at a live course this weekend, I hope you have a great time. We'll see you all next week. Bye, everybody.


OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.




Oct 19, 2023

Dr. Ellison Melrose // #TechniqueThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Dry Needling lead faculty Ellison Melrose discusses an alternate technique to dry needle the lumbar multifidus.

Take a listen to the podcast episode, watch the video, or read the full transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about dry needling, especially dry needling with e-stim using the ITO ES-160 stim unit, take a look at our Upper Body Dry Needling course, our Lower Body Dry Needling course, or check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ELLISON MELROSE

Good morning YouTube and good morning Instagram. This is PT on ice daily show. I am Dr. Ellison Melrose and I am currently lead faculty with the dry needling division of ICE. So we are going to go over a alternative approach for dry needling the lumbar multifidus today. Um, before we get into that, I want to go over our upcoming courses. So this, the remainder of 2023, we have, um, a handful of courses. This weekend, Paul's going to be out in Anchorage, Alaska, and I believe that is capped. After that, he will be down in Seattle, Washington on November 3rd through the 5th for the upper quarter. I will be out in Rochester, Minnesota for upper quarter dry needling on November 18th through the 19th. We will both be teaching the first weekend in December. So December 1st through the 3rd, Paul will be in Bellingham, Washington, and he will be hitting upper quarter then, and I will be out in Clearwater, Florida, so opposite sides of the states, doing lower quarter. So if you guys have a chance to find us out on the road, or want to join us for the remainder of 2023, those are the courses. We have one other one also in Fayetteville, Arkansas, the second weekend in December, where we'll be doing lower quarter. out there. So if you guys have any questions about those courses coming up, feel free to message us here or yeah, stay tuned for those courses. And then 2024 we'll be starting out pretty hot with some more courses and our advanced course as well. It will be, will be coming, um, in 2024.

02:10 - COMMON APPROACH TO DRY NEEDLING THE LUMBAR MULTIFIDUS

So what I wanted to do today was to go over an alternative approach for, uh, dry needling the lumbar multifidus. So there, We are not gonna go over clinical reasons for needling the lumbar multifidus, but for those who have been taught how to needle the multifidus, there is one technique that is used fairly widespread across all educators, and that is the wrap-over technique. For demonstration purposes, I am going to be using my knuckle as the spinous process, and then we will be demonstrating it on a human body as well. For that wrap-over technique, so we have our spinous process here, Wrap over technique, we use two fingers to compress within a one centimeter gutter, just lateral to the spinous process. And we create a target window with our fingers and treating within that zone. In order to treat bilaterally, so both sides, you have to walk around the table to treat the contralateral side, which is fine, But when we're talking about clinical efficiency, it may be conducive to be able to treat or to needle staying on the same side of the patient. So we have an alternative approach for needling the multifidus where you are able to stay on the same side of the patient, and that will be your dominant side. So I am right-handed, so I'm going to be treating from the right side of the table treating the lumbar multifidus. I'll demonstrate first the wrap over technique and the alternative technique.

04:02 - ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO DRY NEEDLING THE LUMBAR MULTIFIDUS

For that alternative technique, so instead of using that spinous process, our palpation hand, two finger, stepping over that spinous process and compressing into the gutter, what we are going to be doing is we are going to be using our palpation hand, index and middle finger to orient us to where that lateral border of the spinous process is. In the lumbar spine, we have about a one centimeter gutter where we can feel fairly confident that we're going to be directing our needle towards the lamina with a directly posterior to anterior approach. From there, if we go outside that one centimeter gutter, we need to angle the needle medially to ensure that we have contact with the lamina as we need that laminal contact to ensure that we are at the depth of the multifidus. We are going to stay within that one centimeter gutter for today's demonstration, but we will start with that wrap over technique and then the alternative approach. The alternative approach, instead of using that two finger digital compression, we are going to be using the spinous process and either our middle or index finger to find that lateral border. So, first we want to find the spinous process and take the mid pad of our palpation finger and palpate that lateral border of the spinous process. From there, we're going to take our middle finger or our index finger, depending on which side we are treating, and compress tissue down within that one centimeter guide. From there, we're going to create a treatment window between our two fingers and treating directly posterior to anterior. towards laminal contact.

07:19 - ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE DEMONSTRATED

So it'll make more sense when we're demonstrating it on the patient. So let's go ahead and do that. I'm just going to angle this camera down towards my patient. So here we have an exposed lumbar spine. I'm going to just orient myself to where we are. I am standing on my dominant hand side. From there, We'll just go over palpation. So spine is processed, we can palpate the lateral borders with our thumbs here. For that wrap over technique, we're going to take our pads of our palpation hand, stepping off, compressing tissue down, treating within that one centimeter gutter, okay? So let's start with that technique and then I'll show you the alternative approach after. So, palpating that lateral border of the spinous process, two fingers stepping off, compressing down into that gutter, keeping that needle angle directly posterior to anterior, so vertically, tapping, advancing the needle towards laminal contact. So in order to treat the ipsilateral side now, I would have to walk around the table and straddle that needle to do the same compression and same technique that we did on this side. So what I will demonstrate is the alternative approach and then we'll do another segment down below of the alternative approach just to show you how efficient this tool can be. So, instead of using those two fingers to hug the lateral border, I'm going to be using my middle finger on my palpation hand to palpate the posterior aspect of that spinous process. From there, I'm going to take the middle aspect of my pad and hug that lateral border of the spinous process. My index finger is then compressing into that gutter creating a nice treatment window. Again, we want to be aware of where that one centimeter gutter is and treating within that zone, directly posterior to anterior. So vertical, vertical needle approach here. So compressing down towards laminal contact. So there we have the alternative approach on that ipsilateral side. From there, thinking clinical efficiency, if we were going to set up multiple different segments in the lumbar spine, if we started proximally or superiorly and worked inferiorly, kind of like you're reading a book, that is going to be the easiest way to avoid some awkward hand positions with the needles. So we will needle the segment just distal to the ones that have needles in. So from there, Instead of using my middle finger to contact that lateral border, I'm gonna be using my index finger. We are treating the contralateral side from where I am standing. So again, we can appreciate the lateral borders of the spinous process. Take the pad of our index finger and hug that lateral border of the spinous process. Compress my middle finger now and create a treatment zone between my two fingers. Again, appreciate that we have a one centimeter gutter. Now we want to be treating directly posterior anterior to contact lamina. From there, I'm going to do a firm guide to compression, firm tap, advance the needle to laminal contact. And then we can do the same thing on the ipsilateral side. so middle finger palpating the posterior aspect of the spinous process wrapping to that lateral kind of hugging that lateral where it starts to curve creating a one centimeter gutter with my index and middle finger treating within that zone directly posterior to anterior towards laminal contact. So there we have, we went over the wrap-over technique and the alternative approach and just looking at the clinical efficiency that being able to stay on that ipsilateral side of the patient can do. I have a very small treatment room, so it allows me to not have to kind of wiggle my treatment table back and forth, and allows us to get a handful of segments within a couple minutes, which I think when we're thinking about using dry needling in the clinic, we want to save as much time as we have for using our electrical stimulation, as the new research is showing how beneficial that can be for treating pain, neuromuscular priming, also, um, recovery or hemodynamics, improving hemodynamics. So we want to get the needles in as efficient as possible as to allow for some optimal treatment time with the Eastern. So we, again, just to review with this technique, we are going to be using our index and middle finger. And instead of hugging the lateral border of that spinous process, we are going to be treating, um, with those fingers just off the lateral border, creating a one centimeter gutter between those two fingers, treating directly posterior to anterior and maintaining laminal contact to ensure we are at the depth of the multifidus. Thank you guys so much for joining me this morning, going over the alternative approach for dry needling the multifidus. And I hope to see you out on the road sometime this year or next year.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to PTOnIce.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 18, 2023

Dr. Jeff Musgrave // #GeriOnICE // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Modern Management of the Older Adult lead faculty Jeff Musgrave discusses the significant issue regarding the lack of individualization and care for older adults with cognitive impairments. Jeff points out that many older adults on their caseloads are at different stages of cognitive impairment, but this often goes unnoticed until it progresses to advanced dementia. The problem lies in the one-size-fits-all approach to treating cognitive impairments, where individuals with mild impairments are grouped together with those with severe impairments, or they are treated the same as the general population without screening for cognitive impairments.

This lack of individualization and care for older adults with cognitive impairments is also evident in nursing homes. Jeff mentions a study from Germany that examined a population of nursing home residents. The residents were grouped based on their cognitive and physical impairments. However, the study found that there was a lack of personalized care, as a more diverse group was randomly assembled with varying levels of cognitive and physical function, and they all received the same basic intervention.

Jeff emphasizes the need to tailor care to the individual's cognitive capacity, just as their physical capacity is considered. He uses the analogy of coaching a peewee football league, where practice would not be taken to the local NFL team if the capacity is not appropriate. Similarly, individuals with cognitive impairments should not receive interventions that are beyond their cognitive abilities. However, in the current state of rehabilitation for those with cognitive impairments, interventions are often not matched to their cognitive abilities. This lack of individualization and care for older adults with cognitive impairments is a significant problem that needs to be addressed.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about live courses designed to better serve older adults in physical therapy or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - JEFF MUSGRAVE

Welcome to the PT on Ice Daily Show. Good morning, my name is Dr. Jeff Musgrave. Super excited to be with you this morning, talking about a topic that's really important to me, but also reviewing a research article eight days off the press, a new technique called clustering to give better care to those with dementia on our caseloads. But before we get into that, if you're looking to up your Geri game, we are available. We've got some extra seats in our New Jersey course in Matawan, New Jersey this weekend. If you want to hop on that train, we'd love to have you. We've got space for just a few more. Next weekend, if you want to join us for live, we'll be in Annapolis, Maryland or in Central South Carolina. Last cohort of Essential Foundations just kicked off. We've got our first live meetup, so sorry if you missed it. We will be up in full force in January 2024. There is still time to catch advanced concepts if you want to sign up for that. The last cohort is about to begin, so grab those seats.

02:42 - JEFF MUSGRAVE

So team, man, I'm so excited to get to talk to you about this topic. There are so many older adults on our caseloads in various stages of cognitive impairment. And this oftentimes goes unrecognized until it becomes advanced dementia. when things are a bit harder to turn the tide, but also there's a severe lack of individualization and care for those that have cognitive impairments. A big problem in general practice is this one size fits all. In geriatrics in general, whether we're talking about physical impairments, but unfortunately we see the same problem when it comes to cognitive impairments. We see those with cognitive impairments get treated the same regardless of how advanced those symptoms are. So we see one of two big problems here. We either see those with very mild cognitive impairments grouped with those with very severe impairments, Or we just see them treated the same because no one's screened or picked up on the fact that there's a cognitive impairment on board and they're treated just like the general population which is also not appropriate. So neither of those are a good look. So this study out of Germany was looking at a population of residents in nursing homes and what they did is they clustered them based on their cognitive as well as their physical impairment. So they used a clustering approach to try to get homogeneous groups of people based on not only their physical function but their cognitive function. So all these residents were 65 and up. They had mild to moderate dementia and were living in a skilled nursing facility. The physical measures that they used were the six minute walk test, the timed up and go, 30 seconds sit to stand. But the biggest place where they saw variation that dictated their function was on their mini mental state exam. So their cognitive impairment did a lot to dictate their function. So what they found at the end of this was that those that had more advanced cognitive impairments were not able, even if they had the physical function, to participate in as high level balance training as those that had more severe cognitive impairments. So those with more mild cognitive impairment were not able to participate at the same level, in particular when it came to balance challenges.

04:56 - COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS & TRAINING

The interventions for this study unfortunately the link did not go through that I could see all the details but what they what they were doing was some form of strength training either seated if there was lower physical function versus standing or dynamic movement in standing if they had higher physical function. So lower to higher physical function and then they gave also a cognitive layer to their interventions while they were doing balance or strength training. So that allowed them to scale the intervention to those who, to make it more appropriate. So they had a higher and lower physical function, higher and lower cognitive function group, and they scaled the cognitive load as well as the instructions So one big thing that's missing is the environment and the type of cues that we give typically in clinical practice for those with cognitive impairments also need to be scaled. They can't be as complex of cues with multiple sentences in the same duration of time. We've got to really scale that to the person in front of us and individualize that care based on their cognitive capacity, just like we would their physical capacity. The way I kind of think about this is if you were coaching a peewee football league and practice is going really well, you would not march them over to the local NFL team for practice. Their capacity is not appropriate. But we do the same thing with cognitive impairments where we've got someone who has more advanced cognitive impairments, getting a much higher level of training than what they should be and it's no surprise when the results aren't as good and that's also what was found in this study was the experimental group had the matched physical and cognitive and then there was a more heterogeneous group that was just kind of randomly put together with higher and lower cognitive and physical function, and they all got this lowest common denominator intervention, which we commonly see, especially because this was looking at group training in skilled nursing facilities. What typically happens is we've got this big group of people, and we find the person with the lowest cognitive and physical function, and we give everyone that. So the person that has the lowest physical and cognitive function gets an appropriate challenge. Everyone else has lots more ability that is not tapped into and is not being challenged. So it's no surprise once you hear that's what's happening, which unfortunately is the state of rehab for those that have cognitive impairments in general, is it's not being matched to their cognitive ability. So those that were not matched based on their cognitive and physical function showed decline in their mental function by the time the study was complete. So those with matched physical and cognitive challenge to their actual, their functional level, They did great. They were able to maintain their cognitive level in this skilled setting. And those that were not matched showed cognitive decline in even a short period of time. This is pretty wild.

08:09 - SCREENING FOR COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS

So some big takeaways here. Are we screening? Are we screening cognition in our older adults? The research says that the sooner we can screen people, the better chance we have to change their life and help them maintain their cognitive function and sometimes actually improve their cognitive function. There is a mountain of research that shows exercise is beneficial for cognition, especially if we're pushing into the fitness realm. and we're pushing people at high intensity and we're asking them to lift heavy things, we're asking them to learn new novel tasks. So we want to make sure we're doing that with older adults, not only for their physical function, but for their cognitive function. But we need to get a baseline of where they are to make sure that we're scaling these things appropriately. The tool that was used in this study was a mini mental state exam, which unfortunately is not great at screening for mild cognitive impairment, which is kind of that first phase before there is problems with activities of daily living, like once we get into more advanced forms of dementia. Tools like the MOCA, the Montreal Cognitive assessment may be more appropriate for catching signs of mild cognitive impairment. Also the SLUMS, the St. Louis University Mental State Exam. However, with that one, it's good to be aware that that can trigger automatically a local referral once it is complete. So you want to make sure that your patient, if there's any family members involved with care, that they're all aware that that will happen. And if this is like, man, I am not comfortable with this cognition stuff, this feels like way out of my depth, that's fine. You don't have to be the expert on everything, but you do need to be accountable to having resources in your area. Who is the SLPs, maybe outpatient, Or on your team if you are in a skilled environment that you can send for a cog referral. Or OTs, we have lots of OTs that are great at screening and intervening cognition and giving you an idea how many step commands, what type of environment, what type of cues are appropriate for this patient. but we have got to meet them where they are for cognition, just like we do for our physical interventions. So if you're not screening, start there. We've got to do more than alert and oriented times three. We've got to be getting these screening tools in use, or we've got to start making those referrals to people that are able to help get a baseline and make sure that our interventions are appropriate. So if you are screening, awesome, you are ahead of the curve. So now your job is to make sure that these interventions are appropriate, just like we're outlined in this study.

14:09 - SCALING UP OR DOWN BASED ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING DELAYS

So what we want to make sure that we're doing is we want to know that there are things like cognitive processing delays, where it may take someone with more advanced dementia symptoms two minutes to process our commands. That was just five seconds of silence from me. If you can imagine two minutes of silence after your cues made this mistake so many times with this population. In two minutes, we've said a thousand things. and they're still processing the first thing that we said. So want to be mindful as we pick up on these symptoms. Cognitive processing delays can be up to two minutes. More mild forms, it could be five, 10, 15 seconds. It may feel a little more natural. Likely your skin's going to crawl, but it may be a very appropriate communication. It's going to look way different in this population. We want to make sure that the more advanced the cognitive impairment is, the more familiar the tools and the exercise interventions that we're using. We can't give a 40 point intervention and biomechanical explanation on a beautiful trap bar deadlift with an older adult. who has advanced dementia, we may be better off to use their purse and add some stuff to it, or add just grocery bags with food in it, and just ask them, pick this up. Once they do that, let's walk, walk 20 feet, or walk over to this area of the gym. No more cues, no more instruction, set it down. That may be a very skilled, very appropriate set of cues for an older adult with advanced dementia. So we want to keep in mind the tools. We also want to keep in mind the scenario. Can we control the environment? That is a skilled scaling tool. How loud is it? How busy is the environment? Is there lots of interaction? Are we at prime time in the clinic, out in a busy clinic where there's people throwing balls on a rebounder or the music's blaring? There's lots of laughter and fun. That may be a completely overstimulating environment for someone who has more advanced dementia. So the complexity… of the environment, the amount of noise, background noise, all those things are scaling options. So if we start in that quiet environment, we may eventually scale in to more advanced and complex environments where there are more distractions, where it is more like real life. But that's gotta be an intentional choice. That doesn't need to be an accident. We need to be very skilled with our interventions and that is part of it. How we choose to practice is also very important. Are we going to do random practice where we're jumping between tasks to task? That's going to be way less on the ability for someone with more advanced cognitive impairments. We may need to do block practice where we spend a big chunk of time, maybe 15 minutes, working just on a sit to stand. We may never get to a squat with a bar. That's fine. But if we can make it practical, we can meet people where we are, that may be where we need to stay. 15 minutes here, 15 minutes on the next thing, that may be our whole session. Or maybe it's something like a simple obstacle course. Pick this up, carry this, and follow me. That could be it. So I wanna keep these things in mind. If we are screening, we are getting a sense of what the cognitive ability level is of our clients, then our job is to scale it appropriately, and then you guessed it, then progress it as we're able. So we wanna use all those leveraging tools. So my advice to you, we're gonna switch gears, so that should be relevant to everyone. Now, if you are training in a group setting, kind of like this study outlines, where you're in a skilled facility, and you're doing group training, you can start with this lowest common denominator approach, but what you have to add in are easy scaling options. You've got to think about, we've kept everyone safe, but then for those that have the cognitive ability to do more advanced balance, or they're safe to do more advanced strength training, What can we do to scale it up for those individuals? So we've got everyone moving, everyone's safe. Now, how do we scale it up? Go heavier. Have heavier weight options available. Maybe instead of sitting, those people that have more advanced functional and cognitive impairments, they're going to be standing. Or maybe they're doing a dynamic movement. Maybe we're going to add some type of vestibular component where we're going to ask them to fixate and move their head side to side or up and down with the fixation point or maybe without a fixation point. Maybe we're having them close their eyes and head turn side to side or up and down. We can add that vestibular layer. We can add a cognitive component as well where we can ask preference questions like everyone, someone shout out, you can think to yourself or shout out loud some of your favorite foods. or name as many states as you can, or name things that are green. We can go very simple up to more complex counting tasks where maybe we're subtracting by 7 from 300 for someone that has a very mild cognitive impairment. Those things may still be on the docket. Those still may be very appropriate. But if we're doing group training, we can start with that lowest common denominator and then just offer scale up options. Another easy one that was even outlined in this study that they found to be beneficial was even just having a little piece of compliant foam for those that were already doing standing. Everyone in the group was mostly doing standing. They added the compliant foam in and that was a great option to scale up balance training. Everyone's getting instruction on the same movement, but there's not really a whole lot of extra instruction to change the surface. All right team, I got super fired up about this. Treated lots of people with cognitive impairments. If you're treating this population, I would love to hear any tips and tricks. Drop those in the comments. Thoughts? I will be dropping the article citation for you. The study was a new approach to individualized physical activity interventions for individuals with dementia. Cluster analysis based on physical and cognitive performance. I hope you enjoyed it. I hope you have a wonderful rest of your day and we will catch you next time.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to PTOnIce.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 17, 2023

Dr. Zac Morgan // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Spine Division division leader Zac Morgan discusses the importance of working with patients to dispel negatives beliefs & fear concerning movement aggravating symptoms. Zac describes different strategies to discuss with patients how not moving after surgery or while in pain is probably the riskiest decision. 

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Lumbar Spine Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ZAC MORGAN

Good morning PT on Ice Daily Show crew. I'm Zac Morgan, so I'm lead faculty with the spine division. I teach lumbar and cervical spine management, so you can find me on the road doing those things. Shout out to that crew in Hartford, Connecticut or Waterford, Connecticut this last week. We had a good time learning about cervical spine over there in Waterford. Few more courses on that note coming up this year that if you're trying to jump into either cervical or lumbar, just wanted to point you in the direction of. So November 11th and 12th, we'll be back in that Northeast region up in Bridgewater, Massachusetts for cervical spine. December 2nd and 3rd, Hendersonville, Tennessee for cervical spine. And then if neither one of those work for you, the next chance will be at the turn of the year on February 3rd and 4th over in Wichita, Kansas. If you're looking for lumbar spine management, we've got three different courses this year that are all still have tickets available. Frederick, Maryland, that's next week or this upcoming weekend, October 21st and 22nd. Then we've got November 4th and 5th. That'll be over in Fort Worth, Texas. And then lastly, Charlotte, North Carolina on December 2nd and 3rd. So still several Good offerings if you're looking for cervical or lumbar spine management. We've already got quite a few booked for next year as well, so if this year the calendar doesn't work out or if the Con Ed budget resets at the beginning of the year, Take a look at the 2024 course offerings as well and more to book there.

01:36 - CATASTROPHIZING REST

So team, this morning I wanted to talk to you all a little bit about rest and why I think we need to catastrophize rest. I think we need to make a bigger deal out of it when our clients come in and we find out that they've been resting. So let me talk a little bit about this. I've been chewing on this idea for a while and I think it's important for us to sort of understand that when someone's in pain, their risk meter is broken. Like they don't have the ability to conceptualize what's actually risky for them often when they're in pain. And so let me unpack what I mean with maybe a clinical scenario that we're all really familiar with. Let's think about something like a knee replacement. I think most of us in our career will interact with patients who have had a knee replacement. Usually we have interacted with those people on the days right after they have had a knee replacement or maybe you're the one that's getting them out of the bed in the hospital and you're the first person that's getting that person moving. I think we understand the risks to this person pretty well, and as a profession, we respond to them pretty well. We understand what this person's actual risk is when it comes to the knee replacement, and their risk would be being too sedentary or resting too much. And what would come alongside of that risk would be a lot of problems that we'll cover in a bit. You think about what that person's concerned about when you talk to that person in the subjective exam on day one, or maybe you just went into their hospital room and you're talking to them. That person's usually concerned about things that are unwarranted. They're worried that their knee is gonna pop out when you start to flex it. The first time you have that person do active range of motion, that person's like, oh my gosh, is my knee gonna fly out? Is the implement actually gonna pop out? They're worried about things like that, but we as PTs, we know that's not very common. We tend to mobilize knees really early and get them moving really, really rapidly and get as much range of motion as possible as quickly as possible in something like a knee replacement because we know that it's crucial that that happens at short term. So a large part of our job early on in managing this person who has just had a knee replacement is convincing them that their risk meter is off. Again, they're afraid to move. They walked through the door that day with a lot of blood in their amygdala. They were very concerned. They were worried, what if something's going wrong? I didn't know it was going to hurt this bad. I didn't think it was going to be quite like this. And they have typically not been moving as a response to all that pain.

03:22 - CONVINCING PATIENTS TO MOVE

And our job is to help them understand that, hey, if you don't move, that's where the risk lives. The risk lives in being sedentary after a knee replacement. Like what's actually risky is if we don't move, the blood will pool, right? And we will wind up with things like a blood clot. Very risky. If a blood clot ends up dislodging and we end up with a pulmonary embolism, that's life-threatening. So that's real risk. That's something that we have to help those people understand is like, hey, if you're too still, we could wind up with something like a blood clot. And maybe we don't fear-monger that to patients, but we do help them understand that risk. You think about some of the other risks that that person has if they don't get moving. What about long-term mobility? If a knee replacement patient does not get their knee moving, you think about what that person's long-term mobility is gonna look like, and it's gonna be quite poor. That first 12 weeks after knee replacement is the most important time for us to restore full extension and get as close to full flexion as we can. We're really trying hard to push range of motion early because we know that person's long-term risk is having a stiff knee. and then not being able to participate in some of their ADLs because of the immobility in their knee. We get the risk so we help unfold that to the people in front of us. I mean the last big ones that happen if someone rests are things like atrophy or loss of cardiovascular endurance and we know this happens very very rapidly. when someone's on bed rest, when someone's immobilized, when somebody's truly sedentary or even sedated, things like that. We know the body responds and we see wasting of all those systems. The same thing's happening if someone doesn't move when they've had knee replacement. maybe not as rapidly as true rest, but we know that they're losing muscle mass, we know their muscle girth is going down, we know their endurance is getting worse. All of these things are truly risky for that person. And for that reason, I think we as PTs do a really good job of helping that person understand, hey, I know it hurts, but the risk of you moving through pain is much less than the risk of you not moving through pain. So I need you to move. And I think we do a really good job with patients like knee replacement patients or patients with a knee replacement. I think we do a really good job with those folks, getting them moving, even though it hurts, getting them back to their ADLs, getting them progressively loaded back to where they're out of sort of disability. I want to shift gears now. And I want to talk a little bit more about my expertise area, which is cervical spine and lumbar spine. So patients with neck pain and patients with back pain. That's typically who I'm seeing the most of in the clinic these days. And I think our response to these folks is a bit different than it is with the knee replacement patients, which is sort of understandable, because with a knee replacement, you understand exactly what happened to that person, where with back pain and neck pain, we never know what the tissue driving their symptom is.

06:57 - FEAR & OUTCOMES WITH BACK PAIN

But I think we often respond with fear, and I think that influences the person's outcome. So let me unpack what I mean. So when someone acutely strains their back, they do something, they were lifting their kid and something happens and now their back is really strained and they're in high, high levels of pain and usually high levels of disability as well. Like a lot of patients will tell me, Zach, I can't even tie my shoes. I have to have my wife help me tie my shoes. I can't get my pants on. I can't get on and off the toilet. The activities of daily living are really influenced by these high pain levels. And a lot of these people, when you start to talk to them, they're terrified to move. Especially a forward bending, but really just to A lot of people in general with acute back pain, they're so scared to move their back around. And they're afraid that what will happen if they move their back around, is that they'll worsen their scenario. They're concerned that if they move too much, and maybe some of this is valid, but if they move too much, they'll worsen whatever's wrong with their back, and then they'll have long-term problems. But team, as you're hearing that unfold, you and I both know that's not the case, right? Like it's actually the people who choose not to move who usually wind up with worse recurrence of their back pain. It's why, I mean, you look at the Olivera study in 2018, where they compared all the lumbar clinical practice guidelines around the globe that they could get their hands on. And there's really only two things, all CPGs, not profession specific, um, not region specific, just all the CPGs that they looked at in that study, they agreed on two things. One of them, don't image. The second one, get moving, right? Don't rest, some sort of exercise. We know people with back pain need to get moving. It is clear, no one argues about that anymore. There's no studies, no big studies that have looked into, hey, rest is actually the successful recipe for back pain. It's not that. We gotta get them moving. But I think sometimes we let our fear of allowing that person to move hold them back. But we need to conceptualize those risk factors. Like you think about what it was like for your knee replacement patient. Maybe we don't have the same concern of like a blood clot or an infection, but think about this person's other risks.

06:57 - THE IMPORTANCE OF MOVEMENT


Like, what about long-term mobility? If someone doesn't restore their ability to forward bend, they often end up with a loss of long-term lumbar flexion. And how does that usually wind up? Maybe sometimes they're fine and they're asymptomatic throughout the rest of their life, but often when I see recurrent back pain patients, They have had episodes throughout life and they've chosen to avoid a certain range of motion and part of our job is to do some graded exposure back to that to help them conceptualize the risk. To help them realize actually being still is where the risk is. We've got to get moving. You think about atrophy. You think about what happens to that person's muscular system. If they have severe back pain and they're not doing the things that they normally do, perhaps they're laying in bed a little bit more, sometimes they're laying on the couch a bit more, a lot of times their spouse is helping them out, their partner is helping them out with a lot of their ADLs. Team, when people have acute back pain, they often get very still because their fear level is really high, and part of our job is to help them understand that where their head is at, what they're concerned about, is actually much less risky than being still right now. Being still is where the risk lies. If we don't get back to movement, you're going to lose that long-term mobility. You're going to lose a lot of your muscular system. You're going to end up losing quite a bit of your cardiovascular endurance. That's where the risk lies. Because what do we all know about people who tend to lose muscle mass, who tend to lose cardiovascular endurance? Most of those people will struggle to get that back. And I think the longer they live, the more challenging that climb back to fitness is going to be. So our older adult clients are definitely in this boat. We've got to keep these people moving. We've got to get them afraid of resting. That's where the fear should be because what happens when you rest is the long-term stuff. That's what causes recurrent back pain. If a person hurts their back and they're now afraid to move in that range of motion and they don't restore capacity, whether that's cardiovascular capacity or the actual strength of the tissues because of fear, now that area is more fragile. It's more susceptible to injury. They're usually careful with that area and being careful with that area often is not a solution for getting rid of a recurrent back pain. As a matter of fact, we want to move more towards things like graded exposure, graded exercise, building that engine, building the tissues, how robust that underlying tissue is. That comes with movement. It doesn't come with rest. So team, I think just putting this whole thing into perspective, what I want to get across this morning is that when someone comes in to see you in pain, their brain is not in the right decision making area to understand risk. Their amygdala has all the blood in it. They're really concerned. they don't know if they're going to be okay. It is our job to use our prefrontal cortex because we can use that in that state because we're not anxious because we see this all the time. We use our prefrontal cortex to say, you know what, actually we need to develop a plan that gets you back to X, Y, and Z. And that's what we do with rehab. And that's how we try to bring down that recurrence, is we avoid all these catastrophes that happen when people sort of follow their natural instinct, which is to rest. So that's all I've got for you this morning. I want us all catastrophizing rest a lot more on our patients, helping them understand that that is not necessarily the safe choice. A lot of times people's risk meter is broken there and it's actually the unsafe choice. So let's catastrophize rest, get out there this Tuesday team, meet us on the road if you're looking for anything. Please feel free if you want to have a big conversation here, jot it into the thread and I'll be on here all day answering any questions. Thanks team.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 16, 2023

Dr. Rachel Moore // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member Rachel Moore takes a deep dive into the Valsalva Maneuver from 3 different lenses: the scholarly research, the pregnancy & postpartum patient, and the strength & conditioning world.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - RACHEL MOORE

Good morning PT on ice daily show. My name is dr. Rachel Moore. I am here with Representing the ice pelvic division. I'm on faculty with ice pelvic division. Whoo. Sorry. I need to drink my coffee um i just got back in last night super late night flying from a course this weekend our pelvic live course in um wisconsin it was so much fun we got to see some leaves change which is exciting for me because in houston we don't really have that happen um so really awesome super great weekend awesome and engaged group that we had. If you are looking to join us on the road to catch our live course, our live pelvic course, there are still so many opportunities this year. In that course, we are doing so many things. We are talking about pelvic floor considerations. We're talking about the internal assessment and actually going over and practicing it on your back and in standing. We're talking about pelvic girdle pain which is such a huge topic in the pregnancy and postpartum and just pelvic world in general and then day two we're diving into the actual fitness side of things where we're doing squats and we're learning how to brace and we're using weightlifting belts and we're getting up on the rig and doing gymnastics moves it is a blast every time I come home from a course I'm hyped and there are four more chances of in 2023 to catch this course on the road. So October 21st, we've got a course in Corvallis, Oregon. November 4th, we've got one coming up in Bozeman, Montana. November 18th, we've got one coming up in Bear, Delaware. And then December 2nd, we've got one in Nova Scotia, Canada. So tons of opportunities to catch this course live on the road. Our online course will pick up again in January. So if you're interested in joining us in the ice pelvic division, that's what we got coming up.

02:08 - THE HISTORY OF VALSALVA

This morning we are here to talk about Valsalva. So the word Valsalva is kind of a term that nobody really knows what it means or everybody thinks they know what it means and they all have their own separate camps of what it could mean because it's described so many different ways in the literature. So what we're going to do this morning is clarify what the different definitions of this one word are, talk about the history of it a little bit more, where this term really even came from in the first place. So this topic is really near and dear to my heart. Recently, Christina Prevett and I recently just wrote a clinical commentary on Valsalva and on the nuances of Valsalva. and how as clinicians we can take this term and how we need to take this term and understand the lens, especially when we're looking at research, but when we're talking to patients about what this term even means and what we're actually looking for in our strength training fitness world when we say the word Valsalva. So let's kick it off with the history of Valsalva. The term Valsalva is actually named after a physician from the 18th century. So he was an otolaryngologist. Anyway, he worked in ears and throat, ear, nose and throat doctor. And he created this maneuver essentially as a way to push infection out of the ears. So, the maneuver that Dr. Valsalva described actually doesn't even look like the Valsalva that a lot of people talk about today. His maneuver was plugging your nose and blowing out, but not against a closed glottis. And when he created this maneuver, the purpose of it was to flush infection out of the ear by having that tympanic membrane push outwards to, in theory, push pus out of the ear. That is where this term was created. So when we look at Valsalva in the research lens, when we talk about diving into the specifics of research on this topic, if we're looking in the ENT world, autolaryngological world, we're thinking about this maneuver as a plugged nose, closed glottis, now push out in order to push that tympanic membrane out. When we're looking at this word in the urogynecologic world, it has a very different emphasis or purpose. So when we think about pelvic organ prolapse and the diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse, that's where we see the Valsalva, quote unquote, being useful, I would say. So the Valsalva in a urogynecologic world is an intentional bear down and strain with a closed glottis. in order to measure the descent of the pelvic organs, particularly during that POPQ or that assessment for pelvic organ prolapse. So on the ENT side, we have the focus of plugging nose, blowing out, pushing tympanic membranes out. In the urogynecologic world, we've got this strain down through the pelvic floor in order to descend the pelvic organs and measure what that descent is.

06:04 - VALSALVA IN STRENGTH TRAINING

In the strength and conditioning world, the term Valsalva means something completely different. In the strength and conditioning world, the Valsalva is a maneuver that is advantageous, particularly if you're a competing athlete in the strength training world, where we need a little bit extra spinal stiffness in order to hit a lift to PR. so in the strength training world this is an inhale into the belly and then a brace of those core muscles that anterior abdominal wall and all of those muscles within the core in general in order to increase that intra-abdominal pressure and spinal stiffness to be able to lift heavier. So when we do the Valsalva, we have a 10% increase in that spinal stiffness and that carries over or translates into pounds on the barbell. So when we're again thinking about our competitive athletes who are maybe trying to like edge somebody out, the Valsalva is an incredibly useful and productive maneuver. Even if we're not a competing athlete, if we're talking about just getting stronger and we're pushing ourselves to the capacity that we want to push ourselves to in order to make those strength gains, the Valsalva is likely utilized in order to increase that capacity to lift heavier. The confusion here comes from that one word having many different definitions. And when we look at the urogynecologic world versus the strength training world, they really are truly opposite. When we're thinking about straining and bearing down, we're pushing down with our abdominal wall muscles, we're pushing down with our pelvic floor, and we expect to see that descent. I 100% agree that we shouldn't put a heavy barbell on our back and then strain and push down through our pelvic floor. That is not beneficial and it is going to put a lot of strain through the pelvic floor. Absolutely. However, when we talk about Valsalva in a strength training capacity, that's not what the Valsalva is. The Valsalva in a strength and conditioning world is that intentional inhale into the belly and brace of that anterior abdominal wall muscles. When we do that brace of those anterior abdominal wall muscles, we don't want to see a descent of the pelvic floor. That would be an improper brace that would need training to improve that coordination. What we expect to see with a valsalva in the pelvic floor world is a matched degree of contraction for the demand that's placed on that system. So if we're thinking about somebody who's lifting a heavy lift, a one rep max, We expect that pelvic floor to kick on, but we're not necessarily volitionally thinking about lifting pelvic floor and doing that pelvic floor contraction. As that core canister is engaged and we engage that proper brace, the entire core canister should kick on to a relatively equal degree. So in the strength and conditioning world, that Valsalva is advantageous. In the urogynecologic world, if we're taking that concept and applying it to lifting, it is the opposite of advantageous. So when we're looking at recommendations for our strength training athletes and our patients, we need to understand the language that is being used and what the definition of that language is. So from the standpoint of our OBs who are telling our patients, don't ever do a Valsalva, in their mind, they're saying, don't ever strain and push your pelvic floor down when you're lifting. Totally. We agree. 100%. Don't do that. It's not going to be great. But the disconnect is that this one word has so many different definitions. So we really have to dive in and break down what was that recommendation specifically. So when we're with our patients, that looks like breaking down the definition for them.

09:01 - VALSALVA MANUVEUR IN THE LITERATURE

But if we're looking in the research world and we're trying to read literature, read the newest evidence about what recommendations are for our pregnant and postpartum athletes, we need to go into the article itself and look at how they define Valsalva. Because we can easily read the abstract and the conclusion of an article that says Valsalva is not recommended, but if we're, looking at this article and it's actually meaning the bearing down, then we're not getting, we're not able to extrapolate that to the strength and conditioning side. So really with this term, it's one word named after a man who the original maneuver isn't even what we're talking about anymore anyway. Across the board, we have to either figure out different words or different ways to describe this, or it really falls on us as providers to break down what it is we're talking about. So rather than just telling your patients, do a Valsalva, maybe we don't use that language at all, and we just talk about bracing. When we do a brace, we can manipulate breath. If we're gonna take that intentional inhale and then brace, that is a Valsalva, But in order to eliminate the confusion across the board, we can just call it a brace. This makes a lot more sense to patients than being told by one person to never valsalva and then by another person to valsalva. And when we lay it all out and explain what all of these differences are and how it's all one term, but it has different meanings, and none of these meanings necessarily are the same. And in fact, in the urogynecologic world, in the strength and conditioning world, they're literally the opposite. It starts to click with patients, why it's okay that my physician told me not to do this Valsalva, but you're telling me that I can, because I understand that these are two very different physiologic mechanisms. Our clinical commentary over this that dives into all of this and so much more comes out in the spring. So keep an eye out. We'll be sending it out in the ice pelvic newsletter. So if you are not signed up for that newsletter, head to PT on ice.com, go to the resources tab, sign up for that newsletter, not only for our clinical commentary in the spring, but for all kinds of resources. in the pelvic floor world. Stay up to date on the newest evidence and also just check out some cool stuff that we find along the way. I hope you guys have an awesome Monday and I hope we see you on the road soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 13, 2023

Dr. Zach Long // #FitnessAthleteFriday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Fitness Athlete lead faculty Zach Long discusses hip shifting in the squat. Zach emphasizes the need to ensure first and foremost, pain is in the hip or elsewhere in the body is not the cause of the shift. Second, Zach urges listeners to determine if the shift occurs under increasing loads or not. Finally, Zach discusses that if the squat is pain-free and that the movement pattern does not change under load, hip or ankle mobility is the final culprit.

Take a listen to the episode or read the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn from our Clinical Management of the Fitness Athlete division, check out our live physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses. Check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - ZACH LONG

Hey everybody, welcome to the PT on Ice daily show. It is the best day of the week here on the podcast, and that is Fitness Athlete Friday. I am your host today, Dr. Zach Long. I'm lead faculty inside of the clinical management of the fitness athlete curriculum, teaching in our live weekend seminar, as well as our advanced concepts course. And today we're going to be chatting about assessing the individual that has a hip shift when they squat. what are the questions you should be asking, and what are the things that you should be looking at and programming for them to help address that hip shift in the squat before we dive into that topic. Upcoming courses that we have in the Fitness Athlete Live arena here. November 4th and 5th, I'll be in Hoover, Alabama, and Mitch will be in San Antonio, Texas. November 18th and 19th, we'll be in Holmes Beach, Florida, and in December, Colorado Springs, Colorado. If you can't make it to any of those courses, we are already filling up the 2024 calendar as well. And we have Portland, Charlotte, North Carolina, Boise, Idaho, Renton, Washington, Raleigh, North Carolina, and Fenton, Michigan on the map. So check out all of those courses, as always, at PTOnIce.com. If you want to get registered, learn how to better assess, treat, and help fitness athletes do the movements that they love, as well as how do we get those people that are not already getting their daily dose of physical activity, how do we start to get them involved in that sort of stuff as part of their plan of care when they come to see us for pain? So PTONICE.com there.

02:32 - ASSESSING THE HIP SHIFT

All right, today's topic, the hip shift in the squat. What I mean by that is you watch somebody squat, and instead of their weight staying even side to side, you see them shift some of their weight more towards one side than the other. Why does that happen? What are the questions you need to be asking? And then what are the things that you need to be doing as part of their treatment? So I think there are two big questions to ask subjectively when somebody comes to see you for a hip shift or you notice that when you're watching videos or watching somebody actually lift in the clinic. Question number one is, does that individual currently have pain in regions of the body that are impacted by the squat? Question number two is, does that change under load? When you ask and answer those two questions, you'll have a much better idea of what interventions you need to do to help improve that squat pattern. 3 Different Pieces to That 1. If someone is having pain, That's kind of the end of the discussion on the hip shift in the squat. So if somebody comes in and they're dealing with really nasty patellar tendinopathy or they're dealing with an ankle that was just sprained and is very, very sensitive as we dorsiflex the ankle. or someone has really irritable hip impingement. As they squat down and those tissues start to get loaded more as we go through range of motion, if those tissues are really sensitive, the body is understandably going to want to unload those tissues and try to avoid further aggravating them. So, when pain is on board and I notice a hip shift, I don't really worry too much about the hip shift right now in terms of trying to correct that. Instead, my main focus is on doing everything I can to calm down that irritability, because until we calm down that pain, we're probably not gonna make a whole lot of progress on the hip shift. So if pain's on board, take care of the pain. Now, there are definitely things that you can do that might assist this a little bit, but to me, those are secondary to the pain portion of this. So you could have somebody do box squats where they limit their depth to where they don't hip shift. or some other variations of lifts that maybe load that tissue a little bit less so that they demonstrate less of that hip shift. I think that's a fine intervention to do so that maybe that hip shift doesn't become, you know, as much of an ingrained movement pattern to them. But overall, when pain's on board, just take care of the pain and don't worry quite as much about the hip shift.

04:29 - HIP SHIFTING UNDER LOAD

The second component to that, the second question was, does this change under load? And this is the big one that I see missed quite a bit. So I've had a couple of these show up in the last few months in the clinic, which is why I decided to do this podcast. And of those that I've seen lately, most of them, I was a second opinion. So they'd already seen another physical therapist or a chiropractor. And they had already had a lot of mobility drills that they were working on to try to improve the hip shift but they weren't noticing a change with the mobility drills. And what was missed by that previous practitioner was the fact that the hip shift worsened with load. And if we think about like the mobility demands of a squat, those demands don't change drastically when they go from an air squat to a 45-pound barbell squat up to a 400-pound squat. What does change is the demands that we're putting on the muscles. And actually, it's a little different than that. It's a little opposite. When you put load on a bar, if you're a little stiff, that load will often help you move a little bit better. It'll help push you through a little bit of that stiffness. So the key thing here is that if you notice the hip shift gets worse under fatigue or under load, then it is probably not a mobility issue. It is much more likely to be a tissue capacity issue, a strength issue. That's the big turning point here. So two examples of this that I've seen lately. Number one, super high level power lifter. He started noticing when he looked at videos of his squat that his bar would get uneven, but that wouldn't happen until he got to weight over 400 pounds. Prior to that, it didn't happen. And if you watch a set of him squatting over 400 pounds for say a set of five, what you notice is rep one was a little bad, rep two a little worse, rep three worse, rep five was really, really bad in terms of that bar being uneven. And what I noticed when I started analyzing that was that as he came out of the bottom of the hole, you would see his one side of his leg, if you're watching that Instagram, I have no idea why fireworks just popped up on my background, but You saw one of his legs really extend rapidly and the other one slowly extend. And what that's called is a good morning squat fault. If you've taken the Fitness Athlete Live course, you've heard us discuss that squat fault, but he was doing it only on one leg. And that leg had previously had an ACL reconstruction. And when we went and measured his limb circumference on that leg, he had a significant quad muscle mass difference on that side compared to the other side. So it was a strength deficit. And what we ended up doing with him was we loaded up his quads, doing a lot of unilateral work. We'll talk about a few drills for that in just a second. And what we noticed is the more we built up that unilateral quad strength, the less that hip shift was present. Another example I saw was recently in a… very high level CrossFit athlete, like top 200 in the world. When he deadlifted, he lost a major competition because his deadlift was relatively weak compared to his level of fitness. And when we watched his deadlift, he kind of did the same thing. So he starts pressing off the ground and the side that he had previously had an ACL reconstruction on about a year and a half prior to this, he hyper extended that knee as soon as he started pressing off the ground because he was still had a little bit of top end quad weakness relative to the other side. So he locked that knee out and he tried to, on that surgical side, make it almost a straight leg deadlift and rely on his posterior chain rather than his quads. So if it changes under load, it is a strength issue, not a mobility issue.

09:26 - ANKLE & HIP MOBILITY

If it doesn't change under load, then you're gonna shift your thinking towards it possibly being more likely to be a mobility issue. And so from a mobility perspective, a few things that we like to look at, Number one, I'd say the most common are ankle and foot limitations. So lack of ankle dorsiflexion, lateral tibial glide, or the ability of the midfoot to move as somebody drops down into a squat. In our Fitness Athlete Live course, we talk you through a couple different tests that we think really help you screen out the foot and ankle, and if that's the impacting factor on somebody's squat technique. The second one to that is going to be somebody's hip mobility. And then the third to that is sometimes you'll see knee flexion limitations, but typically you don't see knee flexion limitations unless somebody's had some really significant trauma to that knee or a recent surgery. Outside of that, it's typically the ankle or the hip from a mobility perspective that will be impacting somebody's squat, causing them to have a hip shift in the squat. So once you answer that, you kind of know what to do. If it's pain, take care of the pain. If it's mobility, work on mobility. If it's strength, then let's do some unilateral strength loading of whatever tissue it is that you identified was a little weaker on one side versus the other. Take care of that. But I also think that it's worthwhile to spend a little bit of time working on some drills that might help reinforce a better movement pattern. So that as you build up maybe that unilateral strength or as you open up that ankle mobility, now you start teaching them a little bit more of where they want to go. And there are two drills that I really frequently use for that. My favorite to use is what's called a sit squat. So what I do there is I get an individual sitting on a box, a bench, a chair, a medicine ball, whatever the lowest surface they can perform this drill on, and they're sitting on it. We pull their feet back underneath them. We lean over. I get them positioned exactly how I think they should look in the bottom of the squat. And then they're sitting there, and I've got everything lined up so that it's symmetrical or as close to symmetrical as I feel like we're gonna get or we need to get. And then what I do is I tell them, imagine that there's a scale underneath your butt. Right now it says 100% of your weight. I want you to make it say 50% of your weight. So they just unload that medicine ball a little bit. Now I say, I want you to lift up one inch and only one inch. So they barely lift off the medicine ball or chair. They go back down to 50% weight and they just cycle up and down. And if you do a set of five to 10 reps of that, it is gonna actually burn really, really good because most people don't spend a whole lot of time under tension down the bottom of the squat. because there's no load on it. It's not going to be very fatiguing or really eating to their recovery a lot. So I use this a ton as a warmup drill, but that is deceptively hard and is really good for getting people to evenly drive and press into the ground and get an even lift off. And then when they sit back down, what they should feel if they're on something like a medicine ball is that they have the same amount of butt cheek touching the ball. Like if they sit down and it's only left butt on the medicine ball and right butt is floating off the side, then they're not squatting evenly. They're demonstrating that hip shift so they also get some tactile feedback in terms of their positioning. The other thing that I really like to do at times with individuals is get them to do some tempo box squats. So we squat down to a medicine ball, a bench, a low box, whatever it is, and we're basically doing the same thing there. We're going down nice and slow and we're making sure when we touch that surface that we're squatting to that we feel an even amount of weight on both butts. so that we, again, know if we're hip shifting or not. Those can be two good drills to drill in moving a little bit away from that hip shift. So, again, your two questions to ask when you see a hip shift. Are they having pain? Does it change under load? When you answer those two questions, you'll have a much better idea of what to go to to get rid of the squat hip shift a little bit faster. So, hope that helps. Look forward to being back on here again in a few weeks with you all. Hope you all have a great Friday and a great weekend, and we'll see you on the road.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.



Oct 12, 2023

Alan Fredendall // #LeadershipThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today’s episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, ICE COO Alan Fredendall discusses the three pillars of evidence-based medicine: clinical expertise, current best peer-reviewed evidence, and patient input. He gives suggestions on how clinicians can better incorporate all 3 pillars to improve practice.

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you’re looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don’t forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 – ALAN FREDENDALL

Team, good morning. Welcome to the PT  on ICE Daily Show. Happy Thursday morning. I hope your morning is off to a great start. My name is Alan, happy to be your host today. Currently have the pleasure of serving as the Chief Operating Officer here at ICE and a faculty member in our Fitness Athlete Division. We’re here on YouTube, Instagram, the podcast on Thursday. It’s Leadership Thursday, that also means it is Gut Check Thursday. Gut Check Thursday this week, four rounds for time, some interval work. Four rounds, 10 handstand pushups. Those can be strict or kipping. Read the caption on Instagram for some help with modifications if you’re still working on those. 10 handstand pushups right into a 50 foot double kettlebell front rack walking lunge. Kettlebells in front of the body, working the thoracic spine, working the legs, 50 feet of a front rack lunge, and then out the door for a 200 meter run on the treadmill, whatever. The goal there is one to one work to rest. That means we’re looking to finish that round in about two minutes. Work two minutes, rest two minutes, complete for four rounds. you’ll be done in ideally about 16 minutes. So read the caption, check for modifications, scaling is needed to try to get your round time as close to two minutes as possible, modify the handstand pushups as needed, reduce the load on the lunge as needed, and then sub out the run for a row or bike as needed. So hope you have fun with that one. That’s a great one that really facilitates intensity. You’ve got some upper body with the handstand pushups, some lower body with the running and some monostructural, with the lunging, sorry, and then some monostructural with the running. So a great workout to really drop the hammer, rest, repeat a couple times, really working on that anaerobic glycolysis system. Before we get started, just some quick courses coming your way. Today I want to highlight our cervical and lumbar spine courses. A couple chances left towards the end of the year as we get near the holidays to catch cervical spine management. This weekend you can join Zach Morgan up in Waterford, Connecticut. The weekend of November 11th and 12th, you can join Jordan Berry up in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. That’s kind of the greater Boston area. And then December 2nd and 3rd, you can join Zach Morgan at his home base at Onward Tennessee in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Lumbar management, also a couple chances left before the end of the year. Next weekend, October 21st and 22nd, Jordan will be in Frederick, Maryland. That’s kind of west of the Baltimore area. He will also be in Fort Worth, Texas the weekend of November 4th and 5th. And then you have two chances the weekend of December 2nd and 3rd. You can catch our newest spine faculty member, Brian Melrose. He’ll be up in Helena, Montana. And then you can catch Jordan Berry at his home base in Onward, Charlotte, also the weekend of December 2nd and 3rd.

02:55 – EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE

Today’s topic, evidence-based medicine. A couple different ways to frame this. Are you doing it right? Are you doing it wrong? Or it takes a village of really drilling down and better understanding what comprises evidence-based practice. For many folks, they think it’s the research. For others, they think it’s many, many, many years of clinical expertise, pattern recognition, and others believe none of that matters. What matters the most is actually what the patient believes is happening, what they believe will help them, and matching our treatments, our interventions, our education as best as possible to essentially the patient input side of the equation. And if you’re on the podcast, I’m gonna show a Venn diagram. You’re not missing much, if I’m being honest. I’ve got it right here on the whiteboard. What we know with evidence-based medicine is that it’s actually all of that stuff, right? It is three different spheres, three stools, whatever analogy or metaphor you’ve heard to refer to these before is correct. When we look at evidence-based medicine, is it an overlapping of, yes, scholarly evidence, peer-reviewed research, Yes, clinician experience, practice and pattern recognition. And yes, also patient expectations and beliefs, and that the point at which these three areas overlap is the middle where we have evidence-based medicine, evidence-based practice. But what you’ll find is because of this overlap, none of these areas can be evidence-based on their own. So our goal today is not to show you this Venn diagram, but to show you when evidence-based medicine goes wrong, how it goes wrong, and how we can all get a little bit sharper at evidence-based practice in our clinic with our patients. So, let’s tackle these points one by one. The first, the one we’re all most comfortable with as clinicians is our own clinical expertise. Probably more important than anything else with expertise and experience is the pattern recognition, the dose response relationship that begins to form in our brain The more patience we see, the longer we’ve been seeing patience. This is, you could call this the 10,000 hour rule, whatever you want to call it, but the belief that the more work, the more time you put in, the more you will maybe, theoretically, begin to master your craft. And there’s some truth to that and there’s some non-truth to that as well.

05:06 – AVOIDING DOGMA IN PRACTICE

The biggest issue, as I have it written out here on the whiteboard, is that just focusing on this area in your practice, the bias here is that you become really prone to dogmas, becoming a dogmatic person, becoming almost a guru. We see this, of course, and we’re going to mention it a lot on social media, of the approach on one side of the continuum or other. It doesn’t really matter if manual therapy sucks. physical therapy doesn’t do anything to the far end of that same continuum of, I believe that I’m putting people’s bones back into place with things like spinal mobilization manipulation. So it doesn’t really matter where people fall in the continuum, they fall somewhere on some sort of dogmatic continuum line, which is not great because it tends to the further they get into their own dogma and guru like behavior, the less they tend to incorporate research evidence from peer-reviewed sources and also the patient input. These people over time you may have heard phrases of I use what works with most people and the key there is that it works with most people not all people of the true person practicing evidence-based medicine the true clinical expert is the person that gets all almost every single person better. It’s not enough to get 50% of your patients better, or 60, or 70. You should, or we hope you would be pursuing excellence in such a manner that you’re thinking, how can I help 99.99% of people? And again, just focusing so much on one of the three aspects of evidence-based medicine with your clinical expertise is not gonna cut it. I often think of how much pattern recognition informs practice, but that doesn’t mean that that’s what we do with every person. I often think of when people come into the clinic, they present with anterior shoulder pain, what we might call instability, the feeling of looseness in the joint or otherwise just pain or maybe even stiffness on the front of the shoulder. I look at it as something wrong with the relationship between the deltoid and the lat. I understand the need to treat the rotator cuff, load the rotator cuff, but I also understand that the rotator cuff is ultimately paying the price for what the deltoid and the lat are not doing for the shoulder complex itself. That when these folks present with limited range of motion overhead, that getting in and treating, particularly the internal rotators, subscapularis can have a lot of value in restoring that range of motion and increasing tolerance to load long-term. However, that pattern recognition in my head is yes, where I’m going to go to first, but again, I can’t get caught up too much in thinking this is what works with most people, this is what I’m gonna do no matter what. I have to be aware, I have to be humble that if it’s not working for that patient in front of me, I need to go back and say what does the evidence say, what other treatments could I pursue, and also what input does the patient have into the equation of Are we maybe, yes, identifying the right cause, using the right treatment, but the patient expectation is that they can continue to do three to five hours a day of elite level CrossFit training on top of trying to move through the rehab of their shoulder. Those two things are always going to be at odds, and until I can start to incorporate more of the other arms of evidence-based medicine, I’m going to have a limited effect of how many people I can potentially help rather than most, I’m thinking again, how can I help that 99% of people?

10:40 – CURRENT BEST EVIDENCE

That moves really nice into making sure that we understand that yes, evidence-based medicine does include evidence. It includes what we would call and what’s labeled as current best evidence. That’s the second aspect of evidence-based medicine. I think we can be really hard on ourselves and social media here can make you feel like you’re not doing a good job at keeping up with the research. Because the truth here, if we’re being really intellectually honest, is no one can keep up with the research. There are 1.8 million scientific journal articles published every year. There are 35,000 articles being published every single week. It is impossible for any individual practitioner to read all of those. Ever. It doesn’t matter if that was your full-time job. You would not be able to keep up with it. So what we tend to see is that we tend to focus on specialty areas in practice. And I think that’s okay. I think that helps narrow our lens. And as long as we are finding a source bias here is I think we do a good job with hump day hustling. There are other great sources as well that do a good job of taking a bunch of research and condensing it in a way that can be absorbed, especially that is then kind of classified by specialty area. But understanding, it’s really impossible here to always be up to date on the current best evidence. And just being up to date and reading new articles doesn’t mean that that evidence necessarily has any value. We need to be mindful of that fact as well, that just because something new has been published doesn’t mean it has value. This is a great example. This is an article. You may have seen this make the rounds on social media. The title is, One and Done, The Effectiveness of a Single Session of Physiotherapy Compared to Multiple Sessions to Reduce Pain and Improve Function in Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders, a Systematic Review and Med Analysis. This paper was published just a couple days ago, so brand new off the press, right? We tend to associate newer with better in research, which is not always the case. And we tend to try to immediately incorporate articles like this into practice and make giant conclusions that often the paper does not support. Already there are people on social media posting this article and saying, look, physical therapy doesn’t work. You should not go to physical therapy. There are folks posting this and saying, see, I told you manual therapy does suck. In some of these studies, in a systematic review, they did manual therapy. I told you it was worthless. Dry dealing does nothing. Spinal manipulation does nothing. Cupping does nothing. People who practice that are committing malpractice. They should be fined or lose their license or be in prison for doing dry needling. And all of those giant conclusions are being made from just this one article. They’re being made in such a manner too that tells a lot of us who read a lot of research that they probably haven’t actually read the full paper, right? They probably have just read the abstract. Because if we read the full paper, what this paper is really saying is that more physical therapy doesn’t seem to help as long as all we care about measuring is pain. No information was given about any other outcome measure, strength, changes in vital signs, did people’s blood pressure get better, did stuff like depression, anxiety get better, kinesiophobia, all these other different things that we can measure about a patient that we would expect to change with physical therapy intervention were not measured in any of these studies. And probably the most important thing that’s missing from this study all the studies that it analyzes and pretty much every piece of physical therapy research is there’s absolutely no information on what was actually done to these people in a way not only that the study could be replicated in the future and possibly validated, or that we have any idea of what was done. It’s entirely possible that folks in some of these studies only got manual therapy, that some folks maybe, yes, got exercise, but how was it dosed? Did they test the sub-max lift? Did they train at or above 60% of that sub-max number to ensure that strength was actually happening? And the answer to all those questions usually is no. So it’s really important we don’t get deep down the evidence-based hole, knowing that for the most part, a lot of the research that comes out, even though there’s a high volume of it, it’s all quite weak and doesn’t necessarily get incorporated into practice because it doesn’t really help change and inform practice pretty significantly. Also from this study, Most of these patients had a spinal fracture, they had diagnosed osteoarthritis of the knee, or they had some sort of whiplash disorder of the neck. So kind of specialty populations that can’t just really be extrapolated to the general population to say that physical therapy doesn’t work. Nonetheless, people grab this article and they cite it. That kind of shows us an overlap between the sphere of clinical expertise and pattern recognition and evidence. I’ve written it right here on the whiteboard. That person, we would call that person a cherry picker. That person has a very shallow knowledge of the research and they’re basically using the research to better inform their own dogma, right? That is not evidence-based medicine. That is just cherry picking research that supports your bias and ignoring the rest and not really taking a deep dive in the research. We have to remember as well that it is evidence based not evidence only that we have to act in the absence of evidence we actually have to do something with people and that we don’t always have the best research to inform what we’re currently doing in the practice that if we are treating a patient we’re doing certain interventions they are making progress both according to their own input, their own goals, their subjective input, and also what we’re measuring objectively, then by every way we can measure it to both us and to the patient, the patient is making satisfactory progress. And sometimes we don’t always have research to support that. And that’s okay. We need to also be intellectually honest, that some of the research we would like to see happen can’t happen. A lot of research is either done on folks who are already healthy or it’s done in a manner that whatever intervention is given can’t potentially make that person either less healthy or more injured. We often see people in low back pain get some sort of treatment and then another group gets some sort of what we call usual care. Either way, somebody is getting some sort of intervention that is designed to improve their symptoms, not maybe theoretically worsen their symptoms. I would love to see research of folks lifting near or at their maximal one rep max potential with a deadlift, and I would love to see the outcomes of what happens with a group of people who lift with a focus on a brace neutral spine, what happens to people who intentionally flex their spine throughout the deadlift, what happens to people who intentionally extend their spine without a deadlift. Is that research ever likely to happen? No. Why? Because it would be really unethical to take a group of people who have nothing wrong with them and potentially cause them maybe a lifetime of debilitating injury just to try to prove a point from the research, and that is not the point of research. We have to be mindful that we’re conducting research on human beings who have lives, who have families, who have jobs, and as much as we would like to see some specific lines of research come to fruition, we’ll probably never see some of that because of the interventions the risk is simply too high, it probably won’t pass review from something like an institutional review board at a university. So we need to be mindful as well of, yes, we’re always trying to keep up with the current best evidence, but that doesn’t mean it’s actually the best, even if it is current, and it doesn’t actually mean that it’s research we would actually like to see happen, because it can be limited, again, by the ethical nature of actually conducting that research on living human beings. The bias here is being prone to being so far in this camp, and I’ve written here on the Venn diagram of being up in the ivory tower, of only doing things that has a lot of evidence to support it. Again, in the absence of evidence, we still need to do something with that patient. We still need to understand their condition. We still need to at least try some other evidence-based interventions to help that patient out. What many of you can’t do is have a patient come in for evaluation and say, I don’t have the current best evidence way to treat you, you’ll need to leave now. That usually doesn’t go very well. And we need to recognize as well, that patient is probably just gonna go see another provider anyways. Even if you were being very, very intellectually honest with them, that there was no evidence on treatment for their current condition, they’re probably just gonna go somewhere else and get less evidence informed care there anyways. So for the best, it’s probably that they stick with you for the long term.

19:14 – MATCHING PATIENT EXPECTATIONS & BELIEFS

Our final aspect is including patient expectations, values, input. I think this is the weakest area for all of us, of the thing we probably consider last, when maybe it should be what we consider first. This is forgotten far too often that the patient, again, is a living human being with thoughts, feelings, beliefs in front of us, and doing our best to match our interventions to their expectations, beliefs, values, is really, really important, and kind of tying in to the current best evidence, we have really good evidence to show that as well. If that patient comes in and says, hey, you know what, you may not remember, but you saw my husband about six months ago for some really bad low back pain. he was in so much pain, he was off work, and you did something with some needles and electricity or something, and anyways, he felt so much better, he was able to go back to work, he’s back, he has no issues anymore, that’s fantastic, and I was hoping, with my back pain, that we could try something like that. Now, of course, what that patient did not get from their husband is all the other stuff you probably, hopefully, did with that patient. But what they took away from it was that dry needling appeared to cure that person. And so, it’s really helpful, I think, if you can match that expectation as much as possible. Yes, you could give that patient a 45 minute lecture on how dry needling for low back pain doesn’t have as much evidence to support it as strengthening the spine and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness and reducing inflammatory diet and getting more sleep and managing your stress and you can go all the way down that pain neuroscience rabbit hole to the point at which maybe that patient doesn’t come back to see you anymore Or if your long-term goal is to help that person and you know what is the most evidence-based way to help that person is to have their back get stronger, to help them with their current lifestyle habits, then probably the shortest point there, the shortest line between two points is a straight line between points A and B. It means that if you can just offer the dry needling, that’s probably going to be the most beneficial thing, right? You’re matching that patient expectation, belief, and value. Does it take time? Yes. It doesn’t take a lot of time. Does it take a lot of resources? No, it doesn’t. It costs a couple cents for the needles, right? And it lets us get to what we ultimately want to get to that person which is addressing their lifestyle, getting them loading, getting them moving if they’re not currently moving, and overall changing their life for the better from both a physical fitness but also overall health and lifestyle perspective. And I think far too often We have an agenda, we have a bias with certain treatments where it doesn’t matter who comes in the door. We can be on either side of the dogmatic perspective of everybody gets spinal manipulation, everybody gets dry needling without actually consulting the patient, do they want this or not? Are they open to another treatment? And what will ultimately get us to what we know works the best for most people, which is to get them moving more, get them stronger, get their heart rate up, address their lifestyle. So you can have many sessions of education only. You would think you’re practicing in the most current evidence-based way, but we know we can’t talk patients better. We actually need to do some stuff. And at the end of the day, I would challenge you that it’s probably better if they do that stuff with you versus leaving your care and going to see another healthcare provider. That’s another thing that articles like this do not address, of how much follow-up care did patients receive after they leave the study. Overwhelmingly, that is something that is not addressed. of if you do not provide the treatments that the patient wants, whether they want manual therapy, whether they want strengthening and you don’t have the time or equipment to provide that, whatever they want, if you do not match those expectations and values, they’re probably gonna go somewhere else. They’re gonna spend healthcare dollars somewhere else. And that might be with a healthcare provider that’s not as evidence-based as you are. So challenge yourself. Are you actually practicing within all of these three different spheres? Are you trying your best to keep up on the scholarly research, at least as it relates to the areas of practice that you’re passionate about? Are you honest with yourself that you do have clinical pattern recognition that has value, but knowing that it does have its limitations and you’re willing to adjust your treatment when things don’t work? And are you combining your practice expertise and the current best evidence with patient expectations and values to ensure that the treatment you’re offering is actually the treatment that the patient wants. So check yourself. Evidence-based medicine, are you actually doing it? I hope this was helpful. I hope you all have a fantastic weekend. Have fun with Gut Check Thursday. If you’re gonna be at a live course, I hope you have a fantastic time. We’ll see you next week. Bye, everybody.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you’re interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you’re there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 10, 2023

Dr. Mark Gallant // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Extremity Division Leader Mark Gallant delves into the various phases of rehabilitation for shoulder instability, providing valuable insights and recommendations. One key phase highlighted is centered around core stability, with Mark emphasizing the significance of incorporating core-related exercises into the rehabilitation program. Specifically, exercises like plank and plank rotations are mentioned as effective ways to engage the core muscles.

Furthermore, Mark discusses the importance of tailoring functional exercises to the individual's capabilities. He explains that if certain exercises, such as overhead press or full bench press, are too challenging, alternative exercises can be introduced. Examples provided include the landmine press, bottoms-up press, and push-up variations. The goal is to find a level of functional activity that the person can comfortably perform and then scale it accordingly. This approach not only helps to keep the individual motivated, but also allows them to track their progress towards their goals.

In addition to core stability, Mark discusses the significance of incorporating speed work into the rehabilitation program. As the patient progresses through the program, Mark suggests gradually introducing speed training. This involves training the tissues to tolerate different velocities of force through a full range of motion. Specific speed work exercises, such as concentric-eccentrics at different beats per minute (30, 50, 70, 90, 120), are mentioned. Additionally, activities like Turkish Get-Ups are highlighted for their ability to improve core resilience while working on shoulder stability.

Overall, Mark underscores the importance of integrating core stability exercises and speed work into the rehabilitation program for shoulder instability. These phases of rehabilitation play a crucial role in enhancing overall function and resilience of the shoulder joint.

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Extremity Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - MARK GALLANT

Alright, what is up PT on ICE crew? Dr. Mark Gallant here, lead faculty for the Ice Extremity Management Division. alongside Eric Chaconas and Lindsey Hughey. Coming at you, sorry, Lindsey, messing up that last name. Happened to me for years, now it's happening to you. Lindsey Huey, the other extremity management lead faculty. Coming at you here on Clinical Tuesday, wanna talk about atraumatic shoulder instability and traumatic shoulder instability, and what a good plan is if we're gonna treat these folks non-operatively. Before we get into that, I want to update on a few courses coming up. So I'll be in Woodstock, Georgia, November 11th. Cody Gingrich will be in Newark, California, December 2nd. And Lindsey Huey will be in Windsor, Colorado on December 9th. So a lot of opportunities, different regions of the country to check out ice extremity management. over the next couple months if you need to get in those CEUs for the year. So again, that's November 11th, Woodstock, Georgia. December 2nd will be in Newark, California, and December 9th will be in Windsor, Colorado. So definitely come meet us out on the road.

02:58 - CONSERVATIVE CARE FOR SHOULDER INSTABILITY

So when we're looking at shoulder instability, it used to be that if someone had a traumatic shoulder instability, it was an automatic do not pass go, you're required to have surgery. And then the folks that had atraumatic shoulder instability, the people who were either born loose or worn loose, those folks, it was a maybe depending on how many dislocations, what was going on. But oftentimes a lot of these folks were getting filtered into surgical procedures. What we've now seen over the last couple of years, now that we're getting better with our rehab programs, is that conservative care and physical therapy can do quite well with both the traumatic shoulder instability and the atraumatic shoulder instability. So Anju Jaggi, who's been researching shoulder instability for years, came out with a trial this past year that recently released that showed in folks who had atraumatic shoulder instability, if they had conservative care versus if they had an inferior capsular shift, if they had an inferior capsular shift or an inferior capsular shift placebo procedure where they actually did nothing, that the folks who had the placebo treatment did just as well with physical therapy. So placebo surgery versus actual surgery, the placebo surgery with physical therapy did wonderful. We also have Ellen Shanley in 2019 who looked at what happens if people do have a traumatic shoulder instability event and they go through a full course of physical therapy and found that a majority of those folks were able to return to their sport the next year. So 85% of the individuals who had an instability event had good physical therapy and they were able to return to their sport. We do want to have some humility as physical therapists and allied health professionals that These folks were all individuals who did not have bony damage, so no bony bank hearts and no Hill Sachs lesions in these studies. If those things are not present, we can do quite well. So what is this actually going to look like? Margie Olds, who's another researcher who does a lot with shoulder instability, recently came out with a clinical commentary of how do we best do how do we best work with these folks? And we've been using it in clinic and seeing some really nice results. What the overall theme is, is we really want to get some of the local rotator cuff muscles really functioning well so that the lats, the pecs, the big movers don't have to take over.

04:13 - MUSCLE FIRING PATTERNS & PRIME MOVERS

What we used to see is everyone would try to disinhibit the prime movers, the pecs, the lats. We saw this a lot in FAI treatment where we would try to disinhibit the TFL. What we realize now is this is very challenging, and what we actually wanna do is get the muscles that aren't firing as well to be more robust, more resilient, and fire well, and that will calm down the prime movers. So what we see is if we get the posterior cuff functioning well, if we get the subscapularis functioning well, that we will see the tone of the pecs and the lats calm down. The issue traditionally in physical therapy has been once we get to that stage, we don't move them on to more functional fitness, to more global resilience, to more general preparedness of the system. So what is this gonna look like in clinic? It's actually gonna look quite a bit like our tendinopathy progressions for rehabbing folks. So we're gonna start folks out with more isometric contractions, really getting the cortex and those muscles firing, progressing them more into a rehab dose with concentric eccentrics, then we're gonna focus on speed training, getting those tissues to tolerate speed and different velocities of force through a full range of motion, and then getting them back to their overall functional fitness. So what we specifically like to do in clinic is early on, first phase, they're first coming in to see you, they may or may not have been in a sling for a few weeks, Recommendation for slings and these folks now, if it's first time instability event, or if they've had that atraumatic shoulder instability and they had an instability event, is you can put them in a sling short term. There's no research that says it benefits them. There's no research that says it harms them. Put them in the sling. We don't want them in a sling for more than three weeks. If they feel like they need that to calm down, it is okay for a short period of time. We're going to get them in clinic and we're going to start with our isometrics. Two things that we specifically want to hit with our isometrics, if they can get into a 90-90 external rotation position, we want to hold that three sets, 30 seconds. If that person's willing to perform more, five sets of 45 seconds is even better. Whatever range of that external rotation they can get in, without pain going over a mild and whatever range they have access to, that's where we're going to perform that exercise. The other exercise we're going to perform to go after that subscapularis is a prone liftoff. So they're going to be on their stomach, they're going to put their hand behind their back as far as they can, and they're going to rotate into internal rotation to lift the wrist and hand off the back. If they can only get to the glute day one or just barely to their side, that's totally fine. When you're looking at this one, we want to be really careful that that person is actually internally rotating the shoulder. So this is not the time to turn around and type your notes. We want to be focused that they're getting true shoulder internal rotation. what a lot of people are going to do is they're going to wind up trying to extend their shoulder more or really dump through that scapula. So making sure that when they're doing that isometric, they're getting a pure shoulder internal rotation. We also want to start working on co-contraction of the shoulder. So where the delts, all the muscles are going. Oftentimes these people, although weight-bearing, closed-chain exercise is beneficial, early on it may be too much for the system. We're gonna start them out with a side-lying arm bar. So our big three exercises that we've found to be very beneficial are 90-90 ER, three sets to 30 seconds, if they can tolerate five for 45, that's even better, that prone lift-off isometric, and then a side-lying arm bar for that same period of time. Once they're able to demonstrate that they can do these exercises well, then we're going to, that they can do them well with pain less than a, than a three out of 10 or keeping it in that mild symptoms, they can tolerate the entire timeline. Then we're going to move them into a more of our rehab dose program where we're going to start getting some, some resistance through the system and getting, getting into some actual concentric eccentric repetitions. we really like to do the same motions. So we're going to stand them up, have a, have either a meter band, or if you have a cable pulley system, their hand is going to be behind their back. The cable will be to the opposite side, and they're going to have to do that lift off with resistance. We want them to hit somewhere in the 15 to 20 rep, keeping those symptoms mild for three sets. that will get their subscap, their internal rotation, again, making sure they're not solely substituting extension in that motion. Then we're gonna get them back, either on the table or in quadruped, hitting their 90-90 ER. This time we're gonna hit a light weight, two and a half to five pounds, and then we're gonna do, again, 15 to 20 reps. Can they tolerate that high volume, 15 to 20 reps? keeping their symptoms mild, that would be good for that motion. Then we're going to progress them now instead of doing their open chain arm bar, we're going to see how they can tolerate planks. So getting them into that plank position and having them do plank taps. We can modify this depending on the person by either widening their feet to get a better base of support or putting them onto a box. So for phase two, again, we want to hit that lift off, this time with either a band or a cable resistance, 15 to 20 reps, three sets. We're going to hit our 90-90 ER, two and a half to five pounds, if they can tolerate that, keeping symptoms mild. Again, higher on those repetitions. And then we're going to start working towards our plank taps. As they progress through this phase, then we're gonna start working on speed.

10:30 - SPEED & METRONOME TRAINING

What we wanna look at with the speed is how much can that person tolerate velocity? The metronome is one of the best tools we can use to get this going. We've seen this a lot in the tendinopathy research. Margie Old is the first person that we're aware of that really laid out in a peer-edited journal article, clinical commentary, how exactly they're doing this with shoulder instability patients in clinic and what they're doing is they're starting them out 30 beats per minute on the metronome and they're going to do neutral internal rotation with a band or a cable column at that 30 beats per minute then as they can tolerate that well they're going to progress to 50 beats per minute then to 70 beats per minute, 90 into 120, which is moving pretty fast. If they're doing internal rotation at 120 beats per minute, it's pretty rapid. As they can tolerate that better, they're going to go out, put a towel under their arm, 45 degree angle of abduction, hitting those same 30, 50, 70, 90, 120 beats per minute, and then progressing to a 90-90 position, hitting that 30, 50, 70, 90, 120 beats per minute. Same with external rotation for that posterior cuff, 30 beats per minute in the neutral, progressing to 50, to 70, to 90, to 120. Then looking at can they do it at 90 degrees of external rotation or 90 degrees of front plane external rotation, 30, 50, 70, 90, 120. and then progressing up to 135 similar to that face pull type of motion. Again, 30, 50, 70, 90, 120. So really systematically progressing the speed training the same way you would with your loaded resistance exercise. Now, the other thing that we're gonna do during that phase three, we're gonna start progressing the plank taps. Can they now do a plank with a rotation going on to their side. So they've got to get a little bit movement through that closed chain exercise. And we love to add Turkish get up variations. So one thing that we see with a lot of, especially atraumatic shoulder instability folks, is that they're going to have a, their core is not going to be as resilient as it could be. So we often see a lot of that anterior and posterior trunk dysfunction leading to maybe the lats and the pecs having more myofascial tone and if we can work on that while we're getting the shoulder more resilient that can be a nice beneficial step. So what we'd like to do is do the first part of the Turkish get up or doing a whole Turkish get up so that we're getting some shoulder stability and we're getting a big massive core engagement. And then the final phase, phase four, where historically A lot of PTs have stopped. Oftentimes these folks are out of pain now, so compliance becomes more challenging. Really encouraging these folks that we want to get them fully back to everything that we're doing and build as much resilience to their shoulder. This is where you're going to really work on your vertical pulls, your horizontal pulls, so your pull-ups, your rows, your vertical presses, your overhead press, your horizontal press, your bench press, and then really getting into dynamic speed work or sports training. So snatches, push jerks, push press, burpees, things that are going to be more functional and have some velocity to them are really good here. Your kipping pull-ups. What we want to encourage is we're not going to only start the functional phase after they've gone through phase one, phase two, phase three. So phase one, again, being more of your isometrics, phase two being your slow concentric eccentrics, oftentimes starting at a higher volume, those 15 to 20 reps and progressing to more load. Phase three, working on your speed work, 30 beats per minute, 50 beats per minute, 70, 90, 120 beats per minute. Working on your core related exercises, with shoulder stability. We're not going to only do functional exercise after that's all done. We're going to find what is the level of that functional exercise that they can do. So if they can't overhead press, can they landmine press? If they can't do a full bench press with the barbell, can they do a bottoms-up press? Can they do a push-up variation? What is the level of functional activity that they can do? We're gonna scale it down to that level so that the person is, they've got that goal in mind. They are always aware of what they're getting back to. They're doing something that's getting all of the tissues moving. Oftentimes it's a little more fun for them. So we're keeping that as part of the program. as early as irritability allows us. So again, overall for shoulder instability, what we now know is for both traumatic and atraumatic, as long as there's not a Hill Sachs or a bony bank heart or severe trauma related changes that we do quite well in conservative care and physical therapy, we want to have a systematic program starting out with your isometric exercises that give both the posterior cuff and the anterior cuff really going.

16:01 - PROGRESSING TO CONCENTRIC-ECCENTRICS

Progressing those to our concentric eccentrics, typically starting out with a higher volume. When they can do that, then we're going to progress to our speed work with our concentric eccentrics, 30 beats per minute, 50 beats per minute, 70, 90, 120, making sure we've got some activities that also engage the core, like our Turkish get ups, our closed chain exercises with those plank and plank rotations, and then getting into our more functional fitness or whatever their sport related activity is. Hope this helped overall. Love to hear anything in the comments. We would love to chat and engage about this. Hope you all have a great Tuesday in clinic and hope to see you on the road soon.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 9, 2023

Dr. April Dominick // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member April Dominick  continues with part 2 of her series on postpartum depression. In this episode, she discusses how rehab providers can screen for postpartum depression. She also offers tips for communicating with clients who we suspect have postpartum depression with scripted suggestions and responses to support a client in the moment.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - APRIL DOMINICK

What's up PT on Ice Daily Show fam? My name is Dr. April Dominick, and today I'll discuss how to screen for postpartum depression and share tips and scripted phrases that you can practice saying to get comfortable supporting someone you suspect has postpartum depression. In the ice pelvic division, updates and course offerings are going to be that we are on the road October 13th and 14th in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. And your next opportunity after that will be with myself and Dr. Christina Previtt. We will be tackling all things pelvic health in the Pacific Northwest in Corvallis, Oregon, and that's gonna be October 21st and 22nd. So head over to PTOnIce.com and grab your seat. Our final courses for the fall are still listed, and you still have a few chances to catch us live. So in episode 1553, that was the last episode I did of this postpartum series, depression series, we talked about prevalence rates, we defined postpartum depression, and we talked about risk factors for postpartum depression. Since then, I ran across another systematic review from 2017 that cited worldwide greater than 10% of pregnant and immediate postpartum women are having depressive episodes, greater than 10%. That number is still astounding to me. While screening for PPD or postpartum depression is one thing, if someone is sharing that they're struggling and you sense they have some signs and symptoms of postpartum depression, we as providers may feel empathy for the person in front of us, but we may be at a loss of words for how to communicate that with another individual. So in the second half of today's episode, I'll go through a few key phrases that you can build off of in response to someone you suspect having postpartum depression, with the ultimate goal, of course, being referring them to the appropriate mental health provider and or medical provider.

00:00 - SCREENING FOR POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

But first, let's chat about how we can screen for postpartum depression. Just a quick definition of postpartum depression, it is going to be someone with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. That can arise around post childbirth whenever that occurs, all the way up to four weeks post childbirth. And then that can also last for up to a year or more postpartum. Postpartum depression, it affects daily functions. So someone has some struggles with chores or daily childcare tasks compared to the baby blues, which is a more mild form of depression. Postpartum depression does require medical intervention as well. So pregnancy and postpartum, as we all know, is a time of psychological vulnerability, especially in those first few weeks when there's so much transition happening after delivery, which is why early identification and screening for treatment is key. So we want to ask the questions, whether that's verbally or in a paper or outcome measure form. So ACOG recommends that patients be screened for postpartum depression at a few certain timeframes. At the first OB visit, at 24 to 28 weeks gestation, and there was a study in 2013 by Wisner et al that suggested for a majority, depression begins prior to delivery. So this is why we have those checkpoints during pregnancy. And then the other times that they suggest that we screen for postpartum depression is at the comprehensive postpartum visit, whether that's at six weeks, four weeks, eight weeks. And then also I loved this at pediatric visits well into the first postpartum year, because pretty much after that six week visit, um, most women are not seen by their OB until the next year for their annual. So those are some timeframes that we as PTs are likely seeing these individuals maybe during pregnancy, postpartum, so we can also help with this screening process. In terms of outcome measures, there are a number of outcome measures out there that are used to screen for postpartum depression. We are going to go over two of the most common evidence-based tools. The first is the Edinburgh Postpartum or Postnatal Depression Scale, and then the Patient Health Questionnaire. They're both two scales that are recommended by ACOG and by the Postpartum Support International Group, which is a really cool resource, and we'll talk about it more in my next episode, but it's going to be a resource available for those in that perinatal mental health space period kind of combines those two things. So the two outcome measures, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire, we love them because they are available in many languages and they are quick to administer and they're free. Who doesn't love free stuff? They are validated also for the perinatal population. which I think is something important that while we can give someone a major outcome measure that's for general depression, it's even really more helpful to have someone go through an outcome measure that is specific to the time and space that they're in. And then scoring, the lower the score for both of the outcome measures is going to indicate lower or more mild depressive symptoms. The cutoff value of 11 or higher out of 30 for the Edinburgh scale is going to maximize the combined sensitivity and specificity.

07:21 - THE EDINBURGH POSTNATAL DEPRESSION SCALE (EPDS)

Let's go through a couple of differences, though, between what we'll call the EPDS for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. So for the EPDS, it's got 10 questions. And not only does it address the depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts, but it also has an anxiety component of perinatal mood disorders. And that anxiety piece is likely what contributes to it being the most widely used screening tool. The other interesting thing I came across is that the EPDS is actually reliable and a valid measure of mood in the supporting partner, whether it is a male or a female, which I think is great. Example of items from the EPDS. are as follows. The person is going to be answering whether or not they have been so unhappy that they have been crying, the thought of harming myself has occurred to me, or I have felt scared or panicky for no good reason. Moving to the patient health questionnaire, that's going to be nine questions that assess for the depression component. It does include an item about suicidal ideation, but it doesn't have an anxiety component that the EPDS does. Instead, it includes some of the somatic symptoms of major depressive disorders, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, changes in weight, and these reflect what is also on the DSM categories. Here's an aside for all these outcome measures. So in my research, I ran across a study from 2017 by Ukatu et al, reviewing about 36 articles that used PPD screening tools, and they investigated the outcome measures and their ability to detect maternal depression. So two of the conclusions from this review that looked at a bunch of articles that use PPD were, one, is that they found no recommendation could be made about the most effective tool for detecting PPD, which is, I guess the good side of that is you can use, there are a lot of tools out there and they will likely be capturing the depression component.

10:28 - WHEN IS THE ONSET OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION?

The other thing that they mentioned was there's no recommended time duration in which to screen patients, again, from all of those reviews that they studied. So one of the reasons they suggest that the timing can be difficult to recommend is that For certain outcome measures that are administered at the two-week mark, the outcome measure may not be able to differentiate symptoms of baby blues, which commonly ends after about two weeks post-birth, versus postpartum depression that can have a much later onset. And that can be anywhere from post-birth up to three to four weeks for onset. So I just thought that was an interesting find from the screening side of things. But the two that we talked about are the EPDS and the patient health questionnaire. So outside of administering those two outcome measures, when it comes to screening, you'll want to also use the power of your ears and your voice to catch anything that may have been missed in those outcome measures. Remember, some people won't necessarily be honest on the outcome measures. They may be less likely to share that they're struggling due to the feelings of shame, abandonment, maybe they have a lot of guilt about not being enough for their baby, or they may not even realize their current emotional state, even when asked right on the outcome measure. So be an active listener. Ask the person How are you doing? But don't stop there. If you get a general response that's like, I'm good or I'm okay, I think you should ask it again. Say, I'm going to ask you again, how are you doing? Then you should also be on the lookout for words or phrases that the person may use in their conversation, like dark, heavy, blue. And then we certainly also want to have screening out postpartum psychosis in the back of our minds. So hearing voices that tell me to drop my baby, if you hear that, that is very serious. It is a medical emergency. This postpartum psychosis is going to affect about one to 3% of moms. So that's how to screen postpartum depression. How do we have the difficult conversation? How do we navigate the intricacies? when we suspect the person in front of us may be suffering from some postpartum depression. A few general tips. You'll want to listen with compassion and empathy, particularly to the non-physical symptoms. As neuroscientist, Dr. Andrew Huberman said, says, use your body to shift the mind. An individual that's not functioning at their usual physical capacity, or is in pain, or I don't know, recovering from a human body coming out of their body, or they're lacking sleep, right? This does not only affect the physical body, but it's also going to affect the brain and the soul. So it is within our scope to chat about this as their mental status is linked to their physical healing and recovery and management of their condition. As a provider, ignoring their mental status is not an option. You'll also want to avoid being dismissive. So someone may have been very vulnerable with you and they shared that, you know, they're just struggling. They're struggling to find the energy. They're struggling to feed themselves. And then you as a provider, like, okay, moving on to range of motion of your leg, like absolutely not. That is not acceptable. So avoid being dismissive, hear them out. Then remind them that addressing their mental health now will be so much more beneficial than months or a year down the line. And then mentioning that you'd like to take an integrative approach and refer them to a medication provider or their OB or a PCP or a psychiatrist, right? We'll talk in the upcoming podcast, but medications like antidepressants are also a good treatment option for them. So what are some specific responses that you can practice or just have in the back of your head when you suspect someone may be experiencing postpartum depression? I don't know about you, but especially in the public health space, I tend to get, you know, we talk about intimate subjects and there are some times that someone will share something with me. And I mean, I am feeling so much for them, but I have a hard time putting into words the quote right thing to say. And I'm not saying that these things, these scripting phrases that I'm going to give you are the right thing, but it's something to go off of if you're just struggling in that way.

16:43 - HIGHLIGHT & CELEBRATE

So the first phrase, and I think it's probably one of the most impactful, your feelings are validated. I'm in a group text with a few moms and one of them, they've all been recently pregnant and recently postpartum. Some of them have been going through some tough times when it comes to emotions. And one of them said, my OB put her hand on my arm and told me how brave I am for asking for help and really realizing that I need to be my best self for my family. And she told me I could call her office anytime to talk to her. And that meant so much. So just letting the person in front of you know your feelings are validated. Number two, early identification. So if you've got someone who is pregnant and you suspect that they're going through some tough times from an emotional standpoint, you can say, you don't have to feel this way for the next eight months of your pregnancy. There are resources available. Number three, highlight and celebrate the person's abilities. Say, look at what you're doing. All of this is very impressive given the circumstances and all the stress that you've been under. Bring it back to a potential or current bond with the baby. And you know, if the baby's in the room with you, even better, have a little side conversation before the appointment starts with the baby. When I point to you, look at your mother with loving eyes. I'm just kidding. But definitely show the person or show the mother, look at how you're learning what your baby needs, right? For comfort, for snuggles, for food, for diaper changes. So remind her of the role she's playing. And then number four, remind her your health is a priority just as much as the baby's is. So often, as soon as labor and delivery is over, maybe we have that six week, postpartum visit, the rest of the visits are not for the mother, they're for the child. So just reminding her that her health is definitely linked and just as important to her baby's health. And then number five, say this happens. There's a fine line though between normalizing that this happens a lot, but also it's not so normal that you don't need to address, that we can't have you not address it. So there was a resource that is, was in the deep dive realms of the ACOG website and the title, the title just gives me chills. It says, how do you talk about mental health conditions in a strength-based way? Love that. Here were their suggestions. Say mental health conditions are common. Mental health conditions are like medical conditions or like diabetes. They need to be treated. Medical conditions are, or mental health conditions are treatable. And that reminding the client that the aim is that every woman who is pregnant or postpartum or every person who's pregnant and postpartum is screened for mood disorders. They also recommended that their clinical support office staff needs to be skilled in talking to patients in a strength-based way, as they may be the first to encounter a postpartum person. And I wholeheartedly believe that because the face of the first person you encounter can really and truly change the trajectory of your care. So let's sum things up. If you're a healthcare provider, interacting with someone In the pregnant and postpartum period, you are in a unique position to be screening for postpartum depression. We covered using two outcome measures such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale or the Patient Health Questionnaire. If we suspect PPD, we as rehab providers can be confident in having these early conversations early on and during the client's pregnancy and then again in the early postpartum period. Using tips and verbal responses, the scripting phrases that I mentioned, can help support and validate the client's concerns in a strength-based way. Reminding them that their health is equally as important as their baby's. Reminding them of what they've accomplished under these incredible circumstances. And telling them, hey, this condition is treatable, just like we would treat a shoulder injury. This awareness can decrease stigma, it can normalize screening and detection, and encourage women to discuss any mental health concerns with you. Join us next time for specific treatments, resources, and ways to support a person with postpartum depression. Cheers, y'all.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 5, 2023

Dr. Paul Killoren // #LeadershipThursday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Dry Needling division leader Paul Killoren emphasizes the importance of using e-stim in conjunction with dry needling. This combination provides validation and helps the practitioner determine if the needle is in the muscle. Furthermore, using e-stim with needles can reduce post-treatment soreness, making it more approachable for patients. Paul also highlights research supporting the use of e-stim in various treatment goals, such as pain modulation, neuromuscular changes, tissue nourishment, nervous system accommodation, and somatosensory reorganization. Paul always recommends using e-stim after inserting the needle, as it offers multiple benefits for both the practitioner and the patient.

Take a listen to the podcast episode or read the full transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about courses designed to start your own practice, check out our Brick by Brick practice management course or our online physical therapy courses, check out our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 PAUL KILLOREN

Good morning. PT on Ice daily show streaming worldwide on Instagram and YouTube. I'm your host for the day, Paul Killoren, of the dry needling division for ice, and I'm hijacking the mic. Normally on Thursday for the PT on ICE Daily Show, we have practice management, we have leadership stuff, really inspiring messages from Jeff Moore, from Alan himself. I'm hijacking the mic and calling this Technique Thursday. We're talking needles on a Thursday. dry needling division. Before I dive in, some pretty exciting updates. Our very first advanced dry needling course is going down January 12th to 14th. And we actually have a registration page up and live that has a little work to do. But the course is going to be ready and the very first advanced dry needling course for ice will be in Washington in Bellingham in January. And then having the upper, lower, and advanced course that will form the ICE dry needling certification. So again, our division's not even a year old. We have had our upper and lower dry needling courses running across the country for almost 12 months. And this will be that final piece. So really exciting stuff coming out of the dry needling division. But I'm going to dive in, dive right in today.

01:58 - THE NEEDLE IS IN, NOW WHAT?

And the title of today's episode is my needle is in, now what? And honestly, when I framed this topic, when I started to prep and form this discussion, in my mind, I pictured that novice clinician, I mean, you're on your first dry needling course, you're doing vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, glute medius multifidus, you learn the technique, the palpation, the anatomy, you're looking for a bony contact, you get super excited, just like, oh, sweet. There's the bone. That's what I was looking for. Now what? So really, this is a question I've answered consistently on level one or kind of first dry needling courses for the last decade. But again, when I started to prep for this episode, there's layers to this. And really, whether you're a novice, an intermediate, or even an experienced dry needler, Sometimes it's worth having this discussion of, our needle is in. Like first we learn how to do it safely, how to do it specifically, but our needle is in, now what? And to fully acknowledge, depending on who you listen to, how you were trained, the answer of, now what, will be very different. Because first of all, there's that technical spectrum of, well, now we piston the needle, or now we twist the needle. Now we use e-stim. But even there, let's say there's a dosage spectrum of, okay, if I piston how many times? If I twist it for how long? If I just leave it there, what duration? If I use e-stim, what parameters? So again, I thought this would be a pretty easy, a pretty short, quick-hitting topic, but there's layers to it. And first of all, let's say that there is significant value to my needle is in a very specific target. Again, safety always comes first when you learn dry needling, but I think we also can acknowledge one of the benefits, one of the advantages of the needle as a clinical tool is we can be sniper precise. We can put a needle in semi-membranosis, in multifidus. You know, this is not necessarily a technique of broad stroking manual therapy of like, we're doing the lateral hip, we're doing the low back, we're doing the SI region. To some degree, even a manipulation, we're saying, you know, we're not joint specific necessarily. We're kind of giving input neurophysiologically to joint receptors and there's more of a regional and global response to that. With a needle, I think we can just say, first of all, I have a needle in semimembranosus.

04:46 - THE BLESSING & THE CURSE OF NEEDLING

I mean, The blessing and the curse of needling is it keeps us honest, especially if we use e-stim. When you get that motor response, the needle's telling you, it's like, you know what, Paul? You're not in semi-membranosis. You missed. You're either like, you drifted subcutaneously or you missed superficially in tendinosis, you missed deep in adductor magnus. So first of all, I don't wanna just like completely glaze over the fact that your needle is in a very specific target is a big part of the equation. I mean, for ice, for our dry needling, we teach safety for sure, but you as like highly educated, skilled clinicians, teaching you all how to be safe with a needle happens pretty quick. So our, our goals, our mantra with dry needling are be safe, be specific. Again, that's, that's a big part of using this needle as a tool and then be strategic. And that's what I want to go to today, because again, the topic here is, my needle is in, now what? And again, let's acknowledge that it depends, not just on how you're trained, it depends on that patient on the table, on what is your goal for that session, what is the acuteness or the chronicity of the condition. So by no means do I want to make this sound easy, but I am going to give a very specific answer to this question. And again, I have previous training, I know the narratives out there of the needle is in, now we twist it for two minutes. Or the needle is in, now we just let it sit there. Or we pissed in it. And again, there are narratives, there is research, and there is benefit to each of those approaches. But I'm telling you that those aren't the answers. Again, I have a pretty specific answer that I'm going to get to But I think I'll torture you just a little bit longer by setting the stage. And really, I'm going to flashback, not even talking needling, I'm going to flashback to my DPT education. I went to Regis University, graduated in 2010. So what attracted me to Regist was Dr. Tim Flynn, Julie Whitman, Jim Elliott. I mean, big manual therapy specialists, but researchers of our day. So we finally, you know, you're year one, year two, you finally get to that musculoskeletal management, you finally get to learn some manipulations from Tim Flynn and Julie Whitman. And you know, if you don't remember how you started with manipulations, it wasn't good. The hands were not skilled, like it wasn't crispy right out of the gate. So you spend a half day, you practice on your classmates at home, and finally you're like, man, I'm starting to feel like my hands have some skill. So imagine you are there, you're learning manipulations, your hands are feeling more skilled. Imagine how disheartening it was for me, and I remember this day, when Dr. Tim Flynn stands up and says, you know what, you can teach a monkey how to manip. And I mean, He's overgeneralizing, but the point is still true. He's like, you can teach a monkey how to manipulate. It's really how, like when to manipulate. Um, I guess how to apply it. There is skill there. We'll acknowledge that. But then it's what you do afterwards. So, I mean, that, that hit for me. And first of all, it's like, Oh man, there are manipulating chimps out there that are doing this better than I am. And again, that wasn't his point, but. But the point remains knowing when to use it, how to use it to some degree, but then the dosage and the follow through, the aftermath is really the true magic. That applies for dry needling as well. Again, can we teach a monkey how to put a needle randomly into tissue? For sure. Like there is not much needle skill to getting a needle interstitially, into muscle tissue. There is a skill to being more specific, and there is a skill to answering the dosage question, now what? And I'll tell you now, without further ado, we have our needle or needles in. The answer to now what is e-stim. And you know, I don't, you know, I kind of do the, you know, I was trained previously, I know the research, the narrative and the benefit to all the other approaches, but the answer today is eSTEM. And honestly, what makes me so confident in that is first of all, I have my own empirical anecdotal, like I was not using eSTEM, now I am. I have that sample size to make me confident. But what makes me more confident And it's not even just the research, I'll touch on that in a minute. But what makes me more confident is knowing or hearing that some of the other dry needling educators or other dry needling institutions in the US and worldwide that previously were saying there's no additional value to e-stim with dry needling, or we're essentially just doing tens through a needle, they're now starting to use e-stim. And whether they use it the same way we do with ice, whether they explain it the same way, what they're saying is there's value to e-stim. And here's what the research says, is our needles are in, now what? E-stim is the answer for almost any treatment intent. First of all, I mean, if you haven't taken one of our upper or lower courses, we teach e-stim right out of the gate. I mean, day one, we learn how to use the unit, we get muscles to pump, Again, there's high value when you first learn dry needling to using e-stim because it keeps you honest. Are you in that muscle? Are you not? But that immediately gives you some, I guess some validation, like I'm saying, but some grace. Because first of all, what we know is that if we use e-stim with our needles versus not, any sort of post-treatment, post-needle soreness will be much less. So there's a very, um, a very real like patient approachability aspect to using e-stim. And there's research to support that.

12:33 - E-STIM DOES IT BETTER

But beyond that, what if our treatment goal is not pain modulation? What if it's neuromuscular changes? E-stim does it better. What if our goal is, tissue nourishment, blood flow, maybe venous return, lymphatic activation, edema evacuation. What if our goal is that? ESTIM does it better. What if our goal is nervous system accommodation? Or what if it's getting the biggest, baddest neuropeptide or enkephalin, endorphin, but our pain modulating up top cortical response. What if that's our goal? eSTIM does it better. What if we're talking pain science and there's some somatosensory reorganization, there's some homuncular smudging that we would like to remap. We'd like to give a very profound and precise input to that homunculus, to that somatosensory cortex. eSTIM does it better. So again, these are, these are research based answers. Very real research that says group A just got needles, whether that was pistoning or placing or what have you, and then group B got e-stim. What was the difference? At this point, e-stim does it better. And really, that is the long and short of this episode. And again, I think to not minimize the impact of you have to learn how to put a needle in safely, There is significant value, especially with the needle, to say, my needle is in, very precisely, fill in the blank. My needle is in peroneus brevis. My needle is in extensor hallucis longus. My needle's in glute minimus. There is significant value to the precision of that tool. But that's only half the battle. My needle is in, excellent. That took some training, that took some some skill honestly that took some three years of doctorate level like anatomical training and education and awareness that took a lot to say my needle just contacted I guess the external ileum like we are at the depth and the location of glute minimus that's awesome that you checked the box that is step one but if we don't fill in the then what you're leaving a lot on the table clinically And if you just logged on, the answer is eSTEM. So again, I know I see some of the names jumping on. Thanks for joining. I'm preaching to the choir, to some of you, because you've taken our upper or lower courses. We immediately talk about how to use eSTEM, the research behind eSTEM, and then we use it all weekend on the course. And it's a different experience. I think eSTEM makes dry needling a little bit classier. We can be a little bit more classy with our needles when we use E-Stim. We can also be a little bit more dialed, a little more tactical with our treatment intent. Again, is your goal pain modulation? Is it neuromuscular changes? Is it blood flow? Is it just fluid dynamics of moving fluid? Excuse me. So that's the answer for today. Again, jumping on on a Thursday for a Technique Thursday. We're talking dry needling. And the question was, needle is in, now what? And the answer was Easton. Excuse me. So if that prompts any questions, again, this is a big piece of our curriculum. Drop some comments in the thread. Hit us up on Instagram. This is on YouTube as well, so you can throw some comments there. Again, my name is Paul Killoren of the dry kneeling division for ice. If you hopped on late, We are launching our advanced dry needling course in January. That'll be the final piece of our upper dry needling, lower dry needling, and then advanced for the certification. If you're in Washington State, that'll be the third course of the series to allow us to dry needle as far as getting 75 hours. But if there's anyone out there who is trained in needling, who is uncertain about using eStim or the benefit of eStim, first of all, I'll just encourage you to try it. Like, there's value there to hearing your patients explain the difference of using eStim or not. Otherwise, we have an online course if you already have the needle skills, you know how to put your needle in, but then what? If you don't know how to use the eStim, there is an online course through ICE as well, eStim plus needles. That's all I've got for today. Thanks for logging on. I'm incredibly proud of myself. This is my most concise, my most brief podcast topic, but it's an easy one for me. So if you're out there saying, what do we do after we put the needle in? I'm not saying there's not value in twisting or pistoning or just static needling. There's blood flow changes. There's neuromuscular changes. There's tissue disruptive like inflammatory cascade responses to all of that but the answer is e-stim and With that I'm logging off folks. Thanks for joining PT on ice daily show. See you next time

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 4, 2023

Dr. Julie Brauer // #GeriOnICE // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Modern Management of the Older Adult faculty member Julie Brauer emphasizes the importance of executing obstacle courses in a specific, dynamic, objective, and progressive manner. The purpose of these obstacle courses is to prepare patients for the chaos of their daily lives and help them confidently overcome these challenges.

To make obstacle courses specific, Julie suggests replicating the functional demands of the patient's specific goals. This means creating exercises and challenges that directly mimic the movements and tasks the patient needs to perform in their daily life. By doing so, the patient can develop the skills and confidence necessary to navigate these challenges effectively.

In addition to being specific, obstacle courses should also be dynamic. This involves incorporating a combination of exercises and layering dynamic challenges. By introducing variability and unpredictability into the obstacle course, patients can improve their ability to adapt and respond to different situations. This dynamic nature of the obstacle course helps simulate real-life scenarios and prepares patients for the unexpected.

Objectivity is another crucial aspect of executing obstacle courses effectively. Julie suggests leveraging subjective and objective outcome measures to make the obstacle course objective. This means using measurable criteria to assess the patient's progress and performance. By having clear and measurable goals, both the therapist and the patient can track improvement and make necessary adjustments to the obstacle course.

Lastly, obstacle courses should be progressive. This involves gradually increasing the difficulty and complexity of the challenges as the patient improves. Progression ensures that patients are continually challenged and can continue to develop their skills and abilities. It also helps to keep the obstacle course engaging and motivating for the patient.

Overall, executing obstacle courses in a specific, dynamic, objective, and progressive way is essential for helping patients develop the confidence and competence to effectively navigate the challenges in their daily lives.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about live courses designed to better serve older adults in physical therapy or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 - JULIE BRAUER

Welcome to the Geri on Ice segment of the PT on Ice daily show. My name is Julie Brauer. I am a member of the Older Adult Division, and we are going to be talking this morning about obstacle courses and leveling up our dynamic gait training. So I've been really passionate about creating meaningful obstacle courses for a really long time, and I've become even more excited about this topic since our live course has gotten this massive revamp where we spend an entire lab focusing on dynamic gait challenges and how to layer. So I'm so excited to dive into this today because obstacle courses can be a really challenging, fun, creative way to implement dynamic gait training into our plans of care. With the purpose of preparing our patients for the chaos that is their daily lives, right? We want them to be able to move confidently through the chaos of their lives. And if we really think about it, What better exercise could we give our patients than a combination of exercises, a combination and layering of dynamic challenges that exactly replicate the functional demands of their specific goal, right? However, I think we many times really missed the mark here on executing this in an effective way. And when I say executing in an effective way, I mean in a way that is specific and dynamic, objective and progressive. So when I reflect back on the past eight years of my practice,

02:37 OBSTACLE COURSE LIMITATIONS

When I think about all the obstacle courses that I have seen throughout various settings, most of them are variations of stepping over cones, or stepping over hurdles, or many times it's stepping over canes. Many times it's one rep, the patient goes through that obstacle course forwards, and then the next time they go through it sideways. Many times it's weaving around cones as well as stepping over them or maybe stepping in and out of an agility ladder. And when we think about that, we have to realize it's pretty unidimensional, right? It doesn't exactly look like real life. Most of these patients are not on a clock. We aren't often capturing our PE while the patient is going through the obstacle course, right? Like I could go on and on about a list of things that are wrong with our typical obstacle courses that we see in our clinics, in our profession. And while stepping over cones and navigating around them is a really solid place to start, we really have to start thinking about moving beyond that, right? I consider stepping over cones and navigating around cones very similarly to our other underdosed exercise. I will go as far as to say that I think that cone stepping is the ankle pump of dynamic gait training. Stepping over cones is the ankle pump of dynamic gait training. And so why? So let's unpack that. Because many of you would probably say, like, what do you mean stepping over cones is challenging for my patients? And I'm going to respond with, well, yeah, I mean, tandem standing is challenging for a lot of my patients, but I'm sure as hell not going to waste multiple weeks of a plan of care with my patient in tandem stance, right? The question becomes, is it the right challenge? Is it the right challenge? Similarly to tandem stance, Do the demands of stepping over cones match the entirety of the chaos and the dynamic demands that comprise our patients' lives? We have to realize that stepping over cones only hits one aspect of dynamic gait and balance, right? It only hits on anticipatory balance. And we know that balance can break down in multiple different areas. And there's so many other components of balance and dynamic gait that we want to pay attention to. we have to realize that stepping over cones is not super specific, right? It doesn't look like real life. Our older adults are not moving around in an environment where these very bright orange cones are sticking out to alert them they need to step over that thing, right? And then also, you know, just thinking about If I am able to get my patient really competent and confident in stepping over cones or weaving around cones, does that actually translate to our patients feeling incredibly confident to take on the adventures in their world?

06:08 ROOM TO GROW WITH OBSTACLE COURSES

So we have to first reflect on why there's just a lot of room to grow when it comes to our typical obstacle courses, all right? So now that we've set that framework, let's talk about how to level up our dynamic gait training from assessment to implementation and creating in dialed in workouts, focusing on how to make these obstacle courses specific, objective, dynamic, and progressive. All right. And we're going to put this in the framework of focusing on two different types of goals. And these were goals and dynamic eight challenges that students who were part of our MMOA live course a couple weeks ago in Oklahoma came up with. absolutely stellar students who came up with really awesome dynamic challenges. So I'm going to share some of these with you. So these two goals that we'll be talking about back and forth, um, that many of you can relate to with your patients are the goals of one, being able to independently navigate through the airport and board an airplane independently to be able to go on vacation. And then two, to be able to independently tend to a garden. All right. So two goals that are very common among older adults. And we'll talk about how to make it specific, dynamic, objective and progressive. All right.

10:21 SPECIFIC OUTCOME MEASURES

So starting out with making our obstacle courses really specific. This is where we need to dig deep. So if you're part of our MMA crew, you hear us talk about our formula, make it meaningful, load it, dose it all the time. So this is that make it meaningful part, right? So we need to dig deep into what that goal actually looks like. I want to peel back all the onion layers. So if my patient is telling me, well, I want to be able to go on vacation. I am having my patient take me through from start to finish. I want to know exactly what that looks like for her or for him to go from getting out of that car into the airport through the airport onto the plane into into their seats right so I am asking question after question after question because I want to visualize what that goal looks like, right? If it's gardening, I want to know exactly what the functional movements are that comprise that goal because there is where I'm starting to create my obstacle course. I am in my head taking mental notes about what are all the pieces and parts that are going to comprise this obstacle course to make it very specific for the patient. Now, sometimes going seven layers deep with our patients is really, really difficult, right? They just, they have a hard time answering these questions or having that conversation with us. This is where we can leverage our outcome measures such as the PSFS or the FES and the ABC, right? Those are going to give us some insight into some components of their daily lives that are really scary or they feel like they're going to lose their balance or fall or components that they're actually really confident in. So you can use those outcome measures when perhaps the conversational part and you're asking a million questions and digging deep, is a little bit difficult for your patient. And then we want to really leverage our objective outcome measures, right? So our mini-best and our DGI, because that's going to give us very, very, very specific information. If our patient is telling us that, yeah, I'm having a difficult time because I'm afraid people are going to knock into me at the airport, well, I'm sure as heck gonna want to look at their reactive balance with their mini best, right? So we wanna use both digging deep, asking the questions, using those subjective outcome measures, and then definitely using those specific objective outcome measures to see where perhaps the balance is breaking down, right? So to give a couple of specific examples, If our patient, maybe in their PSFS, are saying that lifting that suitcase over their head is really the part that is limiting them from feeling confident and being able to go on that trip, maybe it's a strength component that we really want to focus on. So maybe I'm going to look at a press or a push press and see what that looks like in isolation and maybe coach that up, right? But then I know that I'm going to add a push press or a press into my obstacle course, because maybe it's not that the strength component of that push press is the big issue, but more that they are so fatigued after going through the entire airport that they just don't have the energy to get that suitcase up into that overhead bin, right? And so, again, to bring it back to the balance component, if they're telling us, I am so scared of getting bumped by someone at the airport, because I'm afraid it might fall, I want to know, hmm, what does their reactive balance look like? I want to look at forward. I want to look at backwards. I want to look at lateral. And then to put that into the obstacle course, maybe I can do something like our stellar students did a couple of weeks ago, where they use TRX straps. And as the patient's walking, they swing those TRX straps at spontaneous times, to see how the patient reacts to that, right? Or you could do something like as your patient is walking, you offer an external perturbation and see what their stepping strategy is. All right, so that's how to make your obstacle course as you're figuring out what the pieces and parts are very, very specific to what they're telling you and what you're finding throughout your assessments. Next, we have to talk about how to make it dynamic. And what I mean by dynamic is not just the patient is moving, right? Like, you know, I can see a lot of you being like, well, yeah, well, you know, stepping over cones or hurdles like that is dynamic. But we have to think more about just the patient moving, right? Yes, that is dynamic, but we have to remember that we need to mimic a dynamic environment, not just our patient being dynamic and our patient moving, right? And in addition to that, what I mean by dynamic is layering.

14:21 MIMICKING REAL LIFE CHALLENGES

We want to combine anticipatory balance, reactive balance, vestibular fitness, strength, power. We want to combine all of those things together in our obstacle course, because that's real life. And that's when balance breaks down, when we were trying to navigate through all these different components. Remember that older adults are not waking up in the morning. And for the first two hours of their day, they're only doing a single task. And then the next two hours of their day, they're doing a dual task in reactive balance, right? Like they are constantly moving in and out of forward gate, sideways gate, making 360 degree turns, reactive balance, anticipatory balance, cognitive tasks, motor dual tasking. All that stuff is happening constantly. So we want to mimic that type of chaotic environment. We want to layer all of those challenges on. So what would that look like? Let's think about our gardening example. So if we're thinking, and our patient is telling us, okay, so I have to pull the hose, right? And I have to pull the hose and walk along the grass. And so you're thinking about this, hmm, how can I mimic that? Could I have my patient pull a rope? Could I also then have them do head turns where they're looking behind their shoulder to make sure that their hose isn't totally annihilating all of their flowers, right? You're making it that specific, but you're layering on challenges. What about for the individual who wants to go on vacation, they're really scared about stepping onto the escalator with their suitcase, right? So how do I replicate that? Can I step onto a variable terrain, like stepping onto a BOSU ball, while I'm lifting a weight or doing a suitcase deadlift, right? So now we have that sensory orientation, we're adding in that vestibular fitness, we're adding in the strength to step on and get stability on a moving object while also having the strength to lift an object. If we think about our gardening example, think about the act of pulling weeds. Maybe we're getting our patient down into a half kneel and we're doing a rowing exercise for strength. Or maybe it's more of the balance component our patient is worried about when they go to pull those weeds. So we do something like utilize squigs or we get a really heavy dumbbell and we tie a TheraBand around it and we have them pull the TheraBand and release. or we put a resistance band around them in half kneeling, and we go ahead and give them perturbations. So we layer on all different types of challenges, anticipatory, reactive, vestibular fitness, strength, power. That is how we layer. And we want to layer and layer and layer because that is what real life is like. Next, we have to find a way to make this objective, right? We have to dose it appropriately. We have to find a way to progress our obstacle courses. So we got to think about our goal, right? If we think about gardening or the airport example, if the goal is to be able to continuously move through, let's say 20 minutes, because let's say it takes 20 minutes to get through the airport. Gardening usually takes 20 minutes of time to do all those tasks. Okay, that's our long-term goal. So maybe we start out by, we want to see how many rounds you can get through when you continuously move for six minutes. That's more of the short-term goal. And we're recording how many rounds did they get through? How many breaks were required? Or if you have someone who, for example, gets to the airport really, really, really last minute, which just, like, my anxiety goes up even thinking about it, and you know they're going to be racing through the airport, maybe you want to design the workout so that that intensity is really, really high. And maybe you're doing something like three rounds of that obstacle course for time. We also want to be tracking our PE and using that to progress our goal. So if our patients, you know, capacity is really struggling, for example, you know, within three minutes of the obstacle course, it feels like an RPE of seven or eight, then maybe one of our goals is that it takes eight minutes of doing that obstacle course until that RPE of seven to eight come up. If we're focusing on balance capacity, are we using something like the balance stability scale to ensure that the variable terrain that you have mimicked, right, by perhaps having them walk on foam is enough? Or do we need to progress that by maybe underneath the foam, putting in some ankle weights or some other objects or having stepping stones to increase that balance challenge. So it actually elicits a step reaction, which maybe we saw in our mini best that we want to improve. If our patient more has a strength deficit, right? So that push press to get that suitcase in the overhead bin or the deadlift, maybe to get that mulch up from the ground or like a clean up from the ground to the shoulder and up overhead. Are we looking at our patient's estimated one rep max and making sure that we're working them at least 60% of that so that we can elicit positive strength adaptations? We have to make sure that we are dosing appropriately and that we have ways to progress this. Putting a patient on a clock is the easiest, easiest way to do it. Getting that RPE, really making what you're measuring be specific to what their goal is. And then the last part here is we can really utilize part practice of this big obstacle course to even more specifically dial in where our patient is having trouble, right? And it allows us to be very efficient because to create a big obstacle course can take a lot of space and a lot of time. So what we can do is as we're assessing and looking at this patient going through an obstacle course, we can see the pieces and parts that they have the most difficulty with. We can be asking them again from our questions and our subjective measures, like where are they having the most difficulty or where do they feel the most confident? And then we can pick out those pieces that we see and that they tell us and create like an EMOM or an AMRA. right? Making it very, very, very dialed in. So this is where I would take like three to four functional movements that comprise the goal, that comprise that entire obstacle course. So if we look at our gardening example, minute one, we, for an EMOM, we could do a sled push, or that could be a walker or resistance band, right? And we could be trying to mimic pulling that hose. Minute two, we could have our patient do some quadruped rows. So thinking about being down on the ground and doing some weed pulling or picking up different gardening tools. Minute three, we could be doing some external perturbations while they are in half kneeling. That could be mimicking pulling that weed and having to really catch themselves as they move backwards. Minute four, we could do something like a clean and press that could mimic trying to get that heavy bag of mulch from the ground up to the shoulder or up overhead. So that's how you can take your entire big obstacle course, pick out the important parts and create a workout that is much more succinct and easier to set up and doesn't require a whole bunch of space. Okay. That is what I got for you all today to come back around and wrap that up. When it comes to our dynamic gait training and creating obstacle courses, think about how you have to dig really, really deep. Leverage your subjective and objective outcome measures to focus on making your obstacle course specific, objective, dynamic, progressive, and then utilize EMOMs and AMRAPs to dial in the components that they are specifically having difficulty with. Now, talking about all this obstacle course stuff, I know it's getting some of you excited to think about dynamic gait training and all the different things you can do. You've got to come see us on the road to one of our live courses and check out our new revamp where, like I said, we spend an entire lab just on dynamic gait training and showing you all how to add in a lot of these layers. So on the road, there are tons of opportunities in October. My gosh, yes, it's October already. We will be in Virginia, California, and New Jersey. And then in November, we are in Maryland, South Carolina, New York, and Illinois. Plenty of options across the country to catch us out on the road and check out that super cool fun lab. On the flip side, our online courses, both Essential Foundations and Advanced Concepts are starting, gosh, next week. So October 11th and October 12th. Head to ptinice.com, message any of us. We'll be happy to answer any questions for you. We hope to see you on the road or online next week. Have a good day, guys.

OUTRO 

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to PTOnIce.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 3, 2023

Dr. Lindsey Hughey // #ClinicalTuesday // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, Extremity Division Leader Lindsey Hughey explains that patients with frozen shoulder often struggle to manage their condition and experience fear of the unknown, which can significantly impact their cognitive and emotional well-being. Lindsey emphasizes the importance of understanding the patient perspective and their emotional stories. She highlights that patients may fear the future and the unfamiliar territory of living with a frozen shoulder, which can have a profound effect on their psychological well-being. Lindsey also emphasizes the need for healthcare professionals to appreciate the expectations and experiences of patients with frozen shoulder, acknowledging that their pain is not an exaggeration. She suggests providing controllable solutions and empowering patients to advocate for themselves in order to receive timely care and diagnosis. Lindsey underscores the challenges faced by patients with frozen shoulder in managing their condition and the significance of addressing their emotional and cognitive well-being.

Lindsey reinforces the importance of healthcare professionals assisting patients with frozen shoulder in finding ways to continue engaging in activities they love. This involves helping them adapt their activities or modify their movements so that they can still experience joy and maintain a sense of autonomy and independence.

Take a listen or check out the episode transcription below.

If you're looking to learn more about our Extremity Management course or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 LINDSEY HUGHEY

Good morning PT on Ice Daily Show. How's it going? I am Dr. Lindsay Hughey. I will be your host today on Clinical Tuesday. It's so good to be with you all. It's been a little while. Today I am going to chat with you about frozen shoulder and helping your patients navigate no man's land. But before I unpack this episode, I'd love to tell you a little bit about courses that Mark, Cody, and I have coming up. Cody actually was just promoted to lead faculty. We are so excited. And he will be teaching his first class this weekend solo in Minnesota so Rochester and there are still tickets left if you want to join him he would love that and you're sure to have a blast with him this weekend so October 7th and 8th can you believe we're already in October so wild other courses coming up in November on November 11th 12th we'll be in Woodstock Georgia and then our final courses of the year are in December. So you have two opportunities on December 2nd, 3rd. Cody will be in California, Newark, California. And then December 9th, 10th, I will be at CrossFit Endure again. That's always a blast of a spot. So Fort Collins, Windsor, Colorado area would love you to join. Those are our last of 2023. And then we'll be in 2024, which is super wild. So please join us. Thanks for letting me share courses coming up.

03:37 LIVING WITH FROZEN SHOULDER

So last week, if you tuned in to clinical Tuesday, Mark hopped on here and he chatted about frozen shoulder, just the challenges associated with treating folks with frozen shoulder. And he really highlighted not only best treatment as we know it, but the importance of coming alongside the patient. And we need to do that better because this is an area, and if you think about any patient you've ever seen with frozen shoulder, it's always challenging, right? Because they are suffering and there are just so many unknowns. But we do have more knowns in regards to the patient perspective that just came out this past May. William King and Claire Hebron out of the Physiotherapy Theory and Practice Journal published a qualitative review of frozen shoulder. So specifically giving us the vantage point from the patient. So this study involves six folks, two were females, four were males. Their age range between 35 and 66. So a varied mix of sexes and then age ranges. They all were British and there was a mix of right and left and even bilateral frozen shoulders. So these interviews were done with these six folks and the question that was asked of them was can you describe in as much detail as possible what was important and meaningful to you in your experience of living with frozen shoulder? They used hermeneutic feminology methodology for those research nerds that want to know and they found the following five themes And so today I'm going to tell you what those themes are, and then I want to unpack some of the participant details from each theme. And I'm sure you'll be able to relate with some of your patient care experiences. And then kind of end the show with suggesting a rewrite of the title, plus some key takeaways for us going forward in caring for these folks with frozen shoulder. So the five themes illuminated from this article, and again, that's title, and I'll drop the link, is Frozen Shoulder, Living with Uncertainty and Being in No Man's Land. The five themes that were found were, number one, patients felt an incredible pain experience that they described as dropping me to my knees. Two, a struggle for normality in life. Three, an emotional change of self four the challenges of traversing the health care journey and then five coping and adapting and learning how to do that. So I want to unpack each one of these just a couple examples to help you appreciate that patient perspective. So dropping me to my knees that incredible pain experience All of the patients that were interviewed described multiple experiences where if they move their shoulder quickly or hit up against an object unexpectedly or involuntarily kind of reached and forgot about their shoulder for a second, that this pain would literally drop them to their knees. That when they would go to like stretch in the morning, they would scream and writhe out of pain. And this not only affected their body and their discomfort but like their family. Some of the participants described kind of scaring their partner because of like sudden outbursts or yelled. So an experience that's not just personal but affecting those around them.

07:28 EMOTIONAL CHANGE OF SELF

Number two, the struggle for normality. So a lot of the folks describe multiple daily activities just being very limited and I'm sure your patients have had the same right just getting dressed, just rolling over in bed, unable to sleep, just that constant ache that's with them always kind of being in their mind and then challenging just normal daily activities. Not just ADLs and IADLs, but starting to lose work function, missing work and or recreational function. So one participant actually had to sell their fishing boat or chose to because they said just transporting the boat became so cumbersome and a reminder of their shoulder limitation. One of the participants described being unable to throw the ball. They're at a family gathering and their kid is watching other people throw the ball with their parent and the parent that has frozen shoulders just sitting there thinking, oh I can't even like throw the ball with my kid so this normalcy doesn't only impact them personally again in their daily life but it's impacting their family relations around them their work right their ability to actually provide for their family and then the recreation like enjoyment in life people that love to fish that was my dad's like favorite pastime if there's an emotional psychological peace here that is huge then that is challenged when someone has frozen shoulder that they can't do that one activity that brings them peace or joy and they can't um help provide for their family because they're suffering Which leads us to that third theme found, an emotional change of self. So all of the participants described overall just low mood from being in constant pain, having low self-esteem and starting to feel less worth in their family unit. Just kind of feelings of uselessness because not being able to reach overhead or being limited in the ability to just help out with daily chores. this was a really challenging thing to read, but one of the patients described that emotional change as if you were an animal, you would be put down because you're miserable. So basically like lack of thriving and like that was heartbreaking to read, but like this is how low emotions get when you're in, when patients have that frozen shoulder state. And a lot of them said not just the emotional drain is challenging, but like you're physically drained because of that emotional taxation. So multiple participants reported poor sleep, which I already mentioned earlier from a normalcy perspective, but they linked that to how this led to fluctuating mood because you never know when you're gonna get a good night's sleep. And so overall mood was very cantankerous and unpredictable. which patients even again mention that they're not able to even sleep in the same bed as their partner because they're so disturbed and uncomfortable in their sleep. And so they're sleeping in a separate room, again, that's that intertwining like emotional change of self being affected. and when this happens right you start seeing sleep being affected it makes you want to prompt for health care help right and so this leads to that fourth theme where patients are traversing the challenge of the health care journey going to a health care professional hoping they can help them sleep better helping they can take away the pain.

09:28 IMPACT OF DELAYED DIAGNOSIS ON TREATMENT

But what most of the participants really highlighted is that this delayed diagnosis happened consistently where they saw multiple healthcare professionals prior to actually getting a solid diagnosis that this is in fact frozen shoulder. And so there was this, there's this period of not knowing and switching back and forth, like what's wrong with my shoulder? And then you finally know. And, um, even the treatments they were getting were challenging because patients said they didn't actually see solid results. So they would ask for a pain medication and then some of the healthcare professionals would be afraid of addiction. So they wouldn't give them stronger medications to help. And so there was this balance of figuring out what's that pain medication that's right for the patient. A lot of the patients, said that injections were life-changing. So getting a corticosteroid injection was helpful, but it didn't always happen right away. And some of them had to really advocate for that to occur. And that some, even the patients that were finally recommended to get the injection mentioned they were afraid of the needle. So we have to understand it might be a delay to get to the treatment that's effective, And then they might even have a fear of actually using that treatment that's recommended from the healthcare provider. So they're dealing with a lot of challenges in the healthcare journal. And disappointingly enough, as for most of our audience that are PTs, a lot of the folks said that PT wasn't the greatest. They didn't have initial great experiences because the PT would give them stretches that were super painful and not working. And the patient would have to wait a whole week to tell the therapist that, and then the therapist would give them something new, and then the stretches would hurt and not really work, and they'd come back again. We can do better here, right? If you test, retest in that session, you'll know whether that's working. So some kind of disappointing healthcare journeys for most of these folks. But there was some hope along the journey. So the fifth theme found was coping and adapting. Once patients did finally get to the healthcare provider or the PT that started providing effective care, they did have hope. Once they saw it start working or when they got that injection and the pain started going away, they could move their shoulder a little bit more. So when pain's down and range is better, they were super jazzed about it and finally had some hope. Various participants did say that it requires that coping and adapting, it requires you to shift your mindset, that press on attitude in the face of adversity. So helping our patients get there quicker, I think is something that we have an opportunity for. Another part of that, some coping strategies was people just learning, some of the participants mentioning that learning to work around the disability, right? If they were right-handed, starting to use their left arm, to keep functioning in kind of a pushing through mentality. The final binding theme of all of these, so we've unpacked examples of dropping me to my knees, an incredible pain experience, the struggle for normality, three, an emotional change of self, four, the challenges of the healthcare journey, and then five, coping and adapting. That theme that they found binding them all together was uncertainty. Or as the authors of the study titled No Man's Land. One thing I said that I was going to unpack was a suggestion for a rewrite. So we are dealing with humans, not just men. So I'd love to suggest that we call this No Human's Land. But this does come from a phrase, right, that was used to describe unowned land or unoccupied land or land that's not officially owned or inhabited by someone. but we are dealing with multiple humans, right? Not just males. So that rewrite I think is important here.

13:58 FROZEN SHOULDER & THE FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN

But ultimately the main thing I want you to appreciate is with the unknown of how this disease may progress or regress, we have to do better for our patients here. They will not be able to manage their present living with frozen shoulder if they're fearful of the future. They don't read it. Oh, hopefully you're all still there. Give me a wave or like a thumbs up. If you are a little alarm went off. Sorry about that. Um, but patients will not be able, um, to manage living with their frozen shoulder. If they don't know how to manage it in the present, if they're fearful of the future, sorry for the folks that had to hear this twice on YouTube, but That fear of the unknown, right, or no humans land territory, this affects cognitive and emotional well-being. So what can we do with these themes, knowing patient perspective a little bit more deeply here? And I know it was only from six folks, but I'm sure you can relate and think back and reflect on patients you've seen, and they've had similar tough experiences. There are powerful takeaways here. appreciate that expectations from your patient they're always tied to a real human with an emotional story and we have to know that and appreciate that. We have to know that this pain is not an exaggeration. We need to give stabilization to that human story. with some of the facts of the do's and don'ts about frozen shoulders. See Mark's podcast last clinical Tuesday because he dove into best treatment and about what we know, what we thought we knew, and where we are presently. We have to provide controllable solutions. Some solutions. Help your patients advocate for themselves early. and with tenacity with their specialist, right? Help them get to that corticosteroid injection. You don't usually hear us saying that, right? That medicalization, we try to avoid that here at ICE, but here's a condition where we see, especially in the United Kingdom, this being a helpful pathway in combination with physical therapy. So help them get to the proper care and diagnosis faster. Make it so they don't have to see three healthcare professionals before they start feeling better. USPTs test retest the value of your treatment in session. Don't send someone home in writhing pain that worsens their range. Send them home with something that is helpful, right? That's easing and know that before they leave so they don't have a whole week of time of ineffective self-care. Let's not forget the human behind the painful and stiff shoulder. Those with frozen shoulder, let's help them feel direction at a really destabilizing time in their life. Help them figure out a way to do what they love, to keep working, help them be autonomous, to navigate their pain, their setbacks, and then their interactions with the healthcare team. We have a really cool opportunity to make living with frozen shoulder a little bit more endurable and making the patient feel more known. Thank you for being with me this clinical Tuesday and sorry about that little blip in the middle. Happy Tuesday. Cheers.

OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to PTOnIce.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

Oct 2, 2023

Dr. Jess Gingerich // #ICEPelvic // www.ptonice.com 

In today's episode of the PT on ICE Daily Show, #ICEPelvic faculty member Jess Gingerich challenges the notion of associating the word "safe" with breath and movement, particularly during pregnancy. She questions why breath suddenly becomes a determining factor for safety in this context. While she acknowledges that the pelvic floor experiences increased demand as the fetus grows, she also affirms that it is a muscle that can strengthen with appropriate exercise.

Jess encourages weightlifting as a means to strengthen the pelvic floor during pregnancy. She explains that stronger muscle fibers are more resilient, sharing this information with her clients in the clinic. She also highlights the fact that individuals are not instructed on how to manipulate their breath when coughing or sneezing, which exerts similar force on the pelvic floor as lifting 35 pounds. Since this natural phenomenon is beyond our control, it is unreasonable to expect individuals to exhale on exertion for every activity.

Jess also address the misconception that breath holding is detrimental to the pelvic floor. She explains that breath holding actually increases spinal stiffness, enabling individuals to lift more weight and become stronger. However, She clarifies that breath holding with a bear down to the pelvic floor is not recommended. She differentiates between different positions of the pelvic floor, referring to the basement (during bathroom use or childbirth) and the first floor or attic for other tasks.

Overall, the episode aims to alleviate fear and promote understanding of the pelvic floor. Jess emphasizes the importance of educating individuals about their pelvic floor and its functions, highlighting its potential for strength and dispelling myths and misconceptions surrounding breath and pelvic floor function.

Take a listen to learn how to better serve this population of patients & athletes.

If you're looking to learn more about our live pregnancy and postpartum physical therapy courses or our online physical therapy courses, check our entire list of continuing education courses for physical therapy including our physical therapy certifications by checking out our website. Don't forget about all of our FREE eBooks, prebuilt workshops, free CEUs, and other physical therapy continuing education on our Resources tab.

Are you looking for more information on how to keep lifting weights while pregnant? Check out the ICE Pelvic bi-weekly newsletter!

EPISODE TRANSCRIPTION

00:00 JESSICA GINGERICH

Good morning and welcome to PT on Ice daily show. My name is Dr. Jessica Gingerich. And I am on faculty here with the pelvic division here at ICE, which means it's the beginning of the week. So happy Monday. We are going to talk about breathing in the pelvic floor. This is a hot topic in the pelvic space. often referred to specific breathing strategies that are like safe or protective to the pelvic floor. And in reality, it's just not that simple. So let's start with a few housekeeping items. We are currently in our last cohort of the year for the online course. So if this is something that you've been wanting to get on, we're about to put the pedal down starting January 9th. So head over to the website to sign up for that online course. In the month of October, we will be in Brookfield, Wisconsin on the 14th and 15th in Corvallis, Oregon, October 21st and 22nd. So again, those courses are all on the website, so head over there and snag your spot. They are filling up fast.

01:50 BREATHING DURING EXERCISE

Okay, let's talk about breathing during exercise and how it stresses the pelvic floor. How many of you, as moms, clinicians, or just someone with a pelvic floor, hint, all of you, have been told to exhale on a lift or exhale on exertion? My bet is behind your phone, you are silently raising your hand because you've heard that. Whether it's for yourself or for your clients, wherever you are in the exercise space, you've probably heard that. When we think about this, so there's a lot of information from fitness professionals or medical professionals in the exercise space saying a lot of different things and boy is it confusing. This is especially true in the pregnant and the postpartum population. These clients typically come in having some kind of, have done some kind of research around breathing and lifting, and they're worried about their pelvic floor. So how do we help them understand how to manipulate their breath with exercise? So firstly, let's take the word safe out of it. If I am a non-pregnant female versus I get pregnant, Why is my breath all of a sudden making something safe or unsafe with a particular movement? There is more demand placed on the pelvic floor, especially as the fetus grows. Sure, yeah, that happens. Is the pelvic floor a muscle? Yes, it is. Do muscles get stronger as we place appropriate demand on them? Also, yes. We need to encourage weightlifting to some capacity during pregnancy so the muscle gets stronger. Stronger muscle fibers are harder to break. I love telling clients this in the clinic. We don't ask someone to manipulate their breath when they cough or they sneeze. which by the way is the equivalent of lifting 35 pounds or putting 35 pounds of force through the pelvic floor because it is a natural phenomenon that we cannot control. We don't tell them how to manipulate their breath there. So having someone exhale on exertion for everything is unreasonable. There are times where that can be helpful, especially early postpartum or if there are symptoms. But have you tried to exhale an exertion with double unders or box jumps or lifting 80% of a one rep max? You can't control your breath, like during movements where your heart rate's up. It's virtually impossible because your heart rate's up, your respiration rate's up. And as for the 80%, your body is just going to do what it's going to do, which is probably gonna include a brief breath hold or maybe even one that's longer so you can get through that movement well. Secondly, breath manipulation should be initiated one of two ways. Are they symptomatic? No. Continue what you're doing. Are they symptomatic? Yes. Let's change a bracing strategy or breath manipulation to see if we can continue that volume and that weight without symptoms. From there, we continue to scale as needed. And lastly, Breath holding during exercise. And what I mean by this is someone is lifting a heavy barbell or let's say both of their wiggly children at once from the ground. And Oh, by the way, one is screaming their head off. They're going to brace their core, hold their breath and lift the weight or their babies. Have they just ruined their pelvic floor or has their body just done what it's going to do naturally? My answer is the latter. We cannot always manipulate the breath, especially in life, especially life as a mom. We need to stop scaring moms and over-medicalizing breathing when in reality, our bodies are going to just do what it needs to do to get through a task. We believe in this so heavily that we teach bracing mechanics in detail, in depth, in our live course. So I mentioned those live courses at the beginning. Get on that. Like you, whether you're treating this population or not, you're going to see it. So to recap, there are no safe and unsafe exercises. It's simply, are we ready for that particular demand, whether that's weight or volume. We modify due to symptoms. We aren't ruining the pelvic floor by holding our breath. Breath holding increases spinal stiffness, which allows us to lift more weight, which also allows us to get stronger. And that's huge. Now, I do wanna be clear. Breath holding with a bear down to the pelvic floor is not what we want to do. When our pelvic floor goes down, and what we like to refer to that as in the basement, that's when we're going to the bathroom, right? That's when we are actually having a baby. any other time our pelvic floor is likely going to be on that first floor or in the attic and somewhere in between depending on the task at hand. So let's start taking the fear out of this. Let's start encouraging moms, really anybody, to do what their body's meant to do, and let's help teach them. It's something that we can do, we can teach them. Your pelvic floor, we can't see it, right? We can see how our shoulders move and how our neck moves and head moves. We can see that. We can't see how our pelvic floor moves unless we're laying down with a mirror between our legs doing an active Kegel, and that's not realistic. Also, knees go over toes when squatting. I hope everyone has a great Monday.

08:13 OUTRO

Hey, thanks for tuning in to the PT on Ice daily show. If you enjoyed this content, head on over to iTunes and leave us a review and be sure to check us out on Facebook and Instagram at the Institute of Clinical Excellence. If you're interested in getting plugged into more ice content on a weekly basis while earning CEUs from home, check out our virtual ice online mentorship program at ptonice.com. While you're there, sign up for our Hump Day Hustling newsletter for a free email every Wednesday morning with our top five research articles and social media posts that we think are worth reading. Head over to ptonice.com and scroll to the bottom of the page to sign up.

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